Lepelley M.,Nestle |
Mahesh V.,IRD Montpellier |
Mahesh V.,Avesthagen |
McCarthy J.,Nestle |
And 5 more authors.
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the first entry enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway producing phenolics, widespread constituents of plant foods and beverages, including chlorogenic acids, polyphenols found at remarkably high levels in the coffee bean and long recognized as powerful antioxidants. To date, whereas PAL is generally encoded by a small gene family, only one gene has been characterized in Coffea canephora (CcPAL1), an economically important species of cultivated coffee. In this study, a molecular- and bioinformatic-based search for CcPAL1 paralogues resulted successfully in identifying two additional genes, CcPAL2 and CcPAL3, presenting similar genomic structures and encoding proteins with close sequences. Genetic mapping helped position each gene in three different coffee linkage groups, CcPAL2 in particular, located in a coffee genome linkage group (F) which is syntenic to a region of Tomato Chromosome 9 containing a PAL gene. These results, combined with a phylogenetic study, strongly suggest that CcPAL2 may be the ancestral gene of C. canephora. A quantitative gene expression analysis was also conducted in coffee tissues, showing that all genes are transcriptionally active, but they present distinct expression levels and patterns. We discovered that CcPAL2 transcripts appeared predominantly in flower, fruit pericarp and vegetative/lignifying tissues like roots and branches, whereas CcPAL1 and CcPAL3 were highly expressed in immature fruit. This is the first comprehensive study dedicated to PAL gene family characterization in coffee, allowing us to advance functional studies which are indispensable to learning to decipher what role this family plays in channeling the metabolism of coffee phenylpropanoids. © 2012 The Author(s). Source
Goel M.K.,Avesthagen |
Mehrotra S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants |
Kukreja A.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
A wide range of external stress stimuli triggers a plant cell to undergo a complex network of reactions that ultimately lead to the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites help the plant to survive under stress challenge. The potential of biotic and abiotic elicitors for the induction and enhancement of secondary metabolite production in various culture systems including hairy root (HR) cultures is well-known. The elicitor-induced defense responses involves signal perception of elicitor by a cell surface receptor followed by its transduction involving some major cellular and molecular events including activation of major secondary message signaling pathways. This result in induction of gene expressions escorting to the synthesis of various proteins mainly associated with plant defense responses and secondary metabolite synthesis and accumulation. The review discusses the elicitor-induced various cellular and molecular events and correlates them with enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis in HR systems. Further, this review also concludes that combining elicitation with in-silico approaches enhances the usefulness of this practice in better understanding and identifying the rate-limiting steps of biosynthetic pathways existing in HRs which in turn can contribute towards better productivity by utilizing metabolic engineering aspects. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source
Dubey M.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Dubey M.K.,Avesthagen |
Shasany A.K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Dhawan O.P.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Genetics
Downy mildew (DM) caused by Peronospora arborescens, is a serious disease in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which has a world-wide spread. The establishment of DM-resistant cultivars appears to be a sustainable way to control the disease. In this paper, we present the results of a study aimed at the identification of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers for DM-resistance in opium poppy. Three opium poppy genotypes (inbred over about 10 years): Pps-1 (DM-resistant), Jawahar-16 (DM-susceptible) and H-9 (DM-susceptible) were crossed in a diallel manner and the F1 progeny along with the parents were subjected to AFLP analysis of chloroplast (cp) and nuclear DNA with seven and nine EcoRI / MseI primer combinations, respectively. cpDNA AFLP analysis identified 24 Pps-1 (DM-resistant)-specific unique fragments that were found to be maternally inherited in both the crosses, Pps-1 × Jawahar-16 and Pps-1 × H-9. In the case of nuclear DNA AFLP analysis, it was found that 17 fragments inherited from Pps-1 were common to the reciprocal crosses of both (i) Pps-1 and Jawahar-16 as well as (ii) Pps-1 and H-9. This is the first molecular investigation on the identification of polymorphism between DM-resistant and DM-susceptible opium poppy genotypes and development of DM-resistant opium poppy genotype-specific AFLP markers. These AFLP markers could be used in future genetic studies for analysis of linkage to the downy mildew resistance trait. © 2010 Indian Academy of Sciences. Source
Faris J.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Zhang Z.,North Dakota State University |
Lu H.,North Dakota State University |
Lu H.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
And 11 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Plant disease resistance is often conferred by genes with nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) or serine/threonine protein kinase (S/TPK) domains. Much less is known about mechanisms of susceptibility, particularly to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. The pathogens that cause the diseases tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch on wheat produce effectors (host-selective toxins) that induce susceptibility in wheat lines harboring corresponding toxin sensitivity genes. The effector ToxA is produced by both pathogens, and sensitivity to ToxA is governed by the Tsn1 gene on wheat chromosome arm 5BL. Here, we report the cloning of Tsn1, which was found to have disease resistance gene-like features, including S/TPK and NBS-LRR domains. Mutagenesis revealed that all three domains are required for ToxA sensitivity, and hence disease susceptibility. Tsn1 is unique to ToxA-sensitive genotypes, and insensitive genotypes are null. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Tsn1 arose in the B-genome diploid progenitor of polyploid wheat througha gene-fusion event that gave rise to its unique structure. Although Tsn1 is necessary to mediate ToxA recognition, yeast two-hybrid experiments suggested that the Tsn1 protein does not interact directly with ToxA. Tsn1 transcription is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and light, providing further evidence that Tsn1-ToxA interactions are associated with photosynthesis pathways. This work suggests that these necrotrophic pathogens may thrive by subverting the resistance mechanisms acquired by plants to combat other pathogens. Source
Savesta Lifesciences Pte. Ltd., Avesthagen and Renaissance Herbs Inc. | Date: 2008-08-19
process herbal extract, namely, standardized garcinia mangostana for use in dietary and nutritional supplements and food and beverages, for diet and appetite suppression and not for the direct treatment of anxiety disorder.