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Szebeni G.J.,Avidin Ltd. | Szebeni G.J.,Synaptogenex Ltd. | Vizler C.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kitajka K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2017

One of the hallmarks of cancer-related inflammation is the recruitment of monocyte-macrophage lineage cells to the tumor microenvironment. These tumor infiltrating myeloid cells are educated by the tumor milieu, rich in cancer cells and stroma components, to exert functions such as promotion of tumor growth, immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and cancer cell dissemination. Our review highlights the ontogenetic diversity of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and describes their main phenotypic markers. We cover fundamental molecular players in the tumor microenvironment including extra- (CCL2, CSF-1, CXCL12, IL-4, IL-13, semaphorins, WNT5A, and WNT7B) and intracellular signals. We discuss how these factors converge on intracellular determinants (STAT3, STAT6, STAT1, NF-B, RORC1, and HIF-1α) of cell functions and drive the recruitment and polarization of TAMs. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) modulate macrophage polarization key miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-155, miR-125a, miR-511, and miR-223) are also discussed in the context of the inflammatory myeloid tumor compartment. Accumulating evidence suggests that high TAM infiltration correlates with disease progression and overall poor survival of cancer patients. Identification of molecular targets to develop new therapeutic interventions targeting these harmful tumor infiltrating myeloid cells is emerging nowadays. © 2017 Gabor J. Szebeni et al.


Farago N.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Feher L.Z.,Avidin Ltd. | Kitajka K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kitajka K.,Avidin Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2011

Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as -linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have cytotoxic action on glioma cells. Results: We evaluated the cytotoxic action of GLA, AA and DHA on glioma cells with specific reference to the expression of miRNAs. Relative expression of miRNAs were assessed by using high throughput nanocapillary real-time PCR. Most of the miRNA target genes that showed altered expression could be classified as apoptotic genes and were up-regulated by PUFA or temozolomide treatment, while similar treatments resulted in repression of the corresponding mRNAs, such as cox2, irs1, irs2, ccnd1, itgb3, bcl2, sirt1, tp53inp1 and k-ras. Conclusions: Our results highlight involvement of miRNAs in the induction of apoptosis in glioma cells by fatty acids and temozolomide. © 2011Faragá et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Puskas L.G.,Avidin Ltd | Man I.,Avidin Ltd | Szebeni G.,Avidin Ltd | Tiszlavicz L.,University of Szeged | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2016

We and others have recently shown cisplatin resistance-related protein 9 (CRR9)/Cleft Lip and Palate Transmembrane 1-Like (CLPTM1L) to affect survival and proliferation in lung and pancreatic tumor cells. Our research has indicated that CLPTM1L affects multiple survival signaling pathways in tumor cells under oncogenic, genotoxic, and microenvironmental stress. We have confirmed the association of CLPTM1L with pancreatic cancer by demonstrating overexpression of CLPTM1L in pancreatic tumors and poor survival in patients with high tumor expression of CLPTM1L. Predicting a transmembrane structure, we determined that CLPTM1L could be targeted at the plasma membrane. Herein, we describe the development of mAbs targeting CLPTM1L. Lead antibodies inhibited surface accumulation of CLPTM1L, Akt phosphorylation, anchorage-independent growth, and chemotherapeutic resistance in lung and pancreatic tumor cells. Gemcitabine promoted a physical interaction between CLPTM1L and p110α in pancreatic tumor cells, which was inhibited by anti- CLPTM1L. In vivo treatment with anti-CLPTM1L robustly inhibited the growth of both lung and pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts. The efficacy of anti-CLPTM1L correlated with specific epitopes representing important targets in human cancers, particularly those driven by KRas, for which effective targeted therapies have been elusive. This study is the first to report cell-surface exposure of the tumor survival protein CLPTM1L and inhibition of the function of surface CLPTM1L with novel, systematically developed inhibitory mAbs establishing proof of concept of clinically practical agents inhibiting this compelling new tumor survival target in cancer. © 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.


Barbai T.,Semmelweis University | Fejos Z.,Semmelweis University | Puskas L.G.,Avidin Ltd. | Timar J.,Semmelweis University | And 3 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

We have attempted to characterize the changes occurring on the host side during the progression of human melanoma. To investigate the role of tumor microenvironment, we set up such an animal model, which was able to isolate the host related factors playing central role in metastasis formation. One of these 'factors', CCL12, was consequently selected and its behavior was examined alongside its human homologue (CCL8). In our animal model, metastasis forming primary melanoma in the host exhibited increased level of CCL12 mRNA expression. In clinical samples, when examining the tumor and the host together, the cumulative (tumor and host) CCL8 expression was lower in the group in which human primary melanoma formed lung metastasis compared to non-metastatic primary tumors. We could not detect significant difference in CCL8 receptor (CCR1) expression between the two groups. Increased migration of the examined tumor cell lines was observed when CCL8 was applied as a chemoattractant. The tumor cells and their interactions can be influenced the expression of CCL8 by dermal fibroblasts, as a significant change in the metastatic microenvironment. Furthermore, we examined changes in miRNA profile resulted by CCL8 and miR146a appears to be a promising prognostic marker for following this process.


Molnar G.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Farago N.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kocsis A.K.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Rozsa M.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Concentrations of insulin in the brain are severalfold higher than blood plasma levels. Insulin in the brain regulates the metabolism, molecular composition, and cognitive performance of microcircuits and reduces food intake; cerebral insulin levels are altered in diabetes, aging, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Released by pancreatic β cells, insulin passes the blood- brain barrier, but sources of locally released insulin still remain unclear. We find that insulin is strongly expressed in GABAergic neurogliaform cells in the cerebral cortex of the rat detected by single-cell digital PCR. Focal application of glucose or glibenclamide to neurogliaform cells mimics the excitation suppressing effect of external insulin on local microcircuits via insulin receptors. Thus, neurogliaform cells might link GABAergic and insulinergic action in cortical microcircuits. © 2014 the authors.


Gyuris M.,Avidin Ltd | Gyuris M.,University of Szeged | Puskas L.G.,Avidin Ltd | Toth G.K.,University of Szeged | Kanizsai I.,Avidin Ltd
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2013

Pyrazole-based β-aminonitriles and β-amino-carbaldehydes as bifunctional building blocks are introduced in a facile copper(ii)-catalysed one-pot domino generation of multiple N-containing heterobi- and tricycles. This streamlined synthetic approach permits easy access to novel pyrazole-fused imidazo- and pyrimido[1,2-c]pyrimidinones and to pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone species with isolated yields up to 90%. The present study also reveals a unique amine-isocyanate coupling promotion via copper(ii)-based catalytic activation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Hackler Jr. L.,Avidin Ltd | Masuda T.,Wilmer Eye Institute | Oliver V.F.,Wilmer Eye Institute | Merbs S.L.,Wilmer Eye Institute | Zack D.J.,Wilmer Eye Institute
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a useful method to isolate specific cells or cell layers of interest from heterogeneous tissues, such as the retina. The collected cells can be used for DNA, RNA, or protein analysis. We have applied LCM technology to isolate cells from the outer nuclear, inner nuclear, and ganglion cell layers of the retina for mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression and epigenetic (DNA methylation) analysis. Here, we describe the methods we have employed for sample preparation, LCM-based isolation of retinal layers, RNA/DNA extraction, RNA quality check, microRNA analysis by quantitative PCR, and DNA methylation analysis by bisulfite sequencing. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


PubMed | Avidin Ltd. and University of Szeged
Type: | Journal: Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Microglial activation results in profound morphological, functional and gene expression changes that affect the pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of these cells. Although statins have beneficial effects on inflammation, they have not been thoroughly investigated for their ability to affect microglial functions. Therefore the effects of rosuvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in cardiovascular therapy, either alone or in combination with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were profiled in pure microglial cultures derived from the forebrains of 18-day-old rat embryos. To reveal the effects of rosuvastatin on a number of pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, we performed morphometric, functional and gene expression studies relating to cell adhesion and proliferation, phagocytosis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) and IL-10, respectively) production, and the expression of various inflammation-related genes, including those related to the above morphological parameters and cellular functions. We found that microglia could be an important therapeutic target of rosuvastatin. In unchallenged (control) microglia, rosuvastatin inhibited proliferation and cell adhesion, but promoted microspike formation and elevated the expression of certain anti-inflammatory genes (Cxcl1, Ccl5, Mbl2), while phagocytosis or pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production were unaffected. Moreover, rosuvastatin markedly inhibited microglial activation in LPS-challenged cells by affecting both their morphology and functions as it inhibited LPS-elicited phagocytosis and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, TNF-) production, concomitantly increasing the level of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Finally, rosuvastatin beneficially and differentially affected the expression of a number of inflammation-related genes in LPS-challenged cells by inhibiting numerous pro-inflammatory and stimulating several anti-inflammatory genes. Since the microglia could elicit pro-inflammatory responses leading to neurodegeneration, it is important to attenuate such mechanisms and promote anti-inflammatory properties, and develop prophylactic therapies. By beneficially regulating both pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial functions, rosuvastatin may be considered as a prophylactic agent in the prevention of inflammation-related neurological disorders.


PubMed | Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Avidin Ltd.
Type: Review | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

Since the observation of Virchow, it has long been known that the tumor microenvironment constitutes the soil for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and for the release of inflammatory mediators. Under certain circumstances, inflammation remains unresolved and promotes cancer development. Here, we review some of these indisputable experimental and clinical evidences of cancer related smouldering inflammation. The most common myeloid infiltrate in solid tumors is composed of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). These cells promote tumor growth by several mechanisms, including their inherent immunosuppressive activity, promotion of neoangiogenesis, mediation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and alteration of cellular metabolism. The pro-tumoral functions of TAMs and MDSCs are further enhanced by their cross-talk offering a myriad of potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets. We highlight these main pro-tumoral mechanisms of myeloid cells and give a general overview of their phenotypical and functional diversity, offering examples of possible therapeutic targets. Pharmacological targeting of inflammatory cells and molecular mediators may result in therapies improving patient condition and prognosis. Here, we review experimental and clinical findings on cancer-related inflammation with a major focus on creating an inventory of current small molecule-based therapeutic interventions targeting cancer-related inflammatory cells: TAMs and MDSCs.


PubMed | AVIDIN Ltd., University of Szeged and Medical University of Vienna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

Plants and plant extracts play a crucial role in the research into novel antineoplastic agents. Four sesquiterpene lactones, artecanin (1), 3-chloro-4,10-dihydroxy-1,2-epoxy-5,7H-guaia-11(13)-en-12,6-olide (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide 3-O-methyl ether (3) and 4,15-dihydro-3-dehydrozaluzanin C (4), were isolated from two traditionally used Asteraceae species (Onopordum acanthium and Artemisia asiatica). When tested for antiproliferative action on HL-60 leukemia cells, these compounds exhibited reasonable IC50 values in the range 3.6-13.5 M. Treatment with the tested compounds resulted in a cell cycle disturbance characterized by increases in the G1 and G2/M populations, while there was a decrease in the S phase. Additionally, 1-3 elicited increases in the hypodiploid (subG1) population. The compounds elicited concentration-dependent chromatin condensation and disruption of the membrane integrity, as revealed by Hoechst 33258-propidium staining. Treatment for 24 h resulted in significant increases in activity of caspases-3 and -9, indicating that the tested sesquiterpenes induced the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The proapoptotic properties of the sesquiterpene lactones were additionally demonstrated withannexin V staining. Compounds 1 and 2 increased the Bax/Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expressions of CDK1 and cyclin B2, as determined at the mRNA level by means of RT-PCR. These experimental results indicate that sesquiterpene lactones may be regarded as potential starting structures for the development of novel anticancer agents.

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