Guevara E.A.,Aves and Conservacion BirdLrfe en Ecuador |
Valarezo J.C.,Aves and Conservacion BirdLrfe en Ecuador |
Onofa A.,Aves and Conservacion BirdLrfe en Ecuador |
Cupueran F.,Aves and Conservacion BirdLrfe en Ecuador
Ornitologia Neotropical | Year: 2011
The composition of mixed-species flocks was studied in four sites within northwestern Ecuadorean cloud forest between November 2006 and October 2008. A total of 112 species and 878 individuals were recorded participating in 53 mixed-species flocks. Mean numbers of individuals and species per flock were 16.6 (± 10.1) and 10.3 (± 4.8) respectively and flock size and species diversity were correlated. Thraupidae was the most frequent and abundant family within flocks as well as the most diverse. Fourteen species were recorded regularly participating in flocks and the Blue-winged Mountain tanager (Anisognathus somptuosus) and the Hooded Mountain-Tanager (Buthraupis montana) were regarded as nuclear species. Individuals foraging in different vertical strata were recorded in the same flock. Some patterns such as the relationship between number of individuals and species seemed to be consistent with previous studies whereas other factors such as species composition exhibited differences. © The Neotropical Ornithological Society.