AVR Consulting Ltd

Northwich, United Kingdom

AVR Consulting Ltd

Northwich, United Kingdom
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PubMed | University of Aarhus, Glaxosmithkline and AVR Consulting Ltd
Type: | Journal: Journal of colloid and interface science | Year: 2016

A series of O-acylated--hydroxy fatty acids (Acyl acids) of up to 34 carbons were synthesized and characterized through DSC, FTIR and Langmuir isotherm measurements to identify potential replacements to petrolatum, a highly used occlusive technology that if unrefined, it can potentially be classified as carcinogenic. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that long acyl acids engender orthorhombic packing; packing behavior that is predominant in the lipid matrix of healthy stratum corneum, the outmost layer of the skin. In addition, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Langmuir isotherm studies suggested that the length of the hydrocarbon chain and the position of the ester bond influence the molecular organization of the acyl acids. For instance, 16-(tetradecanoyloxy)hexadecanoic acid (30 carbons) displayed a higher melting point (mp=68C) than 10-(stearoyloxy)decanoic acid (28 carbons; mp=63C) and 10-(tetradecanoyloxy)decanoic acid (24 carbons; mp=55C) according to DSC. Moreover, Langmuir isotherm studies showed that mixtures of acyl acid with distearoylphosphatidylcholine improved packing behavior. Finally, Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) measurements showed that the compounds in fact decrease WVTR compared to untreated control (P<0.001) which demonstrates the potential of these ingredients as occlusive technologies to combat skin barrier diseases.

Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd. | Voegeli R.,DSM Nutritional Products Ltd.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2013

This paper reviews the role of stratum corneum (SC) proteases and their inhibitors in normal and xerotic skin conditions. The importance of the corneodesmosome for SC integrity is also discussed, and the effect of proteases on its disassembly. The relevance of each enzyme class is outlined, as well as their potential inhibitors. It is becoming much clearer, however, that the LEKTI family of inhibitors are critical for SC enzyme control. Delayed desquamation is the accumulation of corneocytes on the surface of the SC that leads ultimately to the cosmetic condition commonly termed as "dry skin". The reductions of serine protease activity are a consistent theme in dry skin, and non-eczematous atopic dermatitis otherwise known as atopic xerosis leading to retention hyperkeratosis. Flaky skin is normally seen on the body whereas a rough skin is observed on the face. Increased protease activity occurs in most, if not all, inflammatory dermatoses, ranging from the genetic disorders, psoriasis and eczematous atopic dermatitis to sub-clinical barrier abnormalities induced by surfactants or by environmental influences as a result of premature desquamation. In some of these conditions a thinner SC is apparent, e.g., eczematous atopic skin or on photodamaged facial skin. A better understanding of the proteolytic events and of the regulatory mechanisms involved in desquamation should enable the design of new treatments for skin disorders associated with faulty desquamation. This new knowledge will be an important basis for new developments in 'corneotherapy' and 'corneocare'. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Merinville E.,Oriflame Cosmetics AB | Byrne A.J.,Oriflame Cosmetics AB | Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd. | Muggleton A.J.,Oriflame Cosmetics AB | Laloeuf A.C.,Oriflame Cosmetics AB
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology | Year: 2010

Background: Anti-aging effects of high concentrations of salicylic acid (SA) peels are commonly known. Like all acids, SA can produce somatosensory and visible irritation to the skin and as such may be unsuitable for subjects with sensitive skin. Aims: To provide evidence that sodium salicylate (SS) obtained from neutralization of 1% SA by sodium hydroxide can deliver significant anti-aging benefits. Methods: The effects of SS were examined using three approaches: (1) evaluating its effects on stimulating the synthesis of fibrillin and collagen-1 in vivo; (2) examining its efficacy by using Fast Optical in vivo Topometry (FOITS) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study; (3) determining its effects on both expert and naïve grader assessement of wrinkles in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Results: In the first study SS produced significant increases of the fibrillin and collagen-1 anti-aging biomarkers compared with the untreated skin control. A commercially available retinol cream delivered similar effects to SS. In the second study using FOITS we showed that the SS formulation significantly reduced wrinkle depth (Rz) and skin roughness (Ra) after 4 and 8 weeks of daily application vs. placebo (Rz: -8.2 ± 1.40% and -11.4 ± 1.07%; Ra: -7.8 ± 1.33% and -11.9 ± 0.61%; P < 0.01). In the third study reductions in wrinkle depth were observed by expert assessment at both 4 and 8 weeks for the SS-containing formulation compared to its placebo (P < 0.05). Equally, non-expert graders recorded the SS formulation superior to its placebo. Conclusion: Although the mechanism of action is not completely understood, we believe the benefits of SS are derived from its intrinsic stratum corneum exfoliation effects. All three studies demonstrate the significant anti-aging effects of SS that are especially suitable for subjects with sensitive skin. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Al-Bader T.,Oriflame Cosmetics AB | Byrne A.,Oriflame Research and Development Ltd | Gillbro J.,Oriflame Cosmetics AB | Mitarotonda A.,Oriflame Research and Development Ltd | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology | Year: 2012

Background The pathophysiology of cellulite involves changes in the subcutaneous adipose layer and the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supports it together with overlying dermal layer. Cellular mechanisms governing cellulite are not fully understood. However, it is accepted that changes include enhanced lipogenesis, decreased lipolysis, and increased lipid storage within the adipocytes as well as changes in the dermal architecture. Aim In our studies the ability of cosmetic agents Furcellaria lumbricalis, Fucus vesiculosus, retinoid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and a glaucine mixture to stimulate in vitro1) lipolysis in human adipocytes and 2) production of pro-collagen I by fibroblasts was investigated in vitro. The ability of these ingredients to improve cellulite condition in vivo was also determined. Patients/Methods Mature adipocytes and 'aged' fibroblasts were used for in vitro studies. The assessment of cellulite in vivo was performed by dermatological grading and ultrasound measurements. Results Mature adipocytes treated with combined actives resulted in a significant synergistic increase in free glycerol release. On "aged" fibroblasts, combined treatment of F. vesiculosus and F. lumbricalis stimulated pro-collagen I production. CLA increased pro-collagen I production, but the glaucine mixture had no effect. The clinical study demonstrated a significant improvement in cellulite grading by a dermatologist after 8 and 12 weeks vs. vehicle, and ultrasound imaging showed a significant decrease in fat thickness compared with placebo after 12 weeks. Conclusions Our studies revealed a potent cocktail of ingredients that when combined together can act in vitro to markedly improve lipolysis mechanisms and by way of stimulating pro-collagen I can also have an effect on the surrounding extracellular matrix. The in vitro actions of the ingredients were translated in vivo, where a clinical improvement of cellulite condition was observed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Pennick G.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Harrison S.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Jones D.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2010

Dry skin is a major dermatological problem and consumer research indicates that although current moisturizers are effective they are not completely meeting consumer expectation. Several technological approaches have been taken but influencing stratum corneum (SC) lipid phase behaviour as a novel water permeability barrier-enhancing and moisturizing mechanism has only been started to be investigated recently. Both the long periodicity SC lipid lamellar phase and the orthorhombic lipid packing state have been proposed to define optimal SC water permeability barrier properties. Several lipophillic moisturizers have been tested for their ability to modify SC lipid lateral packing namely glyceryl monoisostearate (GMIS), isopropyl isostearate (IPIS) and isostearyl isostearate (ISIS) of which IPIS and ISIS are reported to induce the orthorhombic phase. Despite the improvements in the lateral packing of SC lipids, these ingredients have been shown not to improve transepidermal water loss. However, using a novel skin surface water loss method we have observed for the first time significant improvements in SC water permeability barrier function for ISIS compared with IPIS, GMIS and petrolatum. However, using synthetic membranes and measuring water vapour transport rates we showed that the isostearyl esters were not occlusive like petrolatum. As the effects of ISIS were not because of what would be considered as true occlusion, we propose that the differences in the SC water permeability barrier properties from use of ISIS to the other ingredients tested are because of its reported effects on SC lipid phase behaviour. Further studies probably using spectroscopic approaches, however, will be needed to specifically test this hypothesis in vivo. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

Pennick G.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Chavan B.,Croda Consumer Care Europe | Summers B.,Photobiology Laboratory | Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd.
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2012

Synopsis Humectant and occlusive technologies have traditionally been used for the treatment of dry skin. Originally, non-lamellar-forming ingredients were used such as petrolatum but recent research has shown the advantage of using lamellar-forming ingredients such as ceramides, pseudoceramides and phospholipids in the relief of dry skin. Nevertheless, the importance of using lipid-phase transition inducers, such as long-chain fatty acids, has not been studied clinically. The evaluation of a novel complex of lipophilic ingredients was of interest: cetyl alcohol, isostearyl isostearate, potassium cetyl phosphate, cetyl behenate and behenic acid. The combination of all these ingredients was shown to be more effective than any single component in water vapour transmission rate studies. This was thought to be owing to the formation of a unique structural organization of the lipids upon dry-down from an O/W emulsion as was examined by X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. When evaluated clinically in a randomized double-blind and vehicle-controlled moisturization efficacy trial, this novel blend of ingredients was shown to not only improve the visible signs of skin dryness to a significantly greater extent than a comparable mineral oil-containing vehicle but also then maintain a better skin condition during the regression no-treatment phase of the study. This combination of ingredients offers a new technology option for the treatment of dry skin. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Objectives: Our knowledge on the complexity of stratum corneum biology, chemistry and biophysics has grown over the last decade. This and the intricate control mechanisms in the stratum corneum that bring about its full and proper structural maturity will be reviewed. Key findings: The importance of the total architecture of the stratum corneum in relation to desquamation and barrier function, the role of the corneodesmosomes and their degrading enzymes, new insights into the importance of natural moisturising factor and the emerging knowledge on the chemical antimicrobial barrier of the stratum corneum are discussed. Summary: Despite our increasing knowledge of the complexity of stratum corneum, we are still far from understanding its intricate control mechanisms that bring about its maturity and desquamation. © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

Hinder A.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Schmelzer C.E.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd. | Neubert R.H.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Skin Pharmacology and Physiology | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to characterize the two ceramide (CER) subclasses CER[NP] and CER[EOS] of human stratum corneum and to identify the chemical structures of their subspecies. High-performance thin-layer chromatography and normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used for the separation of CER fractions, whereas nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was applied to investigate the chemical structures in detail. Thus, CER[EOS] fragmentation revealed that in addition to linoleic acid other esterified fatty acids occur in the ω-position. Of particular interest is the identification of a 17:2 fatty acid located in this part of the molecule. Several subspecies of CER[NP], including subspecies with odd numbers of carbon atoms in both chains, the non-α-hydroxylated fatty acid moiety (part N) and the phytosphingosine (part P), were identified. Furthermore, it was found that 12% of CER[NP] subspecies have an odd number of carbon atoms in both chains of the molecule. Similar results were obtained for CER[EOS]. Both the esterified fatty acid (part E) and the sphingosine base (part S) were found to contain odd-numbered chain lengths. These results underline the heterogeneity of the CER composition in the stratum corneum lipid bilayer. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014

This themed edition of BJD is dedicated to the work of Professor Ronald Marks for his untiring work on the understanding of stratum corneum (SC) structure and function. He and his coworkers, in my opinion, had the right focus for cosmetic dermatology issues. Namely, consumers experience the wonderful properties of the SC through sight, touch and the somatosensory system. They do not experience, for example, transepidermal water loss and skin conductance or capacitance! Marks understood this and set about developing the methodologies to examine the changes in SC architecture and function when desquamation goes haywire. More importantly, he understood that moisturizers do far more than simply hydrate the SC, as exemplified in the paper by Tree and Marks, 'An explanation for the placebo effect of bland ointment bases.'1 Moisturizing ingredients influence the properties of the SC in many ways with the sole purpose of overcoming the signs and symptoms of dry skin. Marks demonstrated the decrease in SC cohesion following use of hydrating agents, which led to the mechanistic work on the effects of a simple molecule like glycerol on the desquamatory process. In further exploiting forced desquamation and use of abrasion, he showed that improvements in exfoliation contribute to the mitigation of the signs of photodamaged skin, which can explain part of the antiageing effect of simple moisturizers. It is here that I should point out that at least this particular author in 1988 was 'standing on the shoulders of' a great corneologist whose work influenced his research directions. So this paper will provide an update on the latest developments for the molecular basis of SC maturation and moisturization, while highlighting the contributions of Professor Marks in the different areas. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

Rawlings A.V.,AVR Consulting Ltd | Bielfeldt S.,ProDerm | Lombard K.J.,Union Swiss
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2012

Synopsis Scars are well known to have a stratum corneum (SC) that is malfunctional. Increases in transepidermal water loss and decreases in SC capacitance and conductance have been reported. Occlusion therapy is a well-known route to improving the signs and symptoms of scarring. Until recently that has been assumed to be totally pressure related. However, studies have demonstrated that the direct effects of hydration on keratinocytes and fibroblasts contribute to the reduction in hypertrophic scarring. Now it is well known that occlusion can regulate epidermal cytokine and growth factor production; changes in profibrotic and anti-fibrotic factors have been established. As a result, it is to be expected that moisturizers may improve the signs and symptoms of scars. As striae have been suggested to be anatomically similar to scars and as it is well established that paracrine signalling occurs in skin, it is expected that striae have similar SC issues. While one cannot exclude the effects of some of the ingredients used in the products, several studies are reported in this review that demonstrates that moisturization is a key component to reducing the clinical signs and symptoms of scars and striae. This is a good example of how knowledge of corneobiology leads to corneotherapies for these skin condition problems. The review is being written in memory of Professor Johann Wiechers who, before he died tragically in November 2011, performed two of the reported studies together with colleagues. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

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