Axios International

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Axios International

Paris, France

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de Ver Dye T.,SUNY Upstate Medical University | de Ver Dye T.,University Paris Diderot | Bogale S.,Tikur Anbessa Hospital | Hobden C.,Global Health Systems and Research | And 5 more authors.
Global Public Health | Year: 2011

A large proportion of breast cancer patients in Ethiopia present for biomedical care too late, or not at all, resulting in high mortality. This study was conducted to better learn of beliefs and practices among patients accessing breast cancer services in a large referral centre in Ethiopia. Using a mixed-method design, we interviewed 69 breast cancer patients presenting for care at Tikur Anbessa Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, about their beliefs, experiences and perspectives on breast cancer. Awareness of breast cancer is low in Ethiopia and even among those who are aware of the disease, a sense of hopelessness and fatalism is common. Early signs/symptoms are frequently ignored and patients often first present to traditional healers. Breast cancer is perceived as being caused typically from humoral anomalies or difficulties resulting from breast feeding, and study participants indicate that stigmatisation and social isolation complicate discussion and action around breast cancer. Consistent with other studies, this study shows that traditional beliefs and practices are common around breast cancer and that numerous barriers exist to identification and treatment in Ethiopia. Integrating health beliefs and practice into public health action in innovative ways may reduce stigma, increase awareness and promote survivability among breast cancer patients. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Audureau E.,University of Paris Descartes | Kahn J.G.,University of California at San Francisco | Besson M.-H.,Axios International | Saba J.,Axios International | Ladner J.,University of Rouen
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Uptake of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs remains challenging in sub-Saharan Africa because of multiple barriers operating at the individual or health facility levels. Less is known regarding the influence of program-level and contextual determinants. In this study, we explored the multilevel factors associated with coverage in single-dose nevirapine PMTCT programs. Methods. We analyzed aggregate routine data collected within the framework of the Viramune® Donation Programme (VDP) from 269 sites in 20 PMTCT programs and 15 sub-Saharan countries from 2002 to 2005. Site performance was measured using a nevirapine coverage ratio (NCR), defined as the reported number of women receiving nevirapine divided by the number of women who should have received nevirapine (observed HIV prevalence x number of women in antenatal care [ANC]). Data on program-level determinants were drawn from the initial application forms, and country-level determinants from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the World Bank (World Development Indicators). Multilevel linear mixed models were used to identify independent factors associated with NCR at the site-, program- and country-level. Results: Of 283,410 pregnant women attending ANC in the included sites, 174,312 women (61.5%) underwent HIV testing after receiving pre-test counselling, of whom 26,700 tested HIV positive (15.3%), and 22,591 were dispensed NVP (84.6%). Site performance was highly heterogeneous between and within programs. Mean NCR by site was 43.8% (interquartile range: 19.1-63.9). Multilevel analysis identified higher HIV prevalence (Beta coefficient: 25.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 18.7 to 31.6), higher proportion of persons with knowledge of PMTCT (8.3; CI 0.5 to 16.0), higher health expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (3.9 per %; CI 2.0 to 5.8) and lower percentage of rural population (-0.7 per %; CI -1.0 to -0.5) as significant country-level predictors of higher NCR at the p<0.05 level. A medium ANC monthly activity (30-100/month) was the only site-level predictor found (-7.6; CI -15.1 to -0.1). Conclusions: Heterogeneity of nevirapine coverage between sites and programs was high. Multilevel analysis identified several significant contextual determinants, which may warrant additional research to further define important multi-level and potentially modifiable determinants of performance of PMTCT programs. © 2013 Audureau et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Harford J.B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Otero I.V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Anderson B.O.,University of Washington | Anderson B.O.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 16 more authors.
Breast | Year: 2011

International collaborations like the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) can help low and middle income countries (LMCs) to establish or improve breast cancer control programs by providing evidence-based, resource-stratified guidelines for the management and control of breast cancer. The Problem Solving Working Group of the BHGI 2010 Global Summit met to develop a consensus statement on problem-solving strategies addressing breast cancer in LMCs. To better assess breast cancer burden in poorly studied populations, countries require accurate statistics regarding breast cancer incidence and mortality. To better identify health care system strengths and weaknesses, countries require reasonable indicators of true health system quality and capacity. Using qualitative and quantitative research methods, countries should formulate cancer control strategies to identify both system inefficiencies and patient barriers. Patient navigation programs linked to public advocacy efforts feed and strengthen functional early detection and treatment programs. Cost-effectiveness research and implementation science are tools that can guide and expand successful pilot programs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ladner J.,University of Rouen | Besson M.-H.,Axios International | Audureau E.,University Paris Est Creteil | Rodrigues M.,Axios International | Saba J.,Axios International
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2016

Background: Cervical cancer is the greatest cause of age-weighted years of life lost in the developing world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a high proportion of cervical cancers, and HPV vaccination may help to reduce the incidence of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, obstacles, and strategies and to analyze key concerns and lessons learned with respect to the implementation of HPV vaccination program in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: The Gardasil Access Program (GAP) is a donation program established to enable organizations and institutions in eligible low-resource countries to gain operational experience designing and implementing HPV vaccination programs. This study used an online survey to capture the experiences and insights of program managers participating in the GAP. Different factors related to HPV vaccination program management were collected. A mixed-method approach enabled the presentation of both quantitative measurements and qualitative insights. Results: Twenty-nine programs implemented by 23 institutions in 19 low- and middle-income countries were included. Twenty programs managers (97.7 %) reported that their institution implemented sensitization strategies about vaccination prior to the launch of vaccination campaign. The most frequently reported obstacles to HPV vaccination by the program managers were erroneous perceptions of population related to the vaccine’s safety and efficacy. Reaching and maintaining follow-up with target populations were identified as challenges. Insufficient infrastructure and human resources financing and the vaccine delivery method were identified as significant health system barriers. Coupling HPV vaccination with other health interventions for mothers of targeted girls helped to increase vaccination and cervical cancer screening. The majority of program managers reported that their programs had a positive impact on national HPV vaccination policy. The majority of institutions had national and international partners that provided support for human resources, technical assistance, and training and financial support for health professionals. Conclusion: Local organizations and institutions can implement successful HPV vaccination campaigns. Adequate and adapted planning and resources that support information sharing, sensitization, and mobilization are essential for such success. These results can inform the development of programs and policies related to HPV vaccination in low- and middle-income countries. © 2016 The Author(s).


Ladner J.,University of Rouen | Besson M.-H.,Axios International | Rodrigues M.,Axios International | Audureau E.,University Paris Est Creteil | Saba J.,Axios International
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, with high incidence in lowest income countries. Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) may help to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze HPV vaccination programs performance implemented in low and middle-income countries. Methods. The Gardasil Access Program provides HPV vaccine at no cost to help national institutions gain experience implementing HPV vaccination. Data on vaccine delivery model, number of girls vaccinated, number of girls completing the three-dose campaign, duration of vaccination program, community involvement and sensitization strategies were collected from each program upon completion. Vaccine Uptake Rate (VUR) and Vaccine Adherence between the first and third doses (VA) rate were calculated. Multivariate linear regressions analyses were fitted. Results: Twenty-one programs were included in 14 low and middle-income countries. Managing institutions were non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (n = 8) or Ministries of Health (n = 13). Twelve programs were school-based, five were health clinic-based and four utilized a mixed model. A total of 217,786 girls received a full course of vaccination.Mean VUR was 88.7% (SD = 10.5) and VA was 90.8% (SD = 7.3). The mean total number of girls vaccinated per program-month was 2,426.8 (SD = 2,826.6) in school model, 335.1 (SD = 202.5) in the health clinic and 544.7 (SD = 369.2) in the mixed models (p = 0.15). Community involvement in the follow-up of girls participating in the vaccination campaign was significantly associated with VUR. Multivariate analyses identified school-based (β = 13.35, p = 0.001) and health clinic (β = 13.51, p = 0.03) models, NGO management (β = 14.58, p < 10-3) and duration of program vaccination (β = -1.37, p = 0.03) as significant factors associated with VUR. Conclusion: School and health clinic-based models appeared as predictive factors for vaccination coverage, as was management by an NGO; program duration could play a role in the program's effectiveness. Results suggest that HPV vaccine campaigns tailored to meet the needs of communities can be effective. These results may be useful in the development of national HPV vaccination policies in low and middle-income countries. © 2014 Ladner et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University Paris Est Creteil, Axios International and University of Rouen
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC health services research | Year: 2016

Cervical cancer is the greatest cause of age-weighted years of life lost in the developing world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a high proportion of cervical cancers, and HPV vaccination may help to reduce the incidence of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, obstacles, and strategies and to analyze key concerns and lessons learned with respect to the implementation of HPV vaccination program in low- and middle-income countries.The Gardasil Access Program (GAP) is a donation program established to enable organizations and institutions in eligible low-resource countries to gain operational experience designing and implementing HPV vaccination programs. This study used an online survey to capture the experiences and insights of program managers participating in the GAP. Different factors related to HPV vaccination program management were collected. A mixed-method approach enabled the presentation of both quantitative measurements and qualitative insights.Twenty-nine programs implemented by 23 institutions in 19 low- and middle-income countries were included. Twenty programs managers (97.7%) reported that their institution implemented sensitization strategies about vaccination prior to the launch of vaccination campaign. The most frequently reported obstacles to HPV vaccination by the program managers were erroneous perceptions of population related to the vaccines safety and efficacy. Reaching and maintaining follow-up with target populations were identified as challenges. Insufficient infrastructure and human resources financing and the vaccine delivery method were identified as significant health system barriers. Coupling HPV vaccination with other health interventions for mothers of targeted girls helped to increase vaccination and cervical cancer screening. The majority of program managers reported that their programs had a positive impact on national HPV vaccination policy. The majority of institutions had national and international partners that provided support for human resources, technical assistance, and training and financial support for health professionals.Local organizations and institutions can implement successful HPV vaccination campaigns. Adequate and adapted planning and resources that support information sharing, sensitization, and mobilization are essential for such success. These results can inform the development of programs and policies related to HPV vaccination in low- and middle-income countries.


Dye T.D.,Axios International | Dye T.D.,New York University | Bogale S.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Hobden C.,Axios International | And 5 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: As the global visibility and importance of breast cancer increases, especially in developing countries, ensuring that countries strengthen and develop health systems that support prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a complex chronic disease is a priority. Understanding how breast cancer patients navigate health systems to reach appropriate levels of care is critical in assessing and improving the health system response in countries to an increasing breast cancer burden in their populations. Ethiopia has accelerated attention to breast cancer, expanding clinical and public health efforts at diagnosing and treating breast cancer earlier and more efficiently. METHODS: This project used a mixed-method approach to assessing patient navigation of the healthcare system that resulted in care at the cancer referral hospital for Ethiopia (Tikur Anbessa Hospital [TAH]). In total, 69 patients representative of the entire breast cancer clinical population at TAH were interviewed. RESULTS: Navigation chains are widely divergent and typically involve 3 or more care nodes until they reach the referral hospital. Patients who consult traditional healers have significantly more care nodes to reach the referral hospital than others, and patients who have direct access to local and regional hospitals have the smallest number of care nodes. Patients report moving laterally from 1 health institution to another or regressing to lower levels of care, sometimes complicated by reinvolving traditional healers. CONCLUSIONS: The care system can be streamlined for breast cancer patients in Ethiopia to facilitate patient access to available and clinically effective diagnostic and treatment services in the country, largely through improving local primary care and hospital capacity to provide basic breast cancer services and improve detection and referral. © 2009 American Cancer Society.


Ladner J.,University of Rouen | Tekinturhan E.,Axios International | Tavolacci M.-P.,University of Rouen | Audureau E.,University of Paris Descartes | Saba J.,Axios International
Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved | Year: 2013

Background. Th e Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP) is designed to provide access to the cancer therapy Imatinib (Glivec), which is indicated for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Objectives. To identify factors those infl uence the quality of care and structural improvements. Design. Physicians (n=50), hospital administrators (n=10) and Ministry of Health officials (n=7) in 39 developing countries participated in qualitative interviews. Th e interviews focused on the impact of GIPAP on service delivery, patient tracking systems and cancer registries, health financing, and workforce. Results. Service delivery, patient management, access to care, diagnostic capacity, and health workers' skills improved at participants' institutions following implementation of GIPAP. Conclusions. Positive institutional changes that improve care of CML/ GIST patients arose from GIPAP. Some of these changes may strengthen institutions' capacity to treat other diseases as well. Th e GIPAP model could be deployed to improve access to care for patients with other chronic diseases. © Meharry Medical College.


Kantelhardt E.J.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Mathewos A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Aynalem A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Wondemagegnehu T.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | And 11 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: In contrast with breast cancers (BCs) in other parts of the world, most previous studies reported that the majority of BCs in sub-Saharan Africa are estrogen-receptor (ER) negative. However, a recent study using the US SEER database showed that the proportion of ER-negative BC is comparable between US-born blacks and West-African born blacks but substantially lower in East African-born blacks, with over 74% of patients Ethiopians or Eritreans. In this paper, we provide the first report on the proportion of ER-negative BC in Ethiopia, and the relation to progesterone-receptor (PgR) status. Methods: We analysed 352 female patients with ER results available out of 1208 consecutive female BC patients treated at Addis Ababa-University Hospital, Ethiopia, from June 2005 through December 2010. The influences of age, stage, and histology on the probability of ER-negative tumours were assessed by a log-linear regression model. Results: Of the 352 patients, only 35% were ER-negative. The proportion of ER-negative tumours decreased with advancing age at diagnosis and was not affected by histology or stage. For age, the proportion decreased by 6% for each additional 5 years (stage-adjusted prevalence ratio PR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-1.00). About 31% were ER- and PgR-negative, and 69% were ER- and/or PgR-positive. Conclusions: Contrary to most previous reports in other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of patients in Ethiopia are ER-positive rather than ER-negative. These findings are in line with low proportions of ER-negative BCs from East African immigrants within the SEER database, and they have clinical implications for management of BC patients in Ethiopia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa where ER-status is not ascertained as part of routine management of the disease. Since the majority of patients showed ER-positive BC, Tamoxifen-therapy should be given to all patients even with unknown ER status. © 2014 Kantelhardt et al.


PubMed | Axios International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer | Year: 2010

As the global visibility and importance of breast cancer increases, especially in developing countries, ensuring that countries strengthen and develop health systems that support prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a complex chronic disease is a priority. Understanding how breast cancer patients navigate health systems to reach appropriate levels of care is critical in assessing and improving the health system response in countries to an increasing breast cancer burden in their populations. Ethiopia has accelerated attention to breast cancer, expanding clinical and public health efforts at diagnosing and treating breast cancer earlier and more efficiently.This project used a mixed-method approach to assessing patient navigation of the healthcare system that resulted in care at the cancer referral hospital for Ethiopia (Tikur Anbessa Hospital [TAH]). In total, 69 patients representative of the entire breast cancer clinical population at TAH were interviewed.Navigation chains are widely divergent and typically involve 3 or more care nodes until they reach the referral hospital. Patients who consult traditional healers have significantly more care nodes to reach the referral hospital than others, and patients who have direct access to local and regional hospitals have the smallest number of care nodes. Patients report moving laterally from 1 health institution to another or regressing to lower levels of care, sometimes complicated by reinvolving traditional healers.The care system can be streamlined for breast cancer patients in Ethiopia to facilitate patient access to available and clinically effective diagnostic and treatment services in the country, largely through improving local primary care and hospital capacity to provide basic breast cancer services and improve detection and referral.

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