La Croix-Valmer, France
La Croix-Valmer, France
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Gross E.M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Drouet-Hoguet N.,Awely | Subedi N.,National Trust for Nature Conservation | Gross J.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Crop Protection | Year: 2017

In all 13 Asian range countries of the wild Asian elephant (Elephas maximus L.), farmers suffer from crop damages caused by this endangered and highly protected species. As elephants are lured by highly nutritional crop types into agricultural lands, measures to deter or repel them from the high attraction will always be costly and labour intensive. The cultivation of crops, which are less attractive to elephants, yet economically viable for local farmers could lead to a new direction of land-use and income generation in human-elephant conflict areas. In this study, seven medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) containing higher amounts of specific plant secondary compounds were explored for their attractiveness to wild Asian elephants against a control of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). The results show that chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), mint (Mentha arvensis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) W. Watson) and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.) were less attractive and were not consumed by elephants compared to rice. Damages to the MAPs occurred only through trampling, with mint being most prone to being trampled. Other wildlife species, however, were observed to feed on lemon-grass. Long-term learning effects and the eventual palatability of crops with less efficient antifeedants need to be further explored. This study, however, gives first evidence that MAPs bear a high potential for a secure income generation in and close to Asian elephant habitats. Furthermore, the strategic plantation of crops unattractive and attractive to elephants could lead to new land-use strategies and improve functionality of elephant corridors. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Gross E.M.,Awely | McRobb R.,South Luangwa Conservation Society | Gross J.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

Throughout the sub-Saharan African countries, in which populations of the African Elephant (Loxodontaafricana) exist, farmers come into conflict with these pachyderms. Attracted by nutritious crops on the fields they destroy substantial amounts of harvest by crossing through the plantations and feeding on the crops. As this species is protected and listed as a threatened species by the IUCN Red List and therefore must not be killed, new ways need to be found to repel or not attract the pachyderms to fields. The replacement of crops, which are attractive to elephants by such, which are not attractive, might be a solution for the agricultural sector in and close to elephant habitats. A field experiment has been conducted to test the attractiveness of potential alternative crops (ginger, onion, garlic, and lemon grass) compared to a control plot with maize as a very attractive crop. Elephants visited both, the test crops and the control of maize and completely destroyed the maize 6 weeks prior to its harvest time. In contrast, the test crops were only slightly damaged, mostly through trampling. In a very late state of the experiment lemon grass and ginger were consumed by the elephants in small quantities. Yields that have been obtained from the test crops would have exceeded the yields of the maize. The selection of crops which are less attractive to large herbivores such as elephants needs to be considered as a strategy to reduce conflicts between farmers and endangered wildlife species. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Ballouard J.-M.,AWELY | Ballouard J.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Priol P.,CISTUDE NATURE | Oison J.,AWELY | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2010

Despite conservation programmes (India 1975, Nepal 1978) gharial populations (Gavialis gangeticus) have declined over their entire distribution range. Information about the current status and main threats is needed to implement effective conservation measures. This study presents a survey (2003/2004) of the largest Nepalese gharial population in the Chitwan National Park that has benefited from regular re-introduction of young gharials since 1981.3Population size estimates fluctuate between 34 (2003) and 38 (2004). The reintroduction programme, although of limited success, has helped to maintain the gharial population. Gharials bask preferentially in large sand banks, and these sites must be protected. The main threats are from a dam that causes fish depletion and flushes gharials from the protected area, sand mining and grazing that destroy basking sites, fishing that causes food shortage, drift nets that kill gharial, and water pollution. Improvement in the survival of reintroduced gharials is needed. Strict protection of preferred basking sites and prohibition of fishing in the main settling zones are the principal conservation measures while in the long term, education and participatory management by local people are also necessary. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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