Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina

Kyzyl, Russia

Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina

Kyzyl, Russia
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Adamian N.Yu.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Arutiunian R.S.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Karapetian M.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Influence of the vault on the impulse activity of respiration center neurons in medulla oblongata and respiration was studied in the norm and during hypoxia. Hypoxia stages served as a test model for ensuing vault effect summation. In normoxia, electrical irritation of the vault had largely an activating effect. Moderate p02 reduction with rising to the altitudes of 4000-5000 m activated pulsation of the respiratory neurons; influence of vault irritation was less evident than in normoxia even though it prevailed over inhibition. The respiratory neurons activity declined conspicuously at the peak altitude of 7500-8000 m and critical hypoxia; it was then that the facilitatory effect of vault irritation was especially strong. On "descent" to normal atmospheric pressure the spontaneous rhythmic activity of neurons and reaction to irritation returned gradually to baseline values. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Yasnetsov V.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Pravdivtsev V.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Motin V.G.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Karsanova S.K.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Ivanov Yu.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

The microelectrode technique and microiontophoresis of physiologically active substances in experiments with cats immobilized with the muscle relaxants made it clear that different classical neuromediators (acetylcholine, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and others), as well as regulatory peptides (enkephalins, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), vasoactive interstitial peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SS) and others) can exert a direct effect on the majority (61 to 100 %) of neurons in the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN). The inhibiting effect of enkephalins, VIP and SS on the neurons impulse activity remained essentially unchanged by L-glutamate. Also, enkephalins, vTP and SS were found to amplify the inhibiting action of GABA and glycine. Consequently, these substances can fulfill the role of SVN neuromediators and/or neuromodulators. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Vishnevsky A.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Dzhantaeva G.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Zhaparalieva Ch.O.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Oxidative and functional effects of o-iipoic acid (a-LA) were studied in the course of 45-day adaptation to high altitudes (3200 m in the Central Tien Shan, June - August). Comparison of a-LA with mildronate stated similarity of their antioxidant and membrane effects on the third (stable) phase of adaptation (day 45), as both substances demonstrated a distinct lyso- PL-limiting effect and did not change dramatically concentration of diene conjugates (primary products of lipid peroxidation) in brain tissue. a-LA surpassed mildronate in the rate of the compensating effect in respect of behavior disorders and anxiety in rats. Besides, the substances contributed equally to physical performance increment by the end of adaptation. The positive effect of a-LA on the functional characteristics was hand in hand with minimization of the consequences of oxidative stress. These experimental data imply that a-LA can be effective in controlling the long process of adaptation to high altitude conditions. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Nazarov N.M.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Sinyak Yu.E.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Efremenko E.N.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Stepanov N.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Malyukh E.Yu.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

The stimulating effect of light-isotope water on microbial growth was demonstrated in bacterial culture Pseudomonas esterophilus. Nutrient medium was prepared of mineral salts and ethyl acetate as a source of carbon dissolved in lightisotope water with ppm 35 and 70; the control medium contained same components dissolved in distilled water. The investigation showed an increase in the number of bacterial cells in the exponential stage of growth in static culture in light-isotope water as compared with the control. Specifically, accretion made up 87.3 and 35.2% in light-isotope water with ppm 35 and 70, respectively. In an hour, the number of cell divisions increased by 6.7% and3.3 %, respectively. Therefore, light-isotope water stimulates the metabolic activity and, consequently, growth of bacterial cells. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Bukhtiyarov I.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Chistov S.D.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Ponomarenko K.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Rybachenko T.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Binocular video nystagmography was employed to study the human vestibulo-ocular reaction to the double rotation test used in medical flight certification to assess vestibulo-vegetative stability. Purpose of the investigation was to establish an interrelation between parameters of the nystagmus reaction to rotation and severity of motion sickness (MS). The total of 135 medically certified flying men aged 23 to 47 years were subject to testing by intermittent Coriolis accelerations accumulation according to Bryanov's procedure. The vestibulo-vegetative reaction was assessed by the criteria of vegetative reactivity and protective movements. The closed-mask binocular test was performed during and after rotation. It was shown that interocular nystagmus asymmetry is linked directly with MS severity. Asymmetry coefficients are proposed for unidirectional nystagmus during inclinations (Cal) and straightening (Cas) and for time of convergent rotational nystagmus during inclinations (Tcl) and straightening (Tcs). Coefficients Cal and Td were found to correlate with MS severity (p < 0.05). From the data of the investigation it was deduced that the mechanism of MS during double rotation amounts to intravestibularinterlabyrinthine conflict. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Ushakov I.B.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Vasin M.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Radiation environment in extended duration exploration missions is scrutinized in the context of the probability of the risks of deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Though the probability of severe radiation damage due to solar flare is very low, nonetheless it is requisite that the crew must be provided with appropriate, including pharmacological safeguards. The current nomenclature of radiation protectors composes short-term agents against acute radiation damage. Among the others, preparation B-190 is distinguished by particularly high effectiveness and universal action, and good tolerance even when organism is exposed to the extreme factors of space flight. Regimen of B-290 therapy alone and with combination with aminothiol preparations have been developed to render treatment following multiple solar events. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Gegenava A.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of integument microflora using chromatography-mass spectrometry enables the determination of each crewmember's microflora composition, i.e. families and genders, during space mission. Microbiological investigations of cosmo nauts' integument resulted in identification of 51 taxons and groups of microorganisms. Microbial populations are directly dependent on the environmental factors and mission duration. The most representative diagnostically relevant ("reference") biotopes were brought to light. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Gurfinkel V.S.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Panfilov V.E.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Equations were developed to determine the work of transferring the body gravity center for a unit mass in a path unit, and to estimate walk speed at a minimum energy expenditure. It was demonstrated that minimum energy expenditure can be achieved by walking at the pace that corresponds to leg own oscillation frequency. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Nichiporuk I.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Vassilieva G.Yu.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Rykova M.P.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Morukov B.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Six male volunteers (aged 25 to 40 years) were subjects in all-round psychophysiological, hormonal and immunological studies before, in and after 105-day isolation and confinement. Blood was drawn and the 16-factorial Cattell personality inventory was filled out every 30 days. Concentrations of blood hormones, neurospecific proteins and cytokines point to a close interrelation between antibody titers to myelinassociated glycoprotein and changes in the parameters of metabolism and reproduction-related hormones, as well as cytokines and individual psychophysiology (extra- introversion, dominance, intropunitiveness, social contact selectivity, etc.), and suggest a minimum risk of demyelinizing neuropathy due to exposure to the conditions of isolation and confinement. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.


Ponomarev S.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | RykovaM.P.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Antropova E.N.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Berendeeva T.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina | Morukov B.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

The system of congenital immunity was studied in 12 essentially healthy males 18 to 26 years of age subjected to 5-day dry immersion without use of countermeasures. Peripheral blood was analyzed for monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes expressing the TLR.2+, TLRf+, TLR6 +, CDllb+, CDlf, CD16+, CD18+, CD24+, CD36+, CD54+, CD56+ and 00206+ receptors. Expression of early activation marker CD69 on lymphocytesnatural killers was studied in unstimulated and interleukin-2 activated mononuclear cell cultures. The negative shifts in the congenital immunity system in some volunteers at the end of immersion and during recovery can be considered as warnings about depletion of the system reserve and increase of the risk of infectious diseases such as caused by normal microflora which typically does not provoke pathological reactions of the host. © State Research Center RF - Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, 2008 All rights reserved.

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