Hanewinkel R.,Institute for Therapy and Health Research IFT Nord |
Hanewinkel R.,University of Kiel |
Sargent J.D.,Dartmouth College |
Poelen E.A.P.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
And 12 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate whether the association between exposure to images of alcohol use in movies and binge drinking among adolescents is independent of cultural context. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study in 6 European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland) was conducted. A total of 16 551 pupils from 114 public schools with a mean (± SD) age of 13.4 (± 1.18) years participated. By using previously validated methods, exposure to alcohol use in movies was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 200422009). Lifetime binge drinking was the main outcome measure. RESULTS: Overall, 27% of the sample had consumed >5 drinks on at least 1 occasion in their life. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness, and frequency of drinking of peers, parents, and siblings, the adjusted β-coefficient for lifetime binge drinking in the entire sample was 0.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.1020.14; P < .001). The crude relationship between movie alcohol use exposure and lifetime binge drinking was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship was still significant in 5 of 6 countries. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the association is content specific, as there was no significant association between lifetime binge drinking and exposure to smoking in movies. CONCLUSIONS: The link between alcohol use in movies and adolescent binge drinking was robust and seems relatively unaffected by cultural contexts. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Amato L.,Lazio Region |
Davoli M.,Lazio Region |
Vecchi S.,Lazio Region |
Ali R.,Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology |
And 6 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011
The Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group aims to produce, update, and disseminate systematic reviews on the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of problematic drug and alcohol use. The objective of the present paper was to summarize the main characteristics of the published systematic reviews in the field of drug and alcohol dependence, in terms of the topics covered, methods used to produce the reviews, and available evidence. By January 2010, the Group had published 52 reviews with 694 primary studies included out of 2059 studies considered for inclusion. Of these publications, 44% were published in 12 journals, including Drug and Alcohol Dependence (11%) with the highest number of publications, and 68% were conducted in North America. The majority of included studies (90%) were randomized controlled trials. Evaluating their methodological quality, we found that allocation concealment methods were not properly described in the majority of studies (18% adequate, 73% unclear, 9% inadequate). The percentage of interventions shown to be beneficial varied according to the substance considered: 42% for opioids, 37% for alcohol, 14% for psychostimulants, 7% for polydrugs, and 33% for prevention. Furthermore, 75% of the reviews provided specific information on further research needs. Cochrane reviews provide information on the most effective treatments, particularly in the area of opioid and alcohol dependence, and help clarify areas for further research. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Giannotta F.,Örebro University |
Vigna-Taglianti F.,University of Turin |
Vigna-Taglianti F.,Piedmont Center for Drug Addiction Epidemiology |
Rosaria Galanti M.,Karolinska Institutet |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2014
Purpose: To investigate factors mediating the effects of a European school-based intervention (Unplugged) based on a social influence approach to youths' substance use. Methods: Schools in seven European countries (n = 143, including 7,079 pupils) were randomly assigned to an experimental condition (Unplugged curriculum) or a control condition (usual health education). Data were collected before (pretest) and 3 months after the end of the program (posttest). Multilevel multiple mediation models were applied to the study of effect mediation separately for tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use. Analyses were conducted on the whole sample, and separately on baseline users and nonusers of each substance. Results: Compared with the control group, participants in the program endorsed less positive attitudes toward drugs; positive beliefs about cigarettes, alcohol, and cannabis; and the normative perception of peers using tobacco and cannabis. They also increased in knowledge about all substances and refusal skills toward tobacco. Decreased positive attitudes toward drugs, increase in refusal skills, and reappraisal of norms about peer using tobacco and cannabis appeared to mediate the effects of the program on the use of substances. However, mediating effects were generally weak and some of them were only marginally significant. Conclusions: This study lends some support to the notion that school-based programs based on a social influence model may prevent juvenile substance use through the modification of attitudes, refusal skills, and normative perceptions. © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Social and Health Services, Latium Regional Health Service, Piedmont Center for Drug Addiction Epidemiology, Cagliari Public Health Trust ASL Cagliari and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Annals of general psychiatry | Year: 2016
We previously found a five cluster of psychological symptoms in heroin use disorder (HUD) patients: worthlessness-being trapped, somatic-symptoms, sensitivity-psychoticism, panic-anxiety, and violence-suicide. We demonstrated that this aggregation is independent of the chosen treatment, of intoxication status and of the presence of psychiatric problems.2314 Subjects, with alcohol, heroin or cocaine dependence were assigned to one of the five clusters. Differences between patients dependent on alcohol, heroin and cocaine in the frequency of the five clusters and in their severity were analysed. The association between the secondary abuse of alcohol and cocaine and the five clusters was also considered in the subsample of HUD patients.We confirmed a positive association of the somatic symptoms dimension with the condition of heroin versus cocaine dependence and of the sensitivity-psychoticism dimension with the condition of alcohol versus heroin dependence. Somatic symptoms and panic anxiety successfully discriminated between patients as being alcohol, heroin or cocaine dependents. Looking at the subsample of heroin dependents, no significant differences were observed.The available evidence coming from our results, taken as a whole, seems to support the extension of the psychopathological structure previously observed in opioid addicts to the population of alcohol and cocaine dependents.
Castro Sanchez A.Y.,Hasselt University |
Aerts M.,Hasselt University |
Shkedy Z.,Hasselt University |
Vickerman P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
And 5 more authors.
Epidemics | Year: 2013
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a clear threat for public health, with high prevalences especially in high risk groups such as injecting drug users. People with HIV infection who are also infected by HCV suffer from a more rapid progression to HCV-related liver disease and have an increased risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Quantifying the impact of HIV and HCV co-infection is therefore of great importance. We propose a new joint mathematical model accounting for co-infection with the two viruses in the context of injecting drug users (IDUs). Statistical concepts and methods are used to assess the model from a statistical perspective, in order to get further insights in: (i) the comparison and selection of optional model components, (ii) the unknown values of the numerous model parameters, (iii) the parameters to which the model is most 'sensitive' and (iv) the combinations or patterns of values in the high-dimensional parameter space which are most supported by the data. Data from a longitudinal study of heroin users in Italy are used to illustrate the application of the proposed joint model and its statistical assessment. The parameters associated with contact rates (sharing syringes) and the transmission rates per syringe-sharing event are shown to play a major role. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Morgenstern M.,Institute for Therapy and Health Research |
Morgenstern M.,University of Kiel |
Sargent J.D.,Norris Cotton Cancer Center |
Sweeting H.,University of Glasgow |
And 4 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2014
Aims: To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Design: Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. Setting: State-funded schools. Participants: Baseline survey of 12464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Measurements: Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Findings: Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Conclusions: Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Dal Molin A.,Avogadro University |
Allara E.,Avogadro University |
Montani D.,Avogadro University |
Milani S.,Biella Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Vascular Access | Year: 2014
Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of heparin flushing in the lock of central venous catheters. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of heparin versus normal saline or other solution in the flushing of central catheter among adult patients. No language restrictions were applied. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts in order to identify relevant publications. The same two reviewers retrieved and evaluated full texts. Parameter estimates regarding catheter occlusion were pooled using network meta-analysis with Bayesian hierarchical modeling. Results: We identified 462 references. Eight studies were included. There was no evidence that heparin was more effective than normal saline in reducing occlusions. It was unclear whether urokinase and lepirudin were more effective than heparin in reducing occlusions. Vitamin C solution does not appear to prolong catheter patency. Conclusions: There is no evidence of a different effectiveness between heparin flushing and normal saline or other solutions in reducing catheter occlusions. Due to the little and inconclusive evidence available in this field, further studies might be necessary.
Galanti M.R.,Karolinska Institutet |
Coppo A.,Avogadro University |
Jonsson E.,Karolinska Institutet |
Bremberg S.,Karolinska Institutet |
Faggiano F.,Avogadro University
Tobacco Control | Year: 2014
Objective To summarise the evidence on effectiveness of school anti-tobacco policies (exposure) in preventing tobacco use (outcome) among high school students. Data sources The search was conducted between 1 September and 30 November 2011 on six electronic databases with keywords: 'policy', 'ban', 'restriction' and 'environment' in combination with 'adolescent' or 'student', 'school' and 'smoking' in titles, abstracts or keywords. Restrictions were made to articles published in English. Study selection Studies were included if they targeted the relevant grades/age; reported at least one outcome measure of students' ever or current tobacco use; reported on the effects of exposure to policy separately from other interventions. Inclusion criteria were assessed independently by two of the coauthors. Of 2723 articles initially identified, 31 articles met the inclusion criteria (1.1%). Data extraction Independent multiple observers extracted the data following the GRADE system guidelines to classify the level of evidence in relation to the review objective. Data synthesis Studies were very heterogeneous in the definitions of exposure to school anti-tobacco policy and of tobacco use, adjustment for potential confounders and reporting of results, therefore summary quantitative measures of effect were not calculated. Qualitative summary statements were derived by reviewing the results reported in text and tables for distinct policy constructs. Evidence could be classified as low or very low, resting on cross-sectional studies with high risk of bias. Studies were rather consistent in indicating that comprehensive smoking bans, clear rules, strict policy enforcement, availability of education and prevention were associated with decreased smoking prevalence. Formally adopted and written policies, surveillance of students' behaviour and presence/severity of sanctions were not consistently associated to students' tobacco use. Conclusions The evidence concerning the effectiveness of a school policy alone in preventing youth tobacco use is weak and inconclusive. Experimental studies or observational studies with longitudinal design are warranted, employing clear definitions of policy components and careful control for confounding.
Caria M.P.,Karolinska Institutet |
Caria M.P.,Avogadro University |
Faggiano F.,Avogadro University |
Faggiano F.,Piedmont Center for Drug Addiction Epidemiology |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2011
Purpose: School-based substance abuse prevention programs are widespread but are rarely evaluated in Europe. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a new school-based prevention program against substance use on the frequency of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problem behaviors among European students. Methods: During the school year 20042005, a total of 7,079 students aged 1214 years from 143 schools in seven European countries participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control (65 schools, 3,532 students) or to a 12-session standardized program based on the comprehensive social influence model (78 schools, 3,547 students). Alcohol use and frequency of alcohol-related problem behaviors were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. The association between intervention and changes in alcohol-related outcomes was expressed as odds ratio (OR), estimated by multilevel regression model. Results: The preventive program was associated with a decreased risk of reporting alcohol-related problems (OR = .78, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = .63.98), although this reduction was not statistically significant in the subgroup of 743 current drinkers at baseline. The risk for alcohol consumption was not modified by exposure to the program (OR = .93, 95% CI = .791.09). In the intervention group, nondrinkers and occasional drinkers at baseline progressed toward frequent drinking less often than in the control group. Conclusions: School curricula based on the comprehensive social-influence model can delay progression to frequent drinking and reduce occurrence of alcohol-related behavioral problems in European students. These results, albeit moderate, have potentially useful implications at the population level. © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Corrado L.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
Carlomagno Y.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
Falasco L.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
Mellone S.,The Interdisciplinary Center |
And 6 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2011
Motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies composed of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Peripherin protein is as components of these inclusions and rare mutations in peripherin gene (PRPH) were identified in sporadic ALS cases. The aim of this study was to further define the spectrum of PRPH mutations in a cohort of 122 Italian ALS patients. We screened the coding sequence, the exon/intron boundaries, and the 5'-3' un-translated regions (UTRs) in 122 ALS patients. Eighteen sequence variations were detected. Seven variants were not identified in a panel of at least 245 matched controls, including 2 missense variations, namely p.R133P and p.D141Y, each identified in one heterozygous patient. p.R133P was newly identified whereas p.D141Y was previously described in one homozygous sporadic ALS patient. These 2 variants were predicted to have a deleterious effect on protein structure or function. This work contributes to determine the role of PRPH gene variants in ALS. Further studies are necessary to define the mechanisms through which the mutant peripherin could cause ALS phenotype. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.