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Repina L.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2013

The purpose was to study consequences of long-duration (105-day) isolation and confinement on the rate of chromosomal aberrations in human blood lymphocytes in vivo. Blood samples for cytogenetic analysis were drawn from 6 test-subjects before and on completion of the experiment. Analysis of unstable chromosomal aberrations showed a statistically reliable increase (p < 0.05) in the rate of chromatid aberrations (virtually, 25-fold) in the form of single fragments as compared with baseline values. Rate of chromosome aberrations did not differ from baseline values except 1 test-subject with a dicentric and associated fragment found after the experiment. © State Reaserch Center RF-Institute of Biomedical Problems Russian Academy of Science, 2008. All rights reserved. Source

Ushakov I.B.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

The article ushers into the acrimonious debates about paths of innovative development and criticality of fundamental sciences in technological progress for Russia security, and breakthrough potential. Among the alternative routes of technical development are different forms of priority boost of growing points in which Russia has attained and held steadily the leading position occupying a prominent segment in the international division of labor. Space effort of Russia gives a model example of successful implementation of the national program and demonstrates leadership in this area of human activities. The article presents analysis of the factors and circumstances that predetermined the winning in the early, Gagarins period of piloted space flights of the forefront position of the country as well as the vector of cosmonautics' advance for many years ahead. Despite the host of issues with implementation of the ISS utilization program and planning of exploration missions to the Moon and Mars, the unique experience of preparations and carrying out investigations and tests with humans in space, the enormous groundwork in fundamental biomedical researches over the past 50 years of piloted flights allow optimistic prognosis of gaining headway with essentially new ambitious space projects. The key question is whether the forestalling policy of priority development of piloted cosmonautics as the most integrated and science intensive sector of innovation techniques will be realized. The answer will guide near-and long-term future of the space industry and, consequently, the fortune of national fundamental space sciences, space biomedicine being its part and parcel. Source

Panfilov V.E.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

The spacesuit donning-on procedure can be viewed as the combining of two kinematic circuits into a single human-spacesuit functional system (HSS) for implementation of extravehicular operations. Optimal human-spacesuit interaction hinges on controllability and coordination of HSS mobile components, and also spacesuit slaving to the central nervous system (CNS) mediated through the human locomotion apparatus. Analysis of walking patterns in semi-hard and flexible spacesuits elucidated the direct and feedback relations between the external (spacesuit) and external (locomotion apparatus and CNS) circuits. Lack of regularity in the style of spacesuit design creates difficulties for the direct CNS control of locomotion. Consequently, it is necessary to modify the locomotion command program in order to resolve these difficulties and to add flexibility to CNS control. The analysis also helped trace algorithm of program modifications with the ultimate result of induced (forced) walk optimization. Learning how to walk in spacesuit Berkut requires no more than 2500 single steps, whereas about 300 steps must be made to master walk skills in spacesuit SKV. Source

Zhuravleva O.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

Blood serum of Russian members (n = 21) of the 8 to 12-day visiting missions to the ISS was analyzed before and after mission for products of lipid peroxidation, i.e. diene conjugates, ma lone dialdehyde, Schiff bases and tocopherol, the primary lipid antioxidant. No reliable change was found in the parameters postflight as compared with preflight values. It may be concluded that 14 days in orbital flight and the factors of re-entry and early recovery do not affect significantly the mechanisms of free radical lipid oxidation and functioning of the antioxidant protection system. Source

Noskov V.B.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2011

The review is devoted to shifting of blood and other liquids along the body axis toward the cranium end in microgravity and during simulation of the zero-g physiological effects. The body liquids redistribution excites a number of consistent physiological reactions as well as a cascade of secondary adaptation processes. Changes occur in central venous pressure and size of the heart cavities, renal function and hormonal volumoregulation entailing the adaptive shifts in body liquid segments. Hemodynamic changes in the splanchnic vascular system affect functioning of the abdominal organs. Measures of pharmacological correction expedite human adaptation to unusual environments. Source

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