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Bremner J.B.,University of Wollongong | Wu Z.,University of Wollongong | Wu Z.,Avipep Pty Ltd
Australian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

Concise synthetic routes to 2H-benzo[b]thieno[3,2-b][1,5]oxazocin-6(3H)- one, and the new benzo[b]thieno[3,2-b][1,5]oxazonin-7(2H)-one and 2H-benzo[b]thieno[3,2-b][1,5]oxazecin-8(3H)-one systems, have been developed based on intramolecular nucleophilic displacement in the key ring forming step. © 2014 CSIRO.


Li L.,Beckman Research Institute | Crow D.,Beckman Research Institute | Turatti F.,Avipep Pty Ltd. | Bading J.R.,Beckman Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2011

Optimal PET imaging of tumors with radiolabeled engineered antibodies requires, among other parameters, matching blood clearance and tumor uptake with the half-life of the engineered antibody. Although diabodies have favorable molecular sizes (50 kDa) for rapid blood clearance (t1/2 = 30-60 min) and are bivalent, thereby increasing tumor uptake, they exhibit substantial kidney uptake as their major route of clearance, which is especially evident when they are labeled with the PET isotope 64Cu (t1/2 = 12 h). To overcome this drawback, diabodies may be conjugated to PEG, a modification that increases the apparent molecular size of the diabody and reduces kidney uptake without adversely affecting tumor uptake or the tumor to blood ratio. We show here that site-specific attachment of monodispersed PEGn of increasing molecular size (n = 12, 24, and 48) can uniformly increase the apparent molecular size of the PEG-diabody conjugate, decrease kidney uptake, and increase tumor uptake, the latter due to the increased residence time of the conjugate in the blood. Since the monodispersed PEGs were preconjugated to the chelator DOTA, the conjugates were able to bind radiometals such as 111In and 64Cu that can be used for SPECT and PET imaging, respectively. To allow conjugation of the DOTA-PEG to the diabody, the DOTA-PEG incorporated a terminal cysteine conjugated to a vinyl sulfone moiety. In order to control the conjugation chemistry, we have engineered a surface thiolated diabody that incorporates two cysteines per monomer (four per diabody). The thiolated diabody was expressed and purified from bacterial fermentation and only needs to be reduced prior to conjugation to the DOTA-PEGn-Cys-VS. This novel imaging agent (a diabody with DOTA-PEG48-Cys-VS attached to introduced thiols) gave up to 80%ID/g of tumor uptake with a tumor to blood ratio (T/B) of 8 at 24 h when radiolabeled with 111In and 37.9% ID/g of tumor uptake (T/B = 8) at 44 h when radiolabeled with 64Cu in PET imaging in an animal model. Tumor uptake was significantly improved from the 50% ID/g at 24 h observed with diabodies that were pegylated on surface lysine residues. Importantly, there was no loss of immunoreactivity of the site-specific Cys-conjugated diabody to its antigen (TAG-72) compared to the parent, unconjugated diabody. We propose that thiolated diabodies conjugated to DOTAylated monodisperse PEGs have the potential for superior SPECT and PET imaging in a clinical setting. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Powers G.A.,Avipep Pty Ltd | Hudson P.J.,Avipep Pty Ltd. | Wheatcroft M.P.,Avipep Pty Ltd
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Multimeric antibody fragments, particularly dimers (diabodies), trimers (triabodies), and tetramers (tetrabodies) of single-chain Fv molecules (scFv), provide high avidity through multivalent binding to the target antigen. The combination of their smaller size and avid binding can provide desirable biological characteristics for tumor targeting applications in vivo; for example, diabodies can have greater tumor penetration and faster blood clearance rates compared to intact full-size antibodies (IgGs). The pharmacokinetic and biodistribution characteristics can further be optimized by the addition of specific thiolation sites for conjugation of PEG molecules to regulate molecular weight and reduce kidney uptake. Thiolation sites can also be used for precise loading of therapeutic payloads. This protocol describes our method for construction and bacterial production of soluble multimeric antibody scFv fragments, focusing on diabodies (scFv dimers). © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Li L.,Beckman Research Institute | Turatti F.,Avipep Pty. Ltd. | Crow D.,Beckman Research Institute | Bading J.R.,Beckman Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2010

Diabodies are noncovalent dimers of single-chain antibody fragments that retain the avidity of intact IgG but have more favorable blood clearance than intact IgG. Radiometals offer a wide range of half-lives and emissions for matching imaging and therapy requirements and provide facile labeling of chelate-antibody conjugates. However, because of their high retention and metabolism in the kidney, the use of radiometal-labeled diabodies can be problematic for both imaging and therapy. Methods: Having previously shown that111In-DOTA-polyethylene glycol (PEG)3400-anti-carcinoembryonic antigen diabody has less than half the kidney uptake and retention of non-PEGylated diabody and that the two have similarly high tumor uptake and retention, we synthesized a similar derivative for an antitumor-associated glycoprotein 72 diabody. We also reduced the molecular size of the polydispersed PEG3400 to monodispersed PEG27 and PEG12 (nominal masses of 1,321 and 617, respectively). We performed biodistributions of their DOTA conjugates radiolabeled with125I,111In, or64Cu in tumor-bearing athymic mice. Results: The addition of PEG3400 to the diabody reduced kidney uptake to a level (≈10 percentage injected dose/g) comparable to that obtained with radiometal-labeled intact IgG. The PEG27 and PEG12 diabody conjugates also demonstrated low kidney uptake without reduction of tumor uptake or tumor-to-blood ratios. When radiolabeled with64Cu, the DOTA-PEG12 and-PEG27 diabody conjugates gave highcontrast PET images of colon cancer xenografts in athymic mice. Conclusion: PEGylated diabodies may be a valuable platform for delivery of radionuclides and other agents to tumors. COPYRIGHT © 2010 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine, Inc.


Van Duijnhoven S.M.J.,HIGH-TECH | Rossin R.,HIGH-TECH | Rossin R.,Philips | Van Den Bosch S.M.,Philips | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2015

Radioimmunotherapy and nuclear imaging (immuno-PET/SPECT) of cancer with radiometal-labeled antibody fragments or peptides is hampered by low tumor-to-kidney ratios because of high renal radiometal retention. Therefore, we developed and evaluated a pretargeting strategy using click chemistry in vivo to reduce kidney uptake and avoid unwanted radiation toxicity. We focused on the bioorthogonal reaction between a trans-cyclooctene (TCO)-functionalized TAG72 targeting diabody, AVP04-07, and a low-molecular-weight radiolabeled tetrazine probe that was previously shown to have low kidney retention and relatively fast renal clearance. Methods: AVP04-07 diabodies were functionalized with TCO tags, and in vitro immunoreactivity toward bovine submaxillary mucin and tetrazine reactivity were assessed. Next, pretargeting biodistribution studies were performed in LS174T tumor-bearing mice with AVP04-07-TCO(n) (where n indicates the number of TCO groups per diabody) and radiolabeled tetrazine to optimize the TCO modification grade (0, 1.8, or 4.7 TCO groups per diabody) and the 177Lu-tetrazine dose (0.1, 1.0, or 10 Eq with respect to the diabody). Radiolabeled tetrazine was injected at 47 h after diabody injection, and mice were euthanized 3 h later. A pretargeting SPECT/CT study with 111Intetrazine was performed with the optimized conditions. Results: Immunoreactivity for native AVP04-07 was similar to that for TCO-functionalized AVP04-07, and the latter reacted efficiently with radiolabeled tetrazine in vitro. The combination of the pretargeting component AVP04-07 functionalized with 4.7 TCO groups and 1 Eq of 177Lu-tetrazine with respect to the diabody showed the most promising biodistribution. Specifically, high 177Lu-tetrazine tumor uptake (6.9 percentage injected dose/g) was observed with low renal retention, yielding a tumor-to-kidney ratio of 5.7. SPECT/CT imaging confirmed the predominant accumulation of radiolabeled tetrazine in the tumor and low nontumor retention. Conclusion: Pretargeting provides an alternative radioimmunotherapy and nuclear imaging strategy by overcoming the high renal retention of lowmolecular- weight radiometal tumor-homing agents through the separate administration of a tumor-homing agent and a radioactive probe with fast clearance. COPYRIGHT © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.


Patent
AVIPEP Pty Ltd | Date: 2010-12-23

The present invention provides an isolated protein comprising an immunoglobulin variable region comprising at least two cysteine residues positioned within framework region (FR) 2 and/or at least two cysteine residues positioned within framework region (FR3), wherein if at least two of the cysteine residues in FR2 and/or FR3 are not conjugated to a compound then an intra-framework disulphide bond is capable of forming between the cysteine residues. Preferably the protein comprises an immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (V_(H)) and an immunoglobulin light chain variable region (V_(L)), wherein at least one of the variable regions comprises the two cysteine residues. The present invention also provides conjugates of the protein and another compound.


PubMed | Eleven Biotherapeutics, Avipep Pty Ltd. and Viventia Bio Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Antibody drug conjugates (ADC), comprised of highly potent small molecule payloads chemically conjugated to a full-length antibody, represent a growing class of therapeutic agents. The targeting of cytotoxic payloads via the specificity and selectivity of the antibody has led to substantial clinical benefits. However, ADC potency can be altered by mechanisms of resistance such as overexpression of efflux pumps or anti-apoptotic proteins. DeBouganin is a de-immunized variant of bouganin, a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) that blocks protein synthesis, thereby leading to apoptosis. When conjugated to trastuzumab (T-deB), deBouganin was more potent than ado-trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) and unaffected by resistance mechanisms to which DM1 is susceptible. To further highlight the differentiating mechanism of action of deBouganin, HCC1419 and BT-474 tumor cells that survived T-DM1 or trastuzumab-MMAE (T-MMAE) treatment were treated with an anti-HER2 C6.5 diabody-deBouganin fusion protein or T-deB. C6.5 diabody-deBouganin and T-deB were potent against HCC1419 and BT-474 cells that were resistant to T-DM1 or T-MMAE killing. The resistant phenotype involved MDR pumps, Bcl-2 family members, and the presence of additional unknown pathways. Overall, the data suggest that deBouganin is effective against tumor cell resistance mechanisms selected in response to ADCs composed of anti-microtubule payloads.


PubMed | Avipep Pty Ltd
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2012

Multimeric antibody fragments, particularly dimers (diabodies), trimers (triabodies), and tetramers (tetrabodies) of single-chain Fv molecules (scFv), provide high avidity through multivalent binding to the target antigen. The combination of their smaller size and avid binding can provide desirable biological characteristics for tumor targeting applications in vivo; for example, diabodies can have greater tumor penetration and faster blood clearance rates compared to intact full-size antibodies (IgGs). The pharmacokinetic and biodistribution characteristics can further be optimized by the addition of specific thiolation sites for conjugation of PEG molecules to regulate molecular weight and reduce kidney uptake. Thiolation sites can also be used for precise loading of therapeutic payloads. This protocol describes our method for construction and bacterial production of soluble multimeric antibody scFv fragments, focusing on diabodies (scFv dimers).

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