Deb D.D.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute |
Deb D.D.,Avesthagen |
Parimala G.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute |
Saravana Devi S.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute |
Chakraborty T.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2011
Thymol, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, has been known for its antioxidant, anti microbial, and anti inflammatory activity. Thymol has also been reported as anti-cancer agent, but its anti-cancer mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to investigate anticancer activity of thymol on HL-60 (acute promyelotic leukemia) cells. In our study, thymol demonstrated dose dependent cytotoxic effects on HL-60 cells after 24 h of exposure. However, thymol did not show any cytotoxic effect in normal human PBMC. The cytotoxic effect of thymol on HL-60 cells appears to be associated with induction of cell cycle arrest at sub G0/G1 phase, and apoptotic cell death based on genomic DNA fragmentation pattern. Thymol also showed significant increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity, increase in mitochondrial H2O2 production and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. On performing Western Blot analysis, thymol showed increase in Bax protein level with a concomitant decrease in Bcl2 protein expression in a dose dependent manner. Our study also showed activation of caspase -9, -8 and -3 and concomitant PARP cleavage, which is the hallmark of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, to rule out the involvement of other mechanisms in apoptosis induction by thymol, we also studied its effect on apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Thymol induced AIF translocation from mitochondria to cytosol and to nucleus, thus indicating its ability to induce caspase independent apoptosis. We conclude that, thymol-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells involves both caspase dependent and caspase independent pathways. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harish G.U.,Avesthagen |
Danapur V.,Avesthagen |
Jain R.,Avesthagen |
Pharmacognosy Journal | Year: 2012
Embelia ribes Burm. f. belongs to the family Myrsinaceae found in hilly parts of India up to 1500 m. elevation from outer Himalayas to Western Ghats. It is an endangered medicinal plant valued for its digestive, carminative, anthelmintic and laxative property since time immemorial. It is also used in diabetes, heart related problems, nerval disorders, cancerous tumors and liver disorders. The seeds are also used for wound healing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and contraceptive activity. Due to over exploitation of this plant it is reported in red list data book as vulnerable [Ravikumar & Ved 2000]. Therefore an overview of this plant on pharmacognosy, pharmacology, safety and toxicity is presented below along with HPLC details of Embelin the active constituent of the seeds.
Tajoddin M.,Gulbarga University |
Shinde M.,Avesthagen |
Lalitha J.,Gulbarga University
International Journal of PharmTech Research | Year: 2011
Ten cultivars of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) including three yellow cultivars differing in seed color were analyzed for their polyphenol content. The effect of polyphenolic extract on human salivary alpha amylase (HSA) activity was evaluated. The total levels of polyphenol were found to be in the range of 280 mg to 356 mg/100 gm whole seeds. The polyphenol content of yellow cultivars was relatively more with that of green cultivars except China mung. About 75% of polyphenols were extracted with acidic methanol while only 25% with methanol. The highest HAS inhibitory activity of 42.55 units g-1 was found with acidic methanol extract of ALM-1 cultivar, while the cultivar PS-16 had the lowest 24.09 units g-1 HSA inhibitory activity. The inhibition of alpha amylase by acidic methanol extracts of mung bean was found to be in the range of 48.50% to 64.63%. No correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and HAS inhibitory activity. The inhibition of human salivary amylase by mung bean polyphenolic extracts is significant strategy for managing postprandial glycemia in diabetic patients.
Goel M.K.,Avesthagen |
Mehrotra S.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants |
Kukreja A.K.,Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2011
A wide range of external stress stimuli triggers a plant cell to undergo a complex network of reactions that ultimately lead to the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites help the plant to survive under stress challenge. The potential of biotic and abiotic elicitors for the induction and enhancement of secondary metabolite production in various culture systems including hairy root (HR) cultures is well-known. The elicitor-induced defense responses involves signal perception of elicitor by a cell surface receptor followed by its transduction involving some major cellular and molecular events including activation of major secondary message signaling pathways. This result in induction of gene expressions escorting to the synthesis of various proteins mainly associated with plant defense responses and secondary metabolite synthesis and accumulation. The review discusses the elicitor-induced various cellular and molecular events and correlates them with enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis in HR systems. Further, this review also concludes that combining elicitation with in-silico approaches enhances the usefulness of this practice in better understanding and identifying the rate-limiting steps of biosynthetic pathways existing in HRs which in turn can contribute towards better productivity by utilizing metabolic engineering aspects. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Lepelley M.,Nestlé |
Mahesh V.,IRD Montpellier |
Mahesh V.,Avesthagen |
McCarthy J.,Nestlé |
And 5 more authors.
Planta | Year: 2012
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the first entry enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway producing phenolics, widespread constituents of plant foods and beverages, including chlorogenic acids, polyphenols found at remarkably high levels in the coffee bean and long recognized as powerful antioxidants. To date, whereas PAL is generally encoded by a small gene family, only one gene has been characterized in Coffea canephora (CcPAL1), an economically important species of cultivated coffee. In this study, a molecular- and bioinformatic-based search for CcPAL1 paralogues resulted successfully in identifying two additional genes, CcPAL2 and CcPAL3, presenting similar genomic structures and encoding proteins with close sequences. Genetic mapping helped position each gene in three different coffee linkage groups, CcPAL2 in particular, located in a coffee genome linkage group (F) which is syntenic to a region of Tomato Chromosome 9 containing a PAL gene. These results, combined with a phylogenetic study, strongly suggest that CcPAL2 may be the ancestral gene of C. canephora. A quantitative gene expression analysis was also conducted in coffee tissues, showing that all genes are transcriptionally active, but they present distinct expression levels and patterns. We discovered that CcPAL2 transcripts appeared predominantly in flower, fruit pericarp and vegetative/lignifying tissues like roots and branches, whereas CcPAL1 and CcPAL3 were highly expressed in immature fruit. This is the first comprehensive study dedicated to PAL gene family characterization in coffee, allowing us to advance functional studies which are indispensable to learning to decipher what role this family plays in channeling the metabolism of coffee phenylpropanoids. © 2012 The Author(s).
Tajoddin M.,Gulbarga University |
Manohar S.,Avesthagen |
Lalitha J.,Gulbarga University
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2014
Five mung bean cultivars varying in seed coat color were analyzed for polyphenol content. The effect of soaking and germination on the polyphenol content and polyphenol oxidase activity was investigated. The level of total polyphenols was found to be in the range of 310-340 mg/100 g in whole seeds. Soaking reduced the total polyphenols, whereas germination for 48 h increased total polyphenol content by 41-76%. The hydrolysable tannins, condensed tannins, and hydrolysable tannins/condensed tannins index increased with an increase in period of germination. The total and percent condensed tannins content slightly decreased while hydrolysable tannins increased during germination. Maximum polyphenol oxidase activity of 102-108 units was observed in 24 h germinated seeds. There was no significant correlation found between the polyphenolic content and polyphenol oxidase activity in germinating mung bean seeds. These findings demonstrated that the mung beans are fair sources of polyphenols, thus having great potential as a source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Thankappan S.S.,Avesthagen |
Morawala-Patell V.,Avesthagen |
Morawala-Patell V.,University of Mysore
Plant OMICS | Year: 2011
A highly efficient in vitro regeneration of an indigenous, endangered medicinal plant Dioscorea prazeri was achieved using nodal explants and axillary buds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing sucrose and supplemented with growth regulators Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) and Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Each explant regenerated 21±2 culturable segments after 10 to 12 weeks of inoculation of nodal explants with a regeneration frequency of 98±2% and a survival rate of >96% on field establishment. The plantlets had healthy roots and sprouted tubers in vitro; the rooted plantlets were acclimatized and successfully established in soil. The extraction and chromatographic analysis methods were standardized to obtain the maximum yield of diosgenin from plant extracts of D. prazeri. The content of diosgenin was observed to vary with age of the plant. An examination of the genetic fidelity of the in vitro regenerated explants indicated a genome that was stable. The plants obtained were analyzed further using morphological, molecular and biochemical methods and found to be genetically and metabolically stable at all growth phases. The regenerated D. prazeri, using the method developed in this study could be reintroduced into the natural habitat.
Faris J.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Zhang Z.,North Dakota State University |
Lu H.,North Dakota State University |
Lu H.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
And 11 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010
Plant disease resistance is often conferred by genes with nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) or serine/threonine protein kinase (S/TPK) domains. Much less is known about mechanisms of susceptibility, particularly to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. The pathogens that cause the diseases tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch on wheat produce effectors (host-selective toxins) that induce susceptibility in wheat lines harboring corresponding toxin sensitivity genes. The effector ToxA is produced by both pathogens, and sensitivity to ToxA is governed by the Tsn1 gene on wheat chromosome arm 5BL. Here, we report the cloning of Tsn1, which was found to have disease resistance gene-like features, including S/TPK and NBS-LRR domains. Mutagenesis revealed that all three domains are required for ToxA sensitivity, and hence disease susceptibility. Tsn1 is unique to ToxA-sensitive genotypes, and insensitive genotypes are null. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Tsn1 arose in the B-genome diploid progenitor of polyploid wheat througha gene-fusion event that gave rise to its unique structure. Although Tsn1 is necessary to mediate ToxA recognition, yeast two-hybrid experiments suggested that the Tsn1 protein does not interact directly with ToxA. Tsn1 transcription is tightly regulated by the circadian clock and light, providing further evidence that Tsn1-ToxA interactions are associated with photosynthesis pathways. This work suggests that these necrotrophic pathogens may thrive by subverting the resistance mechanisms acquired by plants to combat other pathogens.
News Article | July 19, 2007
Avestha Gengraine Technologies, a biotech in Bangalore, India, said it had acquired Renaissance Herbs, a Chatsworth, Calif., natural-products maker. The company’s release is here. Financial terms of the merger weren’t disclosed. The acquisition supports the fulfillment of Avesthagen’s bio-nutritional business strategy through vertical integration and access to key markets. The company is a leader in the use of advanced biotechnologies for the discovery and development of natural plant extracts that provide health benefits supported by scientific studies and clinical trials. These products are incorporated into “functional” foods or marketed as dietary supplements for direct use by the consumer. Dr Villoo Morawala Patell, Founder and Managing Director of Avesthagen, commented, “We believe that this acquisition is highly synergistic for both companies. The world class processing facilities will accelerate the launch of our botanical extracts and the RHI distribution infrastructure allows us to rapidly launch products into the dietary supplement market. And on the RHI side, Avesthagen’s in-house technical capabilities can hasten the development of a proprietary RHI product line with improved health claims.” RHI brings to Avesthagen full vertical integration and access to two of the most attractive markets in the world, the US and Japan. RHI has a strong position in Japan through a long-standing relationship with Nippon Shinyaku, and in the US, which is a supplement market exceeding US$20 billion in value, RHI is a supplier to the largest branded companies and also sells under its own brand, “Ayurceutics”.