Muller-Zermini B.,AVIA Bantleon GmbH
Tribologie und Schmierungstechnik | Year: 2011
The primary purpose of this paper is to explain the natural process of biodegradation as well as its intermediate stages and its end products. This leads into consideration about the ways to simulate this process in a laboratory with the aim of a quantitative assessment. Numerous existing test methods are presented and discussed with the background of these basics, showing up their fields of useful applications, including limitations that can result from the problem of incorporation of non water-soluble chemicals or oils into the aqueous micro-biological environment needed for any biodegradation. This paper also presents the solutions of these problems found by the CEC test method L-33-A-93, its proven correlation with biodegradation in nature as well as shortcomings found in recent years. It also shows some new solutions found by CEC's Technical Development Group L-103 since 2008. Back to the basics, it will be pointed out that biodegradation should be regarded as just one aspect of environmental considerations or investigations, and that the degree of its relevance will differ depending from each individual scenario of an oil spill into natural environment.
Mueller-Zermini B.M.,AVIA Bantleon GmbH |
Gaule G.,AVIA Bantleon GmbH
Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2012 | Year: 2012
The OECD 301 tests, which had been very useful to test biodegradability of detergents in the 80's, are now used to test biodegradability of chemicals. An alternative to OECD 301 test is the CEC-L-33-A-93, which was developed especially for testing lubricants. Using the CEC test method, the reproducibility in the round robin test is better than the reproducibility in the OECD 301 round robin test. The CEC working group TDG-L-1 03 has revised the test method and a new round robin test is in progress. There are many different methods to determine biodegradability. All of these methods consider that the degradation of very little oil in a large excess of aqueous mineral substrate while enough oxygen is supplied. However, the reality in most cases of hydraulic oil accidents is different. The spilled quantity of oil is usually very high and the available quantity of oxygen is very low. The environmental compartment into which the spilled oil enters, may be too dry or too cold, so that almost no degradation will take place. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the Society of Tribologists & Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2012 (St. Louis, MO, 5/6-10/2012).
Mueller Z.,AVIA Bantleon GmbH |
Martin B.,AVIA Bantleon GmbH |
Gaule G.,AVIA Bantleon GmbH
Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2013 | Year: 2013
There are different kinds of bio lubricants in the market, since their launch in the 1970s. The largest part of these lubricants goes into hydraulic systems. They are also used in total loss lubricants, such as chain saw oils or two stroke engine oils for outboard motors. The main criterion for bio lubricants in all standards and eco labels is biodegradation, which must reach a certain minimum speed. Test methods for evaluating the biodegradability of lubricants are discussed.