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Novara di Sicilia, Italy

Morgenstern M.,Institute for Therapy and Health Research | Morgenstern M.,University of Kiel | Sargent J.D.,Norris Cotton Cancer Center | Sweeting H.,University of Glasgow | And 4 more authors.

Aims: To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Design: Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. Setting: State-funded schools. Participants: Baseline survey of 12464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Measurements: Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Findings: Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Conclusions: Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction. Source

Amato L.,Lazio Region | Davoli M.,Lazio Region | Vecchi S.,Lazio Region | Ali R.,Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology | And 6 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence

The Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group aims to produce, update, and disseminate systematic reviews on the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of problematic drug and alcohol use. The objective of the present paper was to summarize the main characteristics of the published systematic reviews in the field of drug and alcohol dependence, in terms of the topics covered, methods used to produce the reviews, and available evidence. By January 2010, the Group had published 52 reviews with 694 primary studies included out of 2059 studies considered for inclusion. Of these publications, 44% were published in 12 journals, including Drug and Alcohol Dependence (11%) with the highest number of publications, and 68% were conducted in North America. The majority of included studies (90%) were randomized controlled trials. Evaluating their methodological quality, we found that allocation concealment methods were not properly described in the majority of studies (18% adequate, 73% unclear, 9% inadequate). The percentage of interventions shown to be beneficial varied according to the substance considered: 42% for opioids, 37% for alcohol, 14% for psychostimulants, 7% for polydrugs, and 33% for prevention. Furthermore, 75% of the reviews provided specific information on further research needs. Cochrane reviews provide information on the most effective treatments, particularly in the area of opioid and alcohol dependence, and help clarify areas for further research. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Giannotta F.,Orebro University | Vigna-Taglianti F.,University of Turin | Vigna-Taglianti F.,Piedmont Center for Drug Addiction Epidemiology | Rosaria Galanti M.,Karolinska Institutet | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Adolescent Health

Purpose: To investigate factors mediating the effects of a European school-based intervention (Unplugged) based on a social influence approach to youths' substance use. Methods: Schools in seven European countries (n = 143, including 7,079 pupils) were randomly assigned to an experimental condition (Unplugged curriculum) or a control condition (usual health education). Data were collected before (pretest) and 3 months after the end of the program (posttest). Multilevel multiple mediation models were applied to the study of effect mediation separately for tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use. Analyses were conducted on the whole sample, and separately on baseline users and nonusers of each substance. Results: Compared with the control group, participants in the program endorsed less positive attitudes toward drugs; positive beliefs about cigarettes, alcohol, and cannabis; and the normative perception of peers using tobacco and cannabis. They also increased in knowledge about all substances and refusal skills toward tobacco. Decreased positive attitudes toward drugs, increase in refusal skills, and reappraisal of norms about peer using tobacco and cannabis appeared to mediate the effects of the program on the use of substances. However, mediating effects were generally weak and some of them were only marginally significant. Conclusions: This study lends some support to the notion that school-based programs based on a social influence model may prevent juvenile substance use through the modification of attitudes, refusal skills, and normative perceptions. © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved. Source

Brown C.H.,University of Miami | Sloboda Z.,JBS International | Faggiano F.,Avogadro University | Teasdale B.,Georgia State University | And 10 more authors.
Prevention Science

This paper presents new methods for synthesizing results from subgroup and moderation analyses across different randomized trials. We demonstrate that such a synthesis generally results in additional power to detect significant moderation findings above what one would find in a single trial. Three general methods for conducting synthesis analyses are discussed, with two methods, integrative data analysis and parallel analyses, sharing a large advantage over traditional methods available in meta-analysis. We present a broad class of analytic models to examine moderation effects across trials that can be used to assess their overall effect and explain sources of heterogeneity, and present ways to disentangle differences across trials due to individual differences, contextual level differences, intervention, and trial design. © 2011 Society for Prevention Research. Source

Castro Sanchez A.Y.,Hasselt University | Aerts M.,Hasselt University | Shkedy Z.,Hasselt University | Vickerman P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a clear threat for public health, with high prevalences especially in high risk groups such as injecting drug users. People with HIV infection who are also infected by HCV suffer from a more rapid progression to HCV-related liver disease and have an increased risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Quantifying the impact of HIV and HCV co-infection is therefore of great importance. We propose a new joint mathematical model accounting for co-infection with the two viruses in the context of injecting drug users (IDUs). Statistical concepts and methods are used to assess the model from a statistical perspective, in order to get further insights in: (i) the comparison and selection of optional model components, (ii) the unknown values of the numerous model parameters, (iii) the parameters to which the model is most 'sensitive' and (iv) the combinations or patterns of values in the high-dimensional parameter space which are most supported by the data. Data from a longitudinal study of heroin users in Italy are used to illustrate the application of the proposed joint model and its statistical assessment. The parameters associated with contact rates (sharing syringes) and the transmission rates per syringe-sharing event are shown to play a major role. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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