Aviation and Missile Research
Aviation and Missile Research
Kennedy J.,U.S. Army |
Carter J.,Aviation and Missile Research |
Carter M.,Modern Technology Solutions, Inc.
Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society, PHM | Year: 2015
As Department of Defense (DoD) budgets continue to decrease through automatic spending cuts, Army Commands are pressured to develop, implement and manage new ways to reduce spending. The high cost of operation and sustainment (O&S) associated with the helicopters required to support the US Army's global presence significantly increases this pressure. Reducing costs within O&S activities, while managing operational readiness is achieved through Cost Wise Readiness (CWR) initiatives. Goals and objectives are to increase efficiencies, thereby increasing the value of each budgeted dollar. Even as the budgetary environment becomes more challenging, the purpose of Army maintenance remains unchanged - to generate combat power. In support of continuing this capability, Army Aviation is leading the way with ongoing efforts to implement, measure and communicate efficiencies leading to benefits. The AMCOM Logistics Center (ALC) functions as the logistics component of the US Army's Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command (AMCOM) headquartered at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The ALC develops, acquires, fields and sustains logistics support for Army Aviation and Missile systems and associated support equipment to ensure weapon system readiness in any operation worldwide. The ALC, in support of Program Executive Offices, Project Managers, Army Depots, and partnering with industry are dedicated to provide real-time logistics support to the Soldier, Airman and Marine in training and combat. The ALC is dedicated to the development and implementation of CWR initiatives through the identification and pursuit of opportunities and investment in projects focused on reducing cost. Multiple Army offices have been instrumental in the development of technological capabilities in support of the CWR mission. One such high-tech capability includes the integration of systems which incorporate Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) into the management of logistics and airworthiness aspects of the Army's helicopter fleets. Managing costs within O&S activities is achievable through the remediation of maintenance enabled through CBM+ initiatives. © 2015, Prognostics and Health Management Society. All rights reserved.
Ortun B.,ONERA |
Potsdam M.,Aviation and Missile Research |
Yeo H.,Aviation and Missile Research |
Van Truong K.,ONERA
Journal of the American Helicopter Society | Year: 2017
This work exploits the ONERA 7A rotor wind tunnel test for comparison with concurrent simulations at the U.S. Army and ONERA. Rotor airloads and structural loads are predicted by coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with rotorcraft comprehensive analysis (CA). Two test points are examined: A high-speed point and a high-Thrust point featuring dynamic stall. The contributions of experimental data processing and wind tunnel test stand to improved agreement are shown. Comparisons are shown for airloads, structural loads, surface pressures, rotor controls, and power. The use of state-of-Theart CFD/CA coupled tools provides dramatic improvements in agreement with experiment, compared to previous work. The Helios/RCAS coupling used by the U.S. Army has been validated on the 7A rotor, adding to prior published validations on the UH-60A and HART-II rotors. The elsA/HOST (Helicopter Overall Simulation Tool) coupling used by ONERA has had its latest developments validated as well. © 2017 AHS International.
Wong T.-C.,Aviation and Missile Research
AIAA SciTech Forum - 55th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting | Year: 2017
Computational Fluid Dynamics validation of the S-76 and Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) model-scaled rotors in hover was performed using the HPCMP CREATE™-AV Helios software suite. Steady and time-accurate simulations were performed for a range of collective angles for two blade tip Mach numbers. Effects of blade grid sensitivity on hover performance of the S-76 rotor were performed and compared against available test data. The same gridding strategy was applied to the PSP rotor and hover performance was computed and analyzed. Several best practices of grid requirements and numerical options to achieve reasonable turnaround time in an engineering environment are presented. © 2017, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved.
News Article | November 22, 2016
A new, green process developed by a University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) professor for producing the carbon fiber that forms ablative rocket nozzles and heat shields has been awarded a patent. ‘This is a green process, so it is environmentally clean,’ said Dr William Kaukler, an associate research professor at UAH’s Rotorcraft Systems Engineering and Simulation Center and a NASA contractor for 35 years. ‘We recycle all the byproducts.’ Dr Kaukler developed the new ionic process at UAH’s Reliability and Failure Analysis Laboratory with funding from the U.S. Army’s Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC). ‘Other people know about using ionic processes to make fibers but they are not making carbon fibers with them,’ Dr Kaukler said. To form a solid fuel rocket nozzle, layers of carbon fiber fabric made from carbonized rayon are coated with pitch and wound around a mandrel, and then heat-treated to convert the pitch to solid carbon. The resulting nozzle will be a carbon fiber reinforced-carbon composite. A single large solid rocket motor like that used for shuttle boosters can use up to 35 tons of fiber. The rocket nozzles of Army missiles are made from phenolic resin and this same carbon fiber. ‘This carbon fiber is not the same fiber that you’d go out and make aircraft or car parts from,’ said Dr Kaukler. ‘This is the only way to make the carbon fiber that is suitable for rocket nozzles, is to start with cellulosic fiber.’ The more common carbon fiber used in structural applications is made from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and, while stronger, its thermal conductivity is too high. ‘That’s why you have to make the fiber out of cellulose, because it has the lowest rate of thermal conductivity of any fiber,’ Dr Kaukler suggested. The low conductivity keeps the propellant’s heat in for more propulsion efficiency and it prevents the nozzle from burning away too quickly in flight, with disastrous consequences. ‘Scaling up the process to manufacturing dimensions could aid NASA as it moves forward with solid rocket motors in its next-generation Space Launch System, and it could prove useful for heat shields used in re-entry to Earth’s atmosphere or on planetary probes designed for landing, he added. This story is reprinted from material from the University of Alabama in Huntsville, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.
News Article | November 7, 2016
A new, green process developed by a University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) professor for producing the carbon fiber that forms ablative rocket nozzles and heat shields has been awarded a patent. The new process could be of interest to NASA, which has a dwindling stockpile of cellulose rayon fiber that dates back to the late 1990s. That's when manufacturing ceased because the old process used acids and caustics that generated hazardous materials as byproducts. "This is a green process, so it is environmentally clean," says Dr. William Kaukler, an associate research professor at UAH's Rotorcraft Systems Engineering and Simulation Center and a NASA contractor for 35 years. "We recycle all the byproducts." Dr. Kaukler developed the new ionic process with funding from the U.S. Army's Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC). "Other people know about using ionic processes to make fibers but they are not making carbon fibers with them," Dr. Kaukler says. "The trick was to make the properties of this fiber match the properties of the North American Rayon Corp. (NARC) fiber." NARC ceased rayon production in the U.S. after it was unable financially to comply with Environmental Protection Agency regulations for the hazardous wastes created. To form a solid fuel rocket nozzle, layers of carbon fiber fabric made from carbonized rayon are coated with pitch and wound around a mandrel, and then heat-treated to convert the pitch to solid carbon. The resulting nozzle will be a carbon fiber reinforced-carbon composite. A single large solid rocket motor like that used for shuttle boosters can use up to 35 tons of fiber. The rocket nozzles of Army missiles are made from phenolic resin and this same carbon fiber. "This carbon fiber is not the same fiber that you'd go out and make aircraft or car parts from," says Dr. Kaukler. "This is the only way to make the carbon fiber that is suitable for rocket nozzles, is to start with cellulosic fiber." The more common carbon fiber used in structural applications is made from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and, while stronger, its thermal conductivity is too high. Heat created from the rocket's burning fuel slowly burns away the interior of the nozzle in flight. "That's why you have to make the fiber out of cellulose, because it has the lowest rate of thermal conductivity of any fiber," Dr. Kaukler says. The low conductivity keeps the propellant's heat in for more propulsion efficiency and it prevents the nozzle from burning away too quickly in flight, with disastrous consequences. Scaling up the process to manufacturing dimensions could aid NASA as it moves forward with solid rocket motors in its next-generation Space Launch System, and it could prove useful for heat shields used in re-entry to Earth's atmosphere or on planetary probes designed for landing, Dr. Kaukler says. "It would be useful for any aero-entry onto a planet."
News Article | November 9, 2015
The U.S. military is where many new technologies get their start. So much of what we now see as standard tech was once being invented in a military lab. Continuing that tradition, a team of Army scientists has created a new solar cell that could mark a major breakthrough. The researchers have patented a new type of solar cell that is less expensive to manufacture, stronger and more robust than current solar cell technology. The main difference between this solar cell and those in existing solar panels is their size -- the new solar cell is approximately 1,000 times thinner. The thin-film cell consists of layers of silver and gold between the semiconductor layers, but the combined thickness is still only a few hundred nanometers thick, compared to a piece of paper which is 100,000 nanometers thick. The cell also overcomes some of the major problems with current solar tech like wear out or damage from high heat that comes from the absorption of great amounts of ultraviolet and infrared radiation that can't actually be turned into electricity due to a narrow band gap (the wavelength of light that can effectively be used to generate electricity). The addition of the silver and gold layers widens that bandgap meaning that the new solar cells can absorb and convert more of that UV and infrared radiation into electricity, which not only makes the technology more efficient, but also makes it much stronger and resilient. The solar cells can also be tuned to reflect the excess radiation if needed. The Army says that the geometry of the solar cells allows them to absorb the same rate of sunlight at any angle, which means that they don't need sophisticated sun tracking systems to generate the maximum amount of energy. "Low-cost, compact, flexible and efficient solar cells are destined to impact all sorts of Department of Defense applications, as lightweight solar panels will eventually power all kinds of equipment, particularly in remote, inaccessible areas," said Dr. Michael Scalora, a research physicist at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center. The technology is just in the beginning stages, but the researchers see applications far beyond the military when it's ready.
News Article | February 15, 2017
The Army’s PEO Aviation Utility Helicopters Project Office; the Aviation and Missile Command; and the Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) teamed with principal industry partner Redstone Defense Systems (RDS) to develop the UH-60V aircraft. RDS, a joint venture between Yulista Aviation, Inc. and Science and Engineering Services, is currently modifying the first 3 UH-60V aircraft and hosted a First Flight ceremony for Engineering Development Model (EDM) 1. RDS updated the existing UH-60L analog architecture to a digital infrastructure enabling the aircraft to have a similar Pilot-Vehicle Interface (PVI) and interoperability to the UH-60M. RDS provided bussed avionics and block upgrade functionality that meets critical international flight requirements as well as enhanced aircrew mission situational awareness, decreased pilot workload and increased mission safety. The First Flight Ceremony was held at the Yulista M4 Hangar in Meridianville, AL on January 19, 2017. The First Flight Ceremony date was set two years prior and is a major milestone for the program. Within the next couple of weeks, the aircraft will go through final maintenance actions and acceptance test procedures prior to being handed off to the Aviation Flight Test Directorate (AFTD). The UH-60V Program is just one of the many innovative and enhanced solutions serving the warfighter performed by RDS and Yulista. RDS is the prime contractor for the AMRDEC Prototype Integration Facility (PIF), system integrator for the UH-60V. Yulista Aviation is an Alaskan Native Owned Small Business headquartered in Huntsville, AL. For more information about RDS and Yulista, visit http://www.yulistaaviation.com.
News Article | July 7, 2015
A team of researchers from the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center at the Redstone Arsenal in Alabama have developed a new photovoltaic solar cell. It converts light energy into electric energy, and is both smaller and cheaper than the options that are currently available. Since current solar panels use silicon construction, they tend not to utilize the maximum power from the sun. That's because silicon's band gap – the wavelength of light that is absorbed and converted into electricity – is extremely narrow compared to the sun's spectrum beaming down. This means the panels are also susceptible to wear, heat damage and stress caused by the ultraviolet and infrared light shining down. This new "breakthrough" solar panel created by the Army has silver and gold between the semiconductor layers for a thickness of a few hundred nanometers that allows direct control of energy absorption for energy conversion — making the solar cells work more efficiently. This cutting-edge design has resulted in smaller photovoltaic solar cells that are 1,000 times thinner. They are also more cost effective, and due to the cell's geometry, the sunlight absorption rate is not affected by the angle between the sun and the cell. Because the solar panels can absorb and convert the same amount of energy no matter the angle, there is no need for expensive sun-tracking stands. "Low-cost, compact, flexible and efficient solar cells are destined to impact all sorts of Department of Defense applications, as lightweight solar panels will eventually power all kinds of equipment, particularly in remote, inaccessible areas," said Dr. Michael Scalora, solar cell co-creator and research physicist at the U.S. Army AMRDEC. "The key to the development of efficient, compact solar cells are advances in nanotechnology, nano-fabrication techniques and thin-film production." The Army has received a patent for their new solar cells, but the technology is still in its early stages with plans for future research. Be sure to follow Tech Times on Twitter and visit our Facebook page.
Yeo H.,NASA |
Yeo H.,U.S. Army |
Yeo H.,Aviation and Missile Research |
Journal of Aircraft | Year: 2015
Maximum rotor lift capability is investigated using wind-tunnel test data of McHugh (modified 1/10-scale CH-47B rotor) and a full-scale UH-60A rotor. Rotor performance calculations with the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II are compared with the wind-tunnel test data. The analysis of the McHugh rotor with the Reynolds-number-corrected airfoil table shows good correlation with the measurements for μ = 0.1 to 0.5 and is able to predict the maximum rotor lift reasonably well, especially at 0.2 ≤ μ ≤ 0.4. The analysis is also able to predict the maximum lift of the full-scale UH-60A rotor within about 3.5% at μ = 0 .24 and 0.3. Calculations with dynamic stall models, in general, show only a small influence on the rotor performance and are not necessary to predict maximum lift. Airfoils have an important role in defining the maximum lift capability of the rotor. The VR-12 airfoil, which has stall characteristics superior to the baseline V23010 airfoil, substantially improves the maximum lift capability of the McHugh rotor, showing the potential to improve the behavior of a rotor by improving the airfoil's static stall characteristics.
Stephenson J.H.,Aviation and Missile Research |
Annual Forum Proceedings - AHS International | Year: 2015
Blade-vortex interaction noise measurements are analyzed for an AS350B helicopter operated at 7000 ft elevation above sea level. Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise from four, 6 degree descent conditions are investigated with descents flown at 80 knot true and indicated airspeed, as well as 4400 and 391S pound take-off weights. BVI noise is extracted from the acquired acoustic signals by way of a previously developed time-frequency analysis technique. The BVI extraction technique is shown to provide a better localization of BVI noise, compared to the standard Fourier transform integration method. Using this technique, it was discovered that large changes in BVI noise amplitude occurred due to changes in vehicle gross weight. Changes in BVI noise amplitude were too large to be due solely to changes in the vortex strength caused by varying vehicle weight. Instead, it is suggested that vehicle weight modifies the tip-path-plane angle of attack, as well as induced inflow, resulting in large variations of BVI noise. It was also shown that defining flight conditions by true airspeed, rather than indicated airspeed, provides more consistent BVI noise signals.