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Amsterdam-Zuidoost, Netherlands

Kwon Y.,Leiden University | De Jong E.,Avantium Chemicals | Raoufmoghaddam S.,Leiden University | Koper M.T.M.,Leiden University
ChemSusChem | Year: 2013

Electrocatalytic hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-dihydroxymethylfuran (DHMF) or other species, such as 2,5-dimethylfuran, on solid metal electrodes in neutral media is addressed, both in the absence and in the presence of glucose. The reaction is studied by combining voltammetry with on-line product analysis by using HPLC, which provides both qualitative and quantitative information about the reaction products as a function of electrode potential. Three groups of catalysts show different selectivity towards: (1) DHMF (Fe, Ni, Ag, Zn, Cd, and In), (2) DHMF and other products (Pd, Al, Bi, and Pb), depending on the applied potential, and (3) other products (Co, Au, Cu, Sn, and Sb) through HMF hydrogenolysis. The rate of electrocatalytic HMF hydrogenation is not strongly catalyst-dependent because all catalysts show similar onset potentials (-0.5±0.2 V) in the presence of HMF. However, the intrinsic properties of the catalysts determine the reaction pathway towards DHMF or other products. Ag showed the highest activity towards DHMF formation (up to 13.1 mM cm-2 with high selectivity> 85 %). HMF hydrogenation is faster than glucose hydrogenation on all metals. For transition metals, the presence of glucose enhances the formation of DHMF and suppresses the hydrogenolysis of HMF. On poor metals such as Zn, Cd, and In, glucose enhances DHMF formation; however, its contribution in the presence of Bi, Pb, Sn, and Sb is limited. Remarkably, in the presence of HMF, glucose hydrogenation itself is largely suppressed or even absent. The first electron-transfer step during HMF reduction is not metal-dependent, suggesting a non-catalytic reaction with proton transfer directly from water in the electrolyte. A clean sweep: The hydrogenation of HMF in neutral media has been studied on a wide range of solid metal electrodes both in the absence and in the presence of glucose. From HMF hydrogenation, three groups of catalysts show affinities towards (1) DHMF, (2) DHMF and other products, depending on applied potentials, and (3) other products. HMF hydrogenation is shown to be preferred to glucose hydrogenation on all metals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


De Jong E.,Avantium Chemicals | Higson A.,NNFCC | Walsh P.,CiSET | Wellisch M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining | Year: 2012

Around the world, significant able steps are being taken to move from today's fossil-based economy to a more sustainable economy based on biomass. A key factor in the realization of a successful bio-based economy will be the development of biorefinery systems allowing highly efficient and cost-effective processing of biological feedstocks to a range of bio-based products, and successful integration into existing infrastructure. The recent climb in oil prices and consumer demand for environmentally friendly products has now opened new windows of opportunity for bio-based chemicals and polymers. Industry is increasingly viewing chemical and polymer production from renewable resources as an attractive area for investment. Within the bio-based economy and the operation of a biorefinery, there are significant opportunities for the development of bio-based building blocks (chemicals and polymers) and materials (fiber products, starch derivatives, etc.). In many cases this happens in conjunction with the production of bioenergy or biofuels. The production of bio-based products could generate US$10-15 billion ofrevenue for the global chemical industry. The economic production of biofuels is often a challenge. The co--production of chemicals, materials food and feed can generate the necessary added value. This paper highlights all bio-based chemicals with immediate potential as biorefinery 'value added products'. The selected products are either demonstrating strong market growth or have significant industry investment in development and demonstration programs. The full IEA Bioenergy Task 42 report is available from http://www.iea-bioenergy.task42-biorefineries.com. © 2012 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.


Xu C.,Zhengzhou University of Light Industry | De S.,University of Delhi | Balu A.M.,Avantium Chemicals | Balu A.M.,University of Cordoba, Spain | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

Mechanochemical synthesis emerged as the most advantageous, environmentally sound alternative to traditional routes for nanomaterials preparation with outstanding properties for advanced applications. Featuring simplicity, high reproducibility, mild/short reaction conditions and often solvent-free condition (dry milling), mechanochemistry can offer remarkable possibilities in the development of advanced catalytically active materials. The proposed contribution has been aimed to provide a brief account of remarkable recent findings and advances in the mechanochemical synthesis of solid phase advanced catalysts as opposed to conventional systems. The role of mechanical energy in the synthesis of solid catalysts and their application is critically discussed as well as the influence of the synthesis procedure on the physicochemical properties and the efficiency of synthesized catalysts is studied. The main purpose of this feature article is to highlight the possibilities of mechanochemical protocols in (nano)materials engineering for catalytic applications. This journal is © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Van Putten R.-J.,Avantium Chemicals | Van Putten R.-J.,University of Groningen | Van Der Waal J.C.,Avantium Chemicals | De Jong E.,Avantium Chemicals | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Over the last century, the world has become increasingly dependent on oil as its main source of chemicals and energy. Driven largely by the strong economic growth of India and China, demand for oil is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. This growth in demand, combined with diminishing reserves, will require the development of new, sustainable sources for fuels and bulk chemicals. Biomass is the most attractive alternative feedstock, as it is the only widely available carbon source apart from oil and coal. It was recently found that direct parental administration of SMF to mice leads to abundant acute necrosis and proteinaceous casts in the proximal tubules as the dominating toxicological effect. Additional research provided evidence for the involvement of organic anion transporters in the renal accumulation of SMF. These transport characteristics could be responsible for the selective damage of renal proximal tubules by this reactive metabolite.


De S.,University of Delhi | Balu A.M.,Avantium Chemicals | Van Der Waal J.C.,Avantium Chemicals | Luque R.,University of Cordoba, Spain
ChemCatChem | Year: 2015

Novel biomass-derived porous carbons are attractive candidates for the preparation of carbon-supported catalysts with a wide range of catalytic applications. Such carbonaceous catalysts are environmentally benign and could provide a cost-competitive advantage as compared to existing heterogeneous catalysts. Tunable surface properties of carbon materials and excellent physical properties (e.g., hydrophobicity, chemically inert nature, etc.) are compatible with diverse catalysis reactions including organic transformations, as well as electro- and photochemical processes in aqueous solutions. This contribution provides an overview on the utilization of different biomass feedstocks and/or biomass-derived precursors for the synthesis of carbonaceous materials to design advanced catalytic systems and their emerging applications in catalysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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