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Carlsen L.,Awareness Center | Carlsen L.,Kazakh-British Technical University | Bruggemann R.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Sailaukhanuly Y.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2013

Studies on fate and toxicity are important aspects in environmental impact assessments of chemicals. In order to elucidate "what is worst" a ranking of the chemicals under investigation is of significant interest, which obviously constitutes a multi-indicator system (MIS). Partial order methodologies turn out to be advantageous tools for analyses of such systems. In the present paper we focus on QSAR generated fate and toxicity indicators of 30 chemicals, comprising of a variety of chemical structures. In many risk assessment studies the level of a multi-indicator system is abandoned and the data are aggregated in order to obtain a composite index. However, such aggregation techniques are far from being trivial. The present paper describes an alternative strategy to handle MIS, i.e., applying partial order methodology leading to useful information. The paper demonstrate how partial order techniques lead to a weak order of the 30 chemicals as well as to the relative importance of the single indicators included in the study. Specifically, the paper addresses the topics on the "relations between the indicators" and "do chemical structures constitute a valid basis for ranking chemicals according to their environmental impact?". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bruggemann R.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Carlsen L.,Awareness Center | Carlsen L.,Kazakh-British Technical University
Match | Year: 2011

Comparison of objects characterized by a multitude of criteria will typically not lead to a linear order, but to a partial order. However, often a linear order is desirable or even required. The present paper presents an improved - extended - approximate local partial order model to estimate a weak or linear order based on averaged ranks of the studied objects originally being partially ordered. The paper analyses various possible partial order scenarios by means of the new local partial order model, the results being compared to the original approach as well as to exact values (their calculation can be extremely time consuming), demonstrating a distinct improvement of the extended method compared to the original local partial order ranking method. By the approximate methods the values of averaged ranks can be understood in terms of three basic partial order parameters. The method is applied to current research on human health effects of rocket fuel transformation products.

Bruggemann R.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Carlsen L.,Awareness Center | Carlsen L.,Kazakh-British Technical University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

The paper of Huang, Keisler and Linkov (HKL) (Huang et al., 2011) has motivated us to this note about the relation between ranking procedures and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) tools. The key concept in the HKL-paper is in our eyes the 'trade-off'. A 'trade-off' seems necessary, when conflicting indicator values are present. HKL stress that the general application of MCDA is hampered by different terminology. We do not claim to have a solution for that problem. Nevertheless, we think that the discussion is worthwhile and this note presents some of our ideas, which basically imply the need of a broadening of the definition of MCDA. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

News Article | February 15, 2017

The Maritime & Port Security Information Sharing & Analysis Organization (MPS-ISAO) convenes its inaugural conference “Maritime & Port Cyber Resilience - Adding a New Layer of Cybersecurity” February 22-24, 2017 at the Global Situational Awareness Center at NASA/Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The conference is bringing together Maritime, Port, Government and Industry “Thought Leaders” and “Change Agents” to operationalize cyber resilience by advancing cybersecurity at a more rapid pace through information sharing, coordinated response, adoption and adaptation of best practices (operational guidance) supported by role-based cyber resilience workforce education. The MPS-ISAO, a non-profit organization, officially launched in May 2016, is dedicated to a mission to enable and sustain Maritime and Port cyber resilience, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, sector and cross-sector industry and government stakeholders, and security, technology and academic strategic partners. The nation’s security depends upon a safe, secure and resilient Maritime and Port critical infrastructure for defense. Moving people, manufactured and agricultural goods, healthcare products, bulk energy and retail products throughout the ecosystem that handles $1.3 trillion in annual cargo…are all dependent upon cyber resilience. Moving from a reactive to a proactive security stance requires addressing cybersecurity from a risk-based approach, assessing Maritime- and Port-specific cyber risks and interdependencies, expanding beyond the physical aspects of security and safety – advancing greater information exchange and sharing solutions to enable and ensure systems protection, accessibility, reliability and resiliency. Cyber attacks and vulnerability exploits can potentially have catastrophic cascading impacts to: GPSbased and e-navigation systems, monitoring control of safety/emergency/environmental systems, operation of security cameras and gates, tracking and controlling container terminal operations and cargo movements, offshore platform stability and dynamically positioning systems for offshore supply vessels, and enabling vessel operators to control ballast water and ship stability systems precision. "This is the first cybersecurity conference completely dedicated to addressing the automation of realtime cybersecurity threat intelligence information sharing, coordinated response, and cyber resilience best practice and education issues and challenges for the nation’s Maritime and Port critical infrastructure”, said Deborah Kobza, Executive Director/CEO of the MPS-ISAO. “We are incredibly excited to have the opportunity to hold the MPS-ISAO’s inaugural conference at our headquarters, the Global Institute for Cybersecurity + Research, Global Situational Awareness Center at NASA/Kennedy Space Center in Florida”. “The Cybersecurity Summit is a landmark event for the Maritime and Port Community and a major step towards strengthening the public/private partnerships that are so critical to cyber resilience,” said retired CDR Cliff Neve, USCG(ret). “The MPS-ISAO is a critical link in information sharing and the advancement of cyber security as a Team Sport”. The MPS-ISAO Conference agenda provides opportunities for attendees to engage with a defining voice by engaging and leveraging opportunities to become cyber resilient as part of sector and cross-sector trusted communities while participating in collaborative initiatives, guiding cyber protection and resilience sustainability efforts, participating in MPS-ISAO initiatives, including both regional and national-level cyber exercises, enhancing workforce education, have discussions with decision makers and support approaches to cyber resilience operational strategic planning. Agenda sessions include: Maritime & Port Cyber Resilience through Expanded Cyber Threat Intelligence & Coordinated Response, Why ISAOs and Information Sharing are so Critical – Breaking Down Long-Standing Barriers and Silos, Sector and Cross-Sector Collaboration – Why it Matters, What does intelligence Tell Us About Ports & Maritime – Knowing the Future, Disaster Preparedness – Alignment of Physical and Cyber Response Protocols, GPS – Purposeful Interference – Reducing Email Spam and Eliminating Ransomware Vulnerabilities, Maintaining Data Integrity, Cybersecurity Insurance, MPS-ISAO Threat Intelligence Information Sharing & Response Infrastructure, International Association of Certified ISAOs (the center-pf-gravity) connecting ISAOs worldwide for information sharing, and opportunities to participate in Maritime and Port Cybersecurity Specialist Training and Certification Program (MP-CSC), and planning for the 2017 Port & Maritime Cyber Exercise (collaboration with US DHS). A Cybersecurity Expo is being held, and a dinner/networking event including seeing the Space Shuttle Atlantis Exhibit, the last shuttle mission. For more information on attending the MPS-ISAO Conference or becoming a Member, please visit or contact Christy Coffey, Director Strategic Initiatives, christy(dot)Coffey(at)mpsisao(dot)org. About the MPS-ISAO The MPS-ISAO, a 501(c)6 non-profit organization, strengthens Maritime and Port cyber resilience through leadership and a sustainable infrastructure that inspires and facilitates cooperation, collaboration and coordination., Global Situational Awareness Center, NASA/Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The MPS-ISAO is a founding Member of the International Association of Certified ISAOs (IACI), leveraging a private sector-led global cyber threat intelligence infrastructure working in collaboration with government (U.S. DHS, etc.), IACI advances cyber information sharing through guidance, operations and technologies for ISAO’s worldwide, providing access to IACINET™, the global threat intelligence hub, to share information, coordinate response, provide mutual assistance and benefit from economies of scale. Learn more at

Bruggemann R.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Carlsen L.,Awareness Center
Match | Year: 2016

The role of data noise is analyzed for a pair of objects and m indicators (m > 1) with respect to order relations. A general probability scheme is developed and by specifying a noise-model and a distribution for noisy values explicit expressions are derived. These expressions allow an a priori estimation at which noise level effects the order relation between the two objects are affected. It turns out that a useful quantity can be introduced, by which it can be decided at which level of noise perturbations on the set of order relations can be expected. We call this quantity the "crucial noise". Some toy examples and an example out of environmental chemistry are discussed.

Carlsen L.,Awareness Center | Bruggemann R.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2016

A priori in partial ordering methodology the input data are understood as exact and true values, which is denoted as the "original data matrix". As such even minor differences between values are regarded as real. However, in real life data are typically associated with a certain portion of noise or uncertainty. Hence, introducing noise may cause changes in the overall ordering of objects. The present paper deals with the effects of data noise or uncertainties on the partial ordering of a series of objects, a series of obsolete pesticides being used as an illustrative example. The approach is fuzzy like, and partially ordered sets are obtained as function of noise. A main focus of the work is to identify the range in terms of noise, where the original partial order is retained. We call this range the "stability range". It is demonstrated that by increasing data noise the range where the "original partial order" is obtained decreases. The original partial order is based on the original data matrix. Further, it is found that significant changes in the partial ordering appear outside of this stability range. The possible relation between data noise and the stability range is discussed on an empirical basis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bruggemann R.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Carlsen L.,Awareness Center
Match | Year: 2014

When partial orders are applied on data matrices in order to perform a ranking then incomparabilities may appear, i.e., directed graphs have vertices, which are not connected and therefore not in a mutual ranking relation. Consequently, often partial order is not considered as a decision support system but rather as an analytical tool to explore data matrices in ranking studies. When the data matrix is consisting of quantitative indicators, which allow defining a metric, then partial order allows insights into the evaluation without many additional assumptions. In this paper two concepts are presented, the first attempting a definition of "peculiar data profiles" and the second introducing a quantification of conflicts. As working example 12 chloro-containing persistent organic chemicals (POPs) are selected. They were investigated previously with respect to three indicators, i.e., persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (Pers, BioA, Tox), respectively. The main results are the identification of objects as "f-peculiar" and of "A-incomparable pairs of objects". It turns out that DDT, DDD, DDE as well as Chlordane are all peculiar chemicals and that the pair DDT and Chlordane being the pair of chemicals with the most striking incomparability, realized by the indicators persistence and bioaccumulation. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that BioA and Tox do not cause any incomparability within the studied set of 12 POPs.

Sailaukhanuly Y.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Sarossy Z.,Technical University of Denmark | Carlsen L.,Awareness Center | Egsgaard H.,Technical University of Denmark
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Chloromethane, accounting for approximately 16% of the tropospheric chlorine, is mainly coming from natural sources. However anthropogenic activities, such as combustion of biomass may contribute significantly as well. The present study focuses on the thermal solid state reaction between pectin, an important constituent of biomass, and chloride ions as found in alkali metal chlorides. The formation of chloromethane is evident with the amount formed being linear with respect to chloride if pectin is in great excess. Thus the reaction is explained as a pseudo first order SN2 reaction between the chloride ion and the methyl ester moiety in pectin. It is suggested that the polymeric nature of pectin plays an active role by an enhanced transport of halides along the carbohydrate chain. Optimal reaction temperature is around 210°C. At higher temperatures the yield of chloromethane decreases due to a thermal decomposition of the pectin. The possible influence of the type of cation is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Sailaukhanuly Y.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Zhakupbekova A.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Amutova F.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Carlsen L.,Al-Farabi Kazakh National University | Carlsen L.,Awareness Center
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Knowledge of the environmental behavior of chemicals is a fundamental part of the risk assessment process. The present paper discusses various methods of ranking of a series of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) characteristics. Traditionally ranking has been done as an absolute (total) ranking applying various multicriteria data analysis methods like simple additive ranking (SAR) or various utility functions (UFs) based rankings. An attractive alternative to these ranking methodologies appears to be partial order ranking (POR). The present paper compares different ranking methods like SAR, UF and POR. Significant discrepancies between the rankings are noted and it is concluded that partial order ranking, as a method without any pre-assumptions concerning possible relation between the single parameters, appears as the most attractive ranking methodology. In addition to the initial ranking partial order methodology offers a wide variety of analytical tools to elucidate the interplay between the objects to be ranked and the ranking parameters. In the present study is included an analysis of the relative importance of the single P, B and T parameters. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Sustainability has components from the environmental, social and economic sections. In the present study, it is suggested to bring in indicators from different sectors and apply them simultaneously without any form of aggregation. Hence, we apply the carbon dioxide emission, the air concentration of small particles as well as the under-five mortality rate as well-known indicators from the environmental and health/social sectors. The study includes 20 countries from the Europe–Central Asia group as well as the Europe–Central Asia region as a whole and the Euro zone. An overall evaluation based on an average ranking of the countries and regions shows that countries like Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan apparently are the least sustainable countries while Georgia appears as the most sustainable. The study further points out that the carbon dioxide emission apparently is the most important indicator among the three included. The so-called ‘peculiar’ countries are verified, showing that Kazakhstan has an unexpectedly high carbon dioxide emission whereas the under-five mortality rate is unexpectedly high in Tajikistan. In the final part of the study, the gross national income per capita is brought into play and the implications of poverty are discussed. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

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