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Mont-Laurier, Canada

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and time to onset of delayed hemothorax and pneumothorax in adults who experienced a minor blunt thoracic trauma. Method: A prospective cohort of 450 consecutive patients was recruited. Eligible patients had to be over 16 years of age, consulted within 72 hours for a trauma, and available for outpatient follow-up at 2, 7, and 14 days posttrauma. The clinical outcome investigated was the presence of delayed pneumothorax or hemothorax on the follow-up chest x-ray Outcomes: Delayed hemothorax occurred in 11.8% (95% CI 8.8-14.8), and delayed pneumothorax occurred in 0.9% (95% CI 0.2-2.3) of participants. During the 14-day follow-up period, 87.0% of these delayed complications developed in the first week. In the multivariate analysis, the only statistically significant risk factor for delayed complications was the location of fractures on the x-ray of the hemithorax. The adjusted odds ratio was 1.52 (95% CI 0.62-3.73) for the lower ribs (tenth to twelfth rib), 3.11 (95% CI 1.60-6.08) for the midline ribs (sixth to ninth rib), and 5.05 (95% CI 1.80-14.19) for the upper ribs (third to fifth rib) versus patients with no fractures. Conclusion: The presence of at least one rib fracture between the third and ninth rib on the x-ray of the hemithorax is a significant risk factor for delayed hemothorax and pneumothorax. © Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Source

Larose J.,Axe reproduction | Julien P.,Axe endocrinologie et nephrologie | Julien P.,University Laval | Greffard K.,Axe endocrinologie et nephrologie | And 6 more authors.
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2014

We hypothesized that the mild physiological oxidative stress present during pregnancy could increase both, plasma F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoPs) by lipid oxidation and trans fatty acids (TFA) through cis-trans isomerization respectively. Plasma samples collected at 12-18 weeks (MIROS cohort; n=65) and 38-41 weeks of pregnancy (CHUL cohort; n=21) were subjected to alkaline hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction in order to extract total F2-isoPs for quantification by HPLC-MS/MS. Several positive correlations were found between F2-isoPs and TFA, measured by GC-FID in plasma phospholipids, such as 6t-18:1, 9t-18:1 and 9t,12c-18:2 (r>0.306; p<0.045). Despite its low level, the 9t,12c-18:2 trans isomer, known to be associated to cardiovascular diseases, showed the most significant correlations with F2-isoPs. No correlation was observed between F2-isoPs and 9t-16:1 or 11t-18:1. In summary, this study suggests either a concomitant phenomenon or a competition between lipid peroxidation and cis-trans isomerisation of the cis precursor fatty acid in vivo during pregnancy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bilodeau J.-F.,Axe reproduction | Bilodeau J.-F.,University Laval | Qin Wei S.,University of Montreal | Larose J.,Axe reproduction | And 7 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Abstract Preeclampsia (PE) has long been associated with early oxidative stress, although the symptoms occur later in pregnancy. We have hypothesized that the oxidative stress in PE, as characterized by the presence of F2-isoprostane (F2-isoP) isomers in late pregnancy, should already be present in plasma at the first regular visit of the obstetrical follow-up. There are 64 possible isomers of F2-isoPs derived from the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA), but only one of these isomers has been investigated so far in PE, the classical 8-iso-PGF. Here, we have investigated two regioisomers of class III (8-iso-15(R)-PGF and 8-iso-PGF) and a mix of two isomers of class VI ((±)5-iPF-VI) in plasma samples collected prospectively at 12-18 weeks from normotensive controls (n = 60) and pregnant mothers who developed PE later in pregnancy (n = 33). The plasma samples were subjected to alkaline hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction to extract total F2-isoPs for later quantification by HPLC-MS/MS. The F2-isoPs were normalized to either plasma volume or polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels measured by GC-FID in plasma phospholipids. Early in pregnancy, only the class VI F2-isoP isomers were found at concentrations significantly higher in women developing PE later in pregnancy (+13%; p = 0.0074). Normalization of F2-isoPs to their substrate, AA, or the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio improved the predictability of PE as determined by receiver operating characteristic (from area under the curve of 0.67 to 0.68 and 0.70 respectively). Interestingly, omega-3 fatty acids were 25% higher in the control group than in the PE group (P = 0.0225). Omega-6 PUFAs correlated with F2-Isop isomers only in cases of PE (r > 0.377; P >0.03, Spearman correlation). In sum, this study indicates that specific isomers of class VI are significant predictors of PE. This work also suggests that F2-isoP isomers are not all generated and eliminated to the same extent and are influenced by the PUFA composition of plasma phospholipids. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sallon C.,Axe reproduction | Provost P.R.,Axe reproduction | Provost P.R.,Laval University | Tremblay Y.,Axe reproduction | Tremblay Y.,Laval University
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2015

Automation of lung morphometric analysis is an asset in the study of lung pathophysiology because it is an assurance of robustness, reproducibility, and rapidity. The novel automated morphometric approach presented here meets these criteria. This new method collects multiple parameters, allowing quantitative elucidation of the pathophysiology of the developing and mature lungs. The automated morphometric analysis is reliable and allows the analysis of a greater proportion of each lung together with a higher number of samples and superior reproducibility than manual analysis. The use of this method revealed that treatment with 80% oxygen and lung development presented an opposite effect on most of the analyzed parameters. In conclusion, this novel approach allowed the collection of new fundamental morphometric data on lung development and a deeper comprehension of the effect of hyperoxia. © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

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