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Kotovskaya A.R.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2015

Author's and literary data are analyzed to evince symptoms of cumulation in humans and animals of the negative effects caused by g-forces of different directions experienced in aviation and space flights. The author cites evidence for the decisive importance of g-duration for the development of negative effects. Functional indices of g-tolerance do not rule out possible latent changes in visceral organs and body tissues. Source

Shafirkin A.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2015

Neutrons of the fission spectrum are characterized by relatively high values of linear energy transfer (LET). Data about their effects on biological objects are used to evaluate the risk of delayed effects of accelerated ions within the same LET range that serve as an experimental model of the nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Additionally, risks of delayed consequences to cosmonaut's health and average lifetime from certain GCR fluxes and secondary neutrons can be also prognosticated. The article deals with comparative analysis of the literature on reduction of average lifespan (ALS) of animals exposed to neutron reactor spectrum, 60- 126 MeV protons, and X- And y-rays in a broad range of radiation intensity and duration. It was shown that a minimal lifespan reduction by 5 % occurs due to a brief exposure to neutrons with the absorbed dose of 5 cGy, whereas same lifespan reduction due to hard X- And y-radiation occurs after absorption of a minimal dose of 100 cGy. Therefore, according to the estimated minimal ALS reduction in mice, neutron effectiveness is 20-fold higher. Biological effectiveness of protons as regards ALS reduction is virtually equal to that of standard types of radiation. Exposure to X- And y-radiation with decreasing daily doses, and increasing number of fractions and duration gives rise to an apparent trend toward a less dramatic ALS reduction in mice; on the contrary, exposure to neutrons of varying duration had no effect on threshold doses for the specified ALS reductions. Factors of relative biological effectiveness of neutrons reached 40. Source

Khudyakova E.P.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya | Karpova O.I.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2015

In the review of literature on stress phenomenology and mechanisms stress is defined as a holistic adaptive psychophysiological reaction in response to a physical or emotiogenic stimulus. Physiological and psychological approaches to stress analysis are demonstrated. Stress is regarded as a nonspecific reaction to stimuli characterized by particular changes in responses of organism. Stress is a part of physiological and personality adaptation. Stress-reaction may produce equally a negative and positive effect on human health and performance. Source

Tsublova E.G.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya | Yasnetsov V.V.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2012

Experiments with mice showed that heteroaromatic antioxidant IBKhF-Il (intraperltoneally 1 mg/kg) alters the main individual behavior characteristics in the open field test, lessens stress from running on treadmill, reduces oxygen consumption by 33-37% over 3 hours and decreases rectal temperature by 2.4 °C at the most. In fact, IBKhF-Il stimulates the anaerobic pathway of energy production during physical work by increasing glucose level etc., and corrects shifts in such bio-, chemical parameters of blood serum as total bilirubin, uric acid and triglycerides and enzyme activities. The low-toxicity compound (intraperitoneal injection of no more than 1500 mg/kg of LD50 on the average) has every potential to appear on the market In the form of performance enhancing drugs. Source

Krivobok A.S.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya | Berkovich Y.A.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya | Krivobok N.M.,Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya
Aviakosmicheskaya i Ekologicheskaya Meditsina | Year: 2012

Regeneration of fon/te artificial soil (AS) in root modules (RM) of conveyor-type space greenhouses should be proceeded by removal of root residues without disruption of the AS capillary-porous structure. The proposed method consists of two stages of root residues destruction. On the fist stage, AS treatment by 0.7% an alkali water solution with added 0.7% hydrogen peroxide over 3.5 hours in a thermal-insulation container at 95 ±4 °C reduces root residue mass up to 60%. Specific energy cost of SHF pulses to maintain the required temperature is 1 W hr for cleaning 1 g and AS sterilization from saprotrophs. On the second stage, AS undergoes saturation with a liquid anaerobic medium lor 7-day cultivation of thermophilic Clostridium thermocellum at 55 °C. Seven days of bio-engineering regeneration enables removal of 90% rootbiomass. Residual products of fermentation have a stimulating effect on seed germination and subsequent plant growth. Bio-engineering testing of regenerated AS with cultivation of leaf cabbage Brassica chinensis L attested to suitability of the technology for extension of AS useful life. Source

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