Brussels, Belgium
Brussels, Belgium

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Welby S.,Coordination Center for Veterinary Diagnostics | Van Den Berg T.,Avian Virology and Immunology | Marche S.,Avian Virology and Immunology | Houdart P.,Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain | And 2 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

This study was aimed at redesigning the Belgian active surveillance program for domestic birds in professional poultry holdings based on a risk analysis approach. A stochastic quantitative analysis, combining all data sources, was run to obtain sensitivity estimates for the detection of an infected bird in the different risk groups identified. An optimal number of holdings for each risk group was then estimated on the basis of the different sensitivities obtained. This study proved to be a useful tool for decision makers, providing insight on how to reallocate the total amount of samples to be taken in the coming year(s) in Belgium, thus optimizing the field resources and improving efficiency of disease surveillance such as required by the international standards. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


Ferreira H.L.,Avian Virology and Immunology | Lambrecht B.,Avian Virology and Immunology | Van Borm S.,Avian Virology and Immunology | Torrieri-Dramard L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 6 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2010

H5N1 avian influenza virus has caused widespread infection in poultry and wild birds, and has the potential to emerge as a pandemic threat to humans. The hemagglutinin (HA) is a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus envelope. Understanding its antigenic structure is essential for designing novel vaccines that can inhibit virus infection. The aim of this study was to map the amino acid substitutions that resulted in resistance to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the highly pathogenic A/crested eagle/Belgium/01/2004 (H5N1), a clade 1 virus. Two hybridomas specific to H5N1 clade 1 viruses were selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralization test, and immunofluorescence assay. Escape mutant populations resisting neutralization by those MAbs (8C5 and 5A1) were then selected, and sequencing of these mutants allowed the prediction of the HA protein structure by molecular homology. We could detect an amino acid change in our escape mutants at position K189E corresponding to antigenic site 2 of H5 HA1 and site B of H3 HA1. Interestingly, 336 out of 350 available HA sequences from H5N1 clade 1 and clade 2.3 viruses had Lys (K) at position 189 in the HA1, whereas HA sequences analyzed from clade 2.1 and 2.2 viruses had Arg (R). This residue also interacts with the receptor-binding site, and it is thus important for the evolution of H5N1 viruses. An additional substitution K29E in HA2 subunit was also observed and identified with the use of NetChop software as a loss of a proteasomal cleavage site, which seems to be an advantage for H5N1 viruses. © 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.


PubMed | Avian Virology and Immunology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Avian diseases | Year: 2010

H5N1 avian influenza virus has caused widespread infection in poultry and wild birds, and has the potential to emerge as a pandemic threat to humans. The hemagglutinin (HA) is a glycoprotein on the surface of the virus envelope. Understanding its antigenic structure is essential for designing novel vaccines that can inhibit virus infection. The aim of this study was to map the amino acid substitutions that resulted in resistance to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the highly pathogenic A/crested eagle/Belgium/01/2004 (H5N1), a clade 1 virus. Two hybridomas specific to H5N1 clade 1 viruses were selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralization test, and immunofluorescence assay. Escape mutant populations resisting neutralization by those MAbs (8C5 and 5A1) were then selected, and sequencing of these mutants allowed the prediction of the HA protein structure by molecular homology. We could detect an amino acid change in our escape mutants at position K189E corresponding to antigenic site 2 of H5 HA1 and site B of H3 HA1. Interestingly, 336 out of 350 available HA sequences from H5N1 clade 1 and clade 2.3 viruses had Lys (K) at position 189 in the HA1, whereas HA sequences analyzed from dade 2.1 and 2.2 viruses had Arg (R). This residue also interacts with the receptor-binding site, and it is thus important for the evolution of H5N1 viruses. An additional substitution K29E in HA2 subunit was also observed and identified with the use of NetChop software as a loss of a proteasomal cleavage site, which seems to be an advantage for H5N1 viruses.

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