Sharma H.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Agarwal M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
Goswami M.,DUVASU |
Roy S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Veterinary World | Year: 2013
Aparamount and alluring sphere of research, now-a-days, is food analysis, because of the breakneck augmentation of food enterprise and highly hightened maneuverability of today's populations. The management of food quality is very indispensable both for consumer safeguard as well as the food corporations. The biosensors' application in the field of food analysis is quite propitious for the revealing of food borne pathogens. Biosensor, an analytical device, transforms a biological response into an electrical signal. Bioreceptors and transducers are the two main components of a biosensor. Bioreceptor or biorecognition element is the one which leads to the recognition of target analyte and a transducer, for the conversion of recognized event into a measurable electrical signal. The development of biosensors improved the sensitivity and selectivity of detection techniques for food borne pathogens and is rapid, reliable, effective and highly suitable when used in in situ analysis. Since the security in the food supply becomes crucial because of increased perception among consumers and vying nature of food industries, the necessity for expeditious, low volume and sensitive biosensor devices has productively increased. Nevertheless, till date, a very few biosensor systems are available commercially such as Biacore, SpreetaTM, Reichert SR 7000, Analyte 2000, RAPTOR etc. Since, there is ever growing concern regarding safe food and water supply, it is very obvious that the demand for rapid detecting biosensors will also be increasing at par. © The authors.
Andery D.A.,Avian Diseases Laboratory |
Ferreira Junior F.C.,Avian Diseases Laboratory |
de Araujo A.V.,Avian Diseases Laboratory |
Vilela D.A.R.,Instituto Brasileiro Of Meio Ambiente E Recursos Naturais Renovaveis |
And 6 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia Avicola | Year: 2013
Falconiformes (n=82), Strigiformes (n=84) and Cathartiformes (n=14) at a triage center (CETAS-Belo Horizonte, IBAMA, Brazil) were examined between 2008 and 2010. No bird was reactive at hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) for antibodies against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg). Two Caracara plancus (2/68) had HI titers (16-32) against Newcastle disease virus. No Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was detected in the liver (PCR; n=95). Blood smears (Giemsa; n=89) and spleen fragments (PCR; n=82) were 13.5% and 8.5% positive, respectively, for Haemoproteus only. Necropsy of Cathartiformes (n=10), Falconiformes (n=42) and Strigiformes (n=57) showed that trauma injuries were the main cause (63.3%) of admission and death, being fractures (38.5%) of the thoracic limbs (57.1%) the most frequent. Nematode (12.8%), cestode (1.8%), trematode (0.9%), and acanthocephalan (2.7%) parasite infections were relevant. Mites (Acari) were the most frequent (17.4%) external parasites, particularly Ornithonyssus sylviarum in Asio clamator and Amblyomma cajennense in Tyto alba. Chewing lice (10.1%) and Pseudolynchia spp. (9.2%) were also found. Histomonas spp. (6.4%) was found in the ceca of Bubo virginianus, Athene cunicularia, Tyto alba, and Asio clamator, but not in Falconiformes or Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. (oral cavity, pharynx and upper esophagus; 9.1%) was detected in Falconiformes and Strigiformes, but not in Cathartiformes. Trichomonas spp. were found in A. cunicularia, Asio clamator, Glaucidium brasilianum and Tyto alba (Strigiformes), and in Rupornis magnirostris, Milvago chimachima, Falco femoralis, Falco sparverius and Caracara plancus (Falconiformes). Coccidia (9.1%) (Sarcocystis spp., 6.4%) and mycosis were observed in most Tyto alba (70%). The evaluated Orders may not pose risks for commercial poultry production. Habitat loss and urban adaptation may be increasingly affecting raptors.
PubMed | Avian Diseases Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians | Year: 2012
Ninety-five (95) captive tinamids (Aves, Tinamiformes) of species Crypturellus obsoletus (brown tinamou), Crypturellus parvirostris (small-billed tinamou), Crypturellus tataupa (Tataupa tinamou), Crypturellus undulatus (undulated tinamou), Rhynchotus rufescens (red-winged tinamou), and Tinamus solitarius (solitary tinamou) were evaluated for diseases of mandatory control in the Brazilian Poultry Health Program (PNSA). Antibodies were detected by serum agglutination test (SAT) in 4 birds for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and in 27 birds for Salmonella Pullorum (SP) and Salmonella Gallinarum (SG). However, by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), sera were negative to MG and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). Bacteriology was negative for SP and SG. No antibody was detected by HI to avian paramyxovirus type 1. However, antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were detected in 9.4% (9/95) by ELISA. Fecal parasitology and necropsy revealed Capillaria spp. in 44.2% (42/95), Eimeria rhynchoti in 42.1% (40/95), Strongyloides spp. in 100% (20/20), Ascaridia spp., and unknown sporozoa in small-billed tinamou. Ectoparasites were detected in 42.1% (40/95) by inspection, and collected for identification. The louse Strongylocotes lipogonus (Insecta: Phthiraptera) was found on all Rhynchotus rufescens. An additional four lice species were found on 14 individuals. Traumatic lesions included four individual R. rufescens (4/40, 10%) with rhinotheca fracture, one with mandible fracture and three with posttraumatic ocular lesions (3/40, 7.5%). One C. parvirostris had phalangeal loss, another had tibiotarsal joint ankylosis and another had an open wound on the foot. Results suggest that major poultry infections/ diseases may not be relevant in tinamids, and that this group of birds, as maintained within distances for biosecurity purposes, may not represent a risk to commercial poultry. Ecto- and endoparasites were common, disseminated, and varied; regular monitoring of flocks is recommended for best performance.
PubMed | Avian Diseases Laboratory
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians | Year: 2011
An outbreak of coccidiosis by Isospora icterus (I. icterus, Upton & Whitaker, 2000) in captive Campo Troupial (Icterus jamacaii) (Gmelin, 1788) at the Wild Animals Triage Center (IBAMA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) is described. Clinical history and the necropsy findings documented diarrhea with diffuse necrotic enteritis. Sporulated oocysts (n = 100) had a bilayered wall, were subspherical, and measured 30.1 (27.5-32.5) microm in length and 28.5 (26.2-30.0) microm in width. A polar body but no micropyle was present and the length/width ratio was 1.1 (1.00-1.2). Each oocyst contained two ellipsoidal sporocysts measuring 17.6 (15.0-20.0) microm in length and 12.9 (12.5-15.0) microm in width, with a length/width ratio of 1.4 (1.2-1.5), and with Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies. Each sporocyst contained four sporozoites with granular sporocyst residuum. Oocysts were compatible with those from I. icterus, previously described in Campo Troupial.