Califano I.,Av. Diaz Velez |
Deutsch S.,Av. Diaz Velez |
Castro Jozami L.,Av. Diaz Velez |
Fassi J.,Av. Diaz Velez |
And 8 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Year: 2013
Due to the low frequency of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), an observational, cohort, retrospective multicenter study was conducted at the Thyroid Department of the Endocrine and Metabolism Argentine Society (SAEM). We included 219 patients with histologically proven MTC, with a mean age of 39 ± 20 yr (range 1-84 years). Sixty five percent were women and 44% were familial cases. The most common presentations were thyroid nodule (58 %) and genetic screening due to family history (22 %). In 39 % of patients, diagnosis of MTC was made by fine needle aspiration, but cytology led to surgery in 79 %. In 47 % of patients, MTC was diagnosed by cytology, calcitonin (CT) levels or genetic studies prior to initial surgery. Sixty five percent of patients had advanced stages of the disease (TNM III or IV) at diagnosis. Proto-oncogene RET was studied in 162 patients (74 %). In 49% a mutation was reported, most frequently in codon 634 (76 %). Regarding hereditary forms of MTC, MEN 2A was the most frequent (57%), followed by familial MTC in 25 % and MEN 2B in 13 % of cases. Familial cases were younger subjects and had more frequently a pre-surgery diagnosis. Index cases were older, with higher CEA and CT levels, presented in more advanced stages and had more frequently evidence of disease at final assessment than patients who were diagnosed by genetic screening. Follow-up records of 143 patients were analyzed (65%); median time was 44 months; 21 patients died (14.6 %) and 122 survived (86 %), 76 showed no evidence of disease (NED) (54 %). High risk factors for evidence of disease at the final evaluation were: male gender, sporadic MTC, higher CT pre-surgery levels, stage IV and metastasis. Post surgery CT levels were lower in patients with NED. Stage at initial diagnosis was the main prognostic factor in patients with MTC, determining the importance of early detection for performing curative surgery in less advanced stages. Copyright © 2013 por la sociedad Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo.