Avinguda University

Reus, Spain

Avinguda University

Reus, Spain

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Del Bas J.M.,Avinguda University | Caimari A.,Avinguda University | Ceresi E.,University of the Balearic Islands | Arola-Arnal A.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Diet during pregnancy and lactation is a critical factor in relation to the health of dams and their offspring. Currently, control diets used in metabolic imprinting studies differ in composition and type, i.e. semi-purified diets (SD) or chow-based diets (ND). The aim of the present study was to determine whether two widely used control diets, a SD and a ND, that mainly differ in fat content (5·08 and 3·26%, respectively) and its sources (soyabean oil for the SD and cereals and fish for the ND), fibre (6 and 15%, respectively), and cholesterol (26 and 69 mg/kg diet, respectively) can influence the lipid metabolism of dams and their offspring. Wistar rats were fed either the SD or the ND during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, SD-fed dams presented severe hepatic steatosis and increased levels of circulating TAG, NEFA and insulin. Importantly, the offspring presented an altered plasma lipid profile. In contrast, the ND allowed for a normal gestation and lactation process, and did not affect the metabolism of offspring. In parallel, virgin rats fed the SD showed no metabolic alterations. A higher intake of SFA and MUFA and a lower consumption of PUFA observed in SD-fed dams during the lactation period could contribute to explaining the observed effects. In conclusion, two different control diets produced very different outcomes in the lipid metabolism of lactating rats and their offspring. The present results highlight the importance of the assessment of the metabolic state of dams when interpreting the results of metabolic programming studies. © The Authors 2015.


Garcia-Vallve S.,Rovira i Virgili University | Garcia-Vallve S.,Avinguda University | Guasch L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Tomas-Hernandez S.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) full agonists that have been widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the demonstrated beneficial effect of reducing glucose levels in the plasma, TZDs also induce several adverse effects. Consequently, the search for new compounds with potent antidiabetic effects but fewer undesired effects is an active field of research. Interestingly, the novel proposed mechanisms for the antidiabetic activity of PPARγ agonists, consisting of PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation inhibition, ligand and receptor mutual dynamics, and the presence of an alternate binding site, have recently changed the view regarding the optimal characteristics for the screening of novel PPARγ ligands. Furthermore, transcriptional genomics could bring essential information about the genome-wide effects of PPARγ ligands. Consequently, facing the new mechanistic scenario proposed for these compounds is essential for resolving the paradoxes among their agonistic function, antidiabetic activities, and side effects and should allow the rational development of better and safer PPARγ-mediated antidiabetic drugs. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Cereto-Massague A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Ojeda M.J.,Rovira i Virgili University | Valls C.,Rovira i Virgili University | Mulero M.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 4 more authors.
Methods | Year: 2015

Molecular fingerprints have been used for a long time now in drug discovery and virtual screening. Their ease of use (requiring little to no configuration) and the speed at which substructure and similarity searches can be performed with them - paired with a virtual screening performance similar to other more complex methods - is the reason for their popularity. However, there are many types of fingerprints, each representing a different aspect of the molecule, which can greatly affect search performance. This review focuses on commonly used fingerprint algorithms, their usage in virtual screening, and the software packages and online tools that provide these algorithms. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Guerrero L.,Rovira i Virgili University | Guerrero L.,ALPINA S.A | Castillo J.,Nutrafur SA | Quinones M.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Previous studies have demonstrated that certain flavonoids can have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, which plays a key role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. In the present study, 17 flavonoids belonging to five structural subtypes were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit ACE in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. The ACE inhibitory (ACEI) activity of these 17 flavonoids was determined by fluorimetric method at two concentrations (500 μM and 100 μM). Their inhibitory potencies ranged from 17 to 95% at 500 μM and from 0 to 57% at 100 μM. In both cases, the highest ACEI activity was obtained for luteolin. Following the determination of ACEI activity, the flavonoids with higher ACEI activity (i.e., ACEI >60% at 500 μM) were selected for further IC50 determination. The IC50 values for luteolin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, rhoifolin and apigenin K were 23, 43, 64, 178, 183 and 196 μM, respectively. Our results suggest that flavonoids are an excellent source of functional antihypertensive products. Furthermore, our structure-activity relationship studies show that the combination of sub-structures on the flavonoid skeleton that increase ACEI activity is made up of the following elements: (a) the catechol group in the B-ring, (b) the double bond between C2 and C3 at the C-ring, and (c) the cetone group in C4 at the C-ring. Protein-ligand docking studies are used to understand the molecular basis for these results. © 2012 Guerrero et al.


Del Bas J.M.,Avinguda University | Crescenti A.,Avinguda University | Arola-Arnal A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Oms-Oliu G.,University of Lleida | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2015

Objective: Procyanidins are polyphenolic bioactive compounds that exert beneficial effects against obesity and its related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supplementation with low doses of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) to rats during pre- and postnatal periods provides biological effects to their offspring in youth. Design: The metabolic programming effect of GSPE was evaluated in the 30-day-old male offspring of four groups of rats that were fed either a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and that were supplemented with either GSPE (25 mg kg-1 of body weight per day) or vehicle during pregnancy and lactation. Results: Significant increases in the adiposity index and in the weights of all the white adipose tissue depots studied (retroperitoneal, mesenteric, epididymal (EWAT) and inguinal) were observed in the offspring of rats that were fed a HFD and that were treated with GSPE (HFD-GSPE group) compared with the offspring of rats that were fed the same diet but that did not receive the procyanidins (HFD group). The HFD-GSPE animals also exhibited a higher number of cells in the EWAT, a sharp decrease in the circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and a moderate decrease in the plasma glycerol levels. The transcriptomic analysis performed in the EWAT showed 238 genes that were differentially expressed between the HFD and the HFD-GSPE animals, most of which were associated with the immune function and the inflammatory response, in addition to genes associated with adipose tissue remodeling and function, lipid and glucose homeostasis and the metabolism of methyl groups. Conclusion: The GSPE treatment in rats that were fed an HFD during pregnancy and lactation induced a clear metabolic programming effect in the offspring, increasing adiposity, decreasing the circulating levels of MCP-1 and changing the gene expression in the EWAT toward a better inflammatory profile. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Martinez-Fernandez L.,Rovira i Virgili University | Pons Z.,Rovira i Virgili University | Margalef M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Arola-Arnal A.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Physiological concentrations (1 μM) of 15 flavonoids were evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for their ability to affect endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. Flavonoid effects on eNOS transcription factor Krüpple like factor-2 (KLF-2) expression were also evaluated. All studied flavonoids appeared to be effective compounds for counteracting the oxidative stress-induced effects on vascular gene expression, indicating that flavonoids are an excellent source of functional endothelial regulator products. Notably, the more effective flavonoids for KLF-2 up-regulation resulted in the highest values for eNOS expression, showing that the increment of eNOS expression would take place through KLF-2 induction. Structure-activity relationship studies showed that the combinations of substructures on flavonoid skeleton that regulate eNOS expression are made up of the following elements: glycosylation and hydroxylation of C-ring, double bond C2C3 at C-ring, methoxylation and hydroxylation of B-ring, ketone group in C4 at C-ring and glycosylation in C7 of A-ring, while flavonoid features involved in the reduction of vasoconstrictor ET-1 expression are as follows: double bond C2C3 at C-ring glycosylation in C7 of A-ring and ketone group in C4 of C-ring. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, Avinguda University, U.S. National Institutes of Health and Montpellier University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2015

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) full agonists that have been widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the demonstrated beneficial effect of reducing glucose levels in the plasma, TZDs also induce several adverse effects. Consequently, the search for new compounds with potent antidiabetic effects but fewer undesired effects is an active field of research. Interestingly, the novel proposed mechanisms for the antidiabetic activity of PPAR agonists, consisting of PPAR Ser273 phosphorylation inhibition, ligand and receptor mutual dynamics, and the presence of an alternate binding site, have recently changed the view regarding the optimal characteristics for the screening of novel PPAR ligands. Furthermore, transcriptional genomics could bring essential information about the genome-wide effects of PPAR ligands. Consequently, facing the new mechanistic scenario proposed for these compounds is essential for resolving the paradoxes among their agonistic function, antidiabetic activities, and side effects and should allow the rational development of better and safer PPAR-mediated antidiabetic drugs.


PubMed | Rovira i Virgili University, Avinguda University and University of the Balearic Islands
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

Diet during pregnancy and lactation is a critical factor in relation to the health of dams and their offspring. Currently, control diets used in metabolic imprinting studies differ in composition and type, i.e. semi-purified diets (SD) or chow-based diets (ND). The aim of the present study was to determine whether two widely used control diets, a SD and a ND, that mainly differ in fat content (508 and 326%, respectively) and its sources (soyabean oil for the SD and cereals and fish for the ND), fibre (6 and 15%, respectively), and cholesterol (26 and 69mg/kg diet, respectively) can influence the lipid metabolism of dams and their offspring. Wistar rats were fed either the SD or the ND during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, SD-fed dams presented severe hepatic steatosis and increased levels of circulating TAG, NEFA and insulin. Importantly, the offspring presented an altered plasma lipid profile. In contrast, the ND allowed for a normal gestation and lactation process, and did not affect the metabolism of offspring. In parallel, virgin rats fed the SD showed no metabolic alterations. A higher intake of SFA and MUFA and a lower consumption of PUFA observed in SD-fed dams during the lactation period could contribute to explaining the observed effects. In conclusion, two different control diets produced very different outcomes in the lipid metabolism of lactating rats and their offspring. The present results highlight the importance of the assessment of the metabolic state of dams when interpreting the results of metabolic programming studies.


Llavines F.P.,Avinguda University
Catalan Journal of Communication and Cultural Studies | Year: 2013

There is great demand among consumers today for a wide range of tasty and convenient products but, given the ageing population and increases in health care costs, there is an even greater demand for healthier dietary choices. Changes in regulatory requirements have allowed greater use of health claims on food product labels that inform consumers of the health benefits of a certain food or food component. The growth of the functional food market has the potential to affect the health of modern day society. However, with advances in nutritional science and food technology, the consumer has become overwhelmed with confusing health claims and mixed marketing messages for foods. This article gives a general overview of consumer perceptions of functional food and health claims on food labels, reviews the relationship between food and the scientific evidence and opens a final discussion about market, health and communication premises. © 2013 Intellect Ltd Article.


Allue T.,Avinguda University
Catalan Journal of Communication and Cultural Studies | Year: 2013

This short professional note discusses how social networks are revolutionising the world of gastronomy and food. It discusses the role of online influencers as played out in some of the most popular gastronomy and food blogs in the Spanish-speaking world. © 2013 Intellect Ltd Miscellaneous.

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