Rueil-Malmaison, France
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Becker P.J.,French Institute of Petroleum | Serrand N.,French Institute of Petroleum | Celse B.,French Institute of Petroleum | Guillaume D.,French Institute of Petroleum | Dulot H.,Axens SA
Fuel | Year: 2016

Development of models for industrial hydrocrackers has received a great amount of attention by the scientific community over the past decades. Two fundamentally different modelling approaches are compared in this paper: a continuous lumping model with three families (paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics) and a single events microkinetic model. The aim is to demonstrate the differences in the capabilities of the two modelling frameworks. Both models are capable of simulating experimental data from hydrocracking of a pre-treated Vacuum Gas Oil in a pilot plant at industrial conditions. The continuous lumping model provides better results of the macroscopic effluent characteristics, such as yield structure and PNA (Paraffin, Naphthene, Aromatic) distribution in the middle distillate cut. It requires only the feed SIMDIS (Simulated Distillation) and PNA composition to be known. The single events model, on the other hand, provides information which is not available in a simple continuous lumping model. An analysis of the reaction kinetics of paraffins and mono-naphthenes is performed to demonstrate this aspect. The single events model is far more complex and computationally expensive than the continuous lumping model. In conclusion, the two approaches should be considered complementary rather than competitive. In conjunction, they can be used to balance the drawbacks of each individual modelling approach. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Quignard A.,French Institute of Petroleum | Caillol N.,French Institute of Petroleum | Charon N.,French Institute of Petroleum | Courtiade M.,French Institute of Petroleum | Dendroulakis D.,Axens SA
Fuel | Year: 2013

Distillate liquid yields from high hydrogen pressure catalytic conversion of coal processes, called Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL), are typically high at 4-5 bbl/T coal on a dry ash free basis for the best available DCL processes, making them an attractive option to produce transportation fuels from coal. These yields are significantly higher than using the so called Indirect Coal to Liquid (ICL) route, i.e. gasification plus Fisher Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Nevertheless, DCL products are often considered as relatively low quality products and their chemical structure is not well known. This work focuses on the physical/chemical standardized analyses and innovative detailed characterization of the properties and the unique composition of jet fuel and Diesel cuts obtained by DCL before and after hydroprocessing. It shows that 100% high quality fully desulfurized Jet A, Jet A-1 or JP-8 aviation fuels can be obtained when using the appropriate hydrocracking conditions. It also shows that the Diesel cut obtained from the same upgrading process can be used as a high quality component for transportation fuels with less than 5 ppm sulfur, exhibiting a very specific chemical structure that is accompanied by excellent cold flow properties and good combustion characteristics. This innovative detailed characterization of hydroprocessed DCL jet fuel and Diesel cuts was provided using a GC × GC method developed within the IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) laboratories. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Villanueva N.,French Institute of Petroleum | Villanueva N.,Axens SA | Flaconneche B.,French Institute of Petroleum | Creton B.,French Institute of Petroleum
ACS Combinatorial Science | Year: 2015

In this work, we first report the acquisition of new experimental data and then the development of quantitative structure-property relationships on the basis of sorption values for neat compounds and up to quinary mixtures of some hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ethers, in a semicrystalline poly(ethylene). Two machine learning methods (i.e., genetic function approximation and support vector machines) and two families of descriptors (i.e., functional group counts and substructural molecular fragments) were used to derive predictive models. Models were then used to predict sorption variations when increasing the number of carbon atoms in a series of hydrocarbons and for n-alkan-1-ols. In addition to the performed internal/external validations, the model was further tested for surrogate gasolines containing ca. 300 compounds, and predicted sorption values were in excellent agreement with experimental data (R2 = 0.940). © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Oliviero L.,National Engineering School of Caen | Mariey L.,National Engineering School of Caen | Lelias M.A.,National Engineering School of Caen | Lelias M.A.,Axens SA | And 3 more authors.
Catalysis Letters | Year: 2010

The effect of high-pressure sulfidation on (Co)Mo/Al2O 3 catalysts was studied by means of IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and thiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS). A new IR cell, called CellEx, was designed in order to characterize catalysts sulfided in situ under H 2S/H2 flow with pressure varying from 0.1 up to 4.0 MPa. On Mo/Al2O3, high sulfidation pressure changes neither the HDS rate nor the MoS2 site concentration. Conversely on CoMo catalyst, sulfidation under high pressure leads to a marked increase of the thiophene HDS activity and of the Co-promoted site concentration as well as to some changes in the local structure of CoMoS sites. Graphical Abstract: Study of CoMo catalyst, in the new IR cell, CellEX that allows in situ sulfidation under high-pressure, shows that sulfidation pressure increases HDS activity in parallel to the CoMoS concentration. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Schwalje D.,Axens SA | Wisdom L.,Axens SA | Craig M.,Axens SA
American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, AFPM - AFPM Annual Meeting 2016 | Year: 2016

Of the numerous options refiners have to achieve flexibility in their diesel to gasoline product ratio, revamping the CFHT to a flexible mild hydrocracker can in many cases be the most attractive balance between rate of return, CAPEX, and project implementation schedule. Increasing conversion of VGO without the need for a costly new unit not only increases diesel production but also improves FCC performance, allowing the refiner the option to process excess external VGO in the FCC, increase LPG production, and overall increase hydrogen addition (volume swell), thus improving overall refinery economics. Since the unit conversion and product cut-points can be adjusted on the fly to meet market demands, a flexible MHC revamp project provides the refiner with a flexible and profitable option independent of unpredictable diesel and gasoline market forces. The addition of an integrated diesel polishing section to the MHC unit is an attractive solution for refiners short on middle distillate hydrotreating capacity. Copyright Copyright © (2016) by American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers (AFPM) All rights reserved.


Dubin G.,Axens SA | Largeteau D.,Axens SA
American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, AFPM - AFPM Annual Meeting 2014 | Year: 2014

Similar to coker naphtha, FCC naphtha, often the other major cracked naphtha stream for the gasoline pool, must be processed in either a selective hydrotreater to preserve octane or in a conventional pretreater upstream of isomerization or reforming. As refiners continue to push the amount of cracked material in their hydrotreating units, advanced catalyst and grading options are needed for the difficult processing scenarios. A discussion covers the difference of coker naphtha from straight run naphtha and other naphtha streams; impacts from the various factors affecting coker naphtha; coker naphtha hydrotreating; naphtha block solutions - breakthrough silicon traps with SiTrap™ and deep nitrogen removal with HR 648; and Prime-G™ FCC gasoline desulfurization technology and catalysts. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AFPM Annual Meeting (Orlando, FL 3/23-25/2014).


Craig M.,Axens SA
6th Southwest Process Technology Conference 2014 | Year: 2014

Low Investment and Attractive Payout • Revamping CFHT to Mild Hydrocracking • Revamping Distillation Column to broaden Diesel Cutpoint □ Moderate Investment • Adding Hydrocracking Capacity • Market Demand for Lube Oil •With or without FCC Unit □ Highest Investment & Best Return • Adding Residue Hydrocracking ahead of Delayed Coking • Integrate VGO Hydrocracking • Simple Payout > 3 years • Achieves highest DIG Selectivity.


Schmidt M.,MS Silverback Consultancy | Roisin E.,Axens SA
Sulphur 2012 International Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2012

As part of an optimization program for all the SRU's of a German refinery the first application of the new low-temperature tail gas treating catalyst started in June 2004. It soon turned out to be successful and the first low-temperature TGTU ever built with a single indirect HP steam reheater started up in February 2007. Two more TGTU's were filled with TG 107 catalyst from Axens in replacement of the standard product. A total of more than 20 years of effective on-stream operating experience in four different applications of the refinery showed a very good performance and stability of the low temperature hydrogenation catalyst. One application went through a turnaround with no findings. All low temperature catalyst loads will definitely reach a 10 year cycle or even more. The new hydrogenation catalyst, TG 107 from Axens, operates at 50-60°C lower than standard tail gas treating catalysts. All TGTU's were able to achieve the required 99.8 wt% sulphur recovery or even better. As a side effect fuel gas was saved in the direct heaters of the old TGTU's and in this case amounts to some 130,000 GJ which can pay the catalyst cost easily over its life time. CO2 emissions of the three old units were reduced by 1000 tonnes per year in total. © 2014 CRU Group.


Scharff Y.,Axens SA | Asteris D.,Axens SA | Fedou S.,Axens SA
OCL - Oilseeds and fats, crops and lipids | Year: 2013

Renewable lipids based biofuels are an important tool to address issues raised by policies put in place in order to reduce the dependence of transportation sector on fossil fuels and to promote the development of non-food based, sustainable and eco-friendly fuels. This paper presents the main features of the heterogeneous catalysis technologies Axens has developed for the production of biofuels from renewable lipids: the first by transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl esters or biodiesel and the second by hydrotreating to produce isoparaffinic hydroprocessed ester and fatty acids, high blending rate drop-in diesel and jet biofuels. © 2013 Y. Scharff et al., published by EDP Sciences .


Bader J.-M.,Axens SA | Rolland G.,Axens SA
Hydrocarbon Processing | Year: 2012

APC with inferential modeling was successfully applied to pygas hydrogenation units. The lengthening of the catalyst run length limits downtime for both the pygas unit and upstream units such as the steam cracker.

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