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Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

Foray N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Colin C.,Center Hospitalier Lyon Sud | Bourguignon M.,Autorite de Surete Nucleaire
Medecine/Sciences | Year: 2013

What more natural than a stress response that would vary among individuals? The individual factor has been pointed out in numerous medical research areas, was alluded to in the antiquity under the term idiosyncrasy and used by Claude Bernard in the 19th century. The idea that each individual shows a specific response to radiation, as he does for any stress, is well-accepted. However, the history of radiobiology shows that this idea has been neglected. Today, it comes back in the debates of personalized medicine and in the evaluation of the risks of adverse reactions postradiotherapy and of developping cancers linked to medical exposures. Source


Bourguignon M.,Autorite de Surete Nucleaire | Yaghi L.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Flajollet S.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Radanne-Krawice I.,French Atomic Energy Commission | And 5 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2010

Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant acceptance, and tumor escape from immunosurveillance, operating by inhibiting activity of T, antigen presenting cells (APC), and natural killer (NK) cells. HLA-G gene expression is modulated in vitro after hypoxic conditions, a situation evidenced during pregnancy and tumor progression. In extreme altitude, mountaineers are in hypoxic conditions that generate physiologic adaptative responses, some of them giving rise to pathologic signs. We performed measurements of plasma soluble HLA-G in six climbers before departure of the expedition and during their ascent to and descent from summit of Mount Everest, and in 3 Sherpas at 5300-6400 m. We found that HLA-G levels are upregulated during the ascent with a unique pattern in comparison with angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that HLA-G has to be taken into account in the mechanisms participating in adaptation to high altitudes and reinforce hypoxia as an important factor in the regulation of HLA-G expression. © 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Source


Bourguignon M.,Autorite de Surete Nucleaire | Foray N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Colin C.,University of Lyon | Pauwels E.,Leiden University | Pauwels E.,University of Pisa
International Journal of Low Radiation | Year: 2013

Immunofluorescence that permits the detection of nuclear targets specific to DNA damage signalling and repair have completely renewed the approach of individual radiosensitivity. It is a concern in radiotherapy in which radiosensitivity is responsible for the development of adverse side-effects in normal tissues in absence of any mistake in the dose delivery. Furthermore, individual radiosensitivity at low-dose has been recently demonstrated in human mammary epithelium exposed ex vivo in the conditions of mammographic screening. Although these results do not demonstrate directly the existence of mutagenesis, they indicate a possible link between cancer proneness and radiosensitivity. Hence, individual radiosensitivity is a real concern for public health since 5-15% of the population may be concerned and radiosensitive individuals generally show higher cancer risk than the rest of the population. Thus, individual radiosensitivity is a key issue to be addressed in future recommendations of the radioprotection system. © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2011-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 1.36M | Year: 2012

SITEX aims at identifying the efficient means that should be developed through the establisment of a sustainable expertise function network within a European framework with the view to: - allowing mutual understanding between regulatory bodies, TSOs and waste management organisations (WMOs) on (i) the regulatory expectations at decision holdpoints and (ii) how the scientific and technical elements carried out by the WMOs comply with these expectations. In that perspective, the needs in clarification of existing regulatory guidance or in developing new guidance will be addressed. Exchanges with IGD-TP on that issues is favoured. In complement, role of expertise function and the needs for improving it will be discussed; - in coordination with or in complement to WMOs research program, defining TSOs R&D program that would ensure independent capabilities development for reviewing the Safety Case and assessing the scientific arguments provided by WMOs. TSOs R&D program and priorities will be adressed by favouring close interaction with IGD-TP and seeking for joined research activities with the WMOs in order to foster common understanding of technical key points for safety and avoiding undue duplication; - ensuring competence building of experts in charge of technical review and transfer of knowledge on waste safety and radiation protection; the needs in guidance development for harmonising the technical review activity and in dedicated training and tutoring for spreading the expertise culture and practices will be addressed; - sharing, where needed, expertise approach with various stakeholders, in a manner more integrated than when only communication or dissemination are envisaged. Compilation of past actions and learning of ways of implication of stakeholders in the process of technical review will be discussed.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: NFRP-05-2014 | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2015

The coordination action SITEX-II aims at implementing in practice the activities along with the interaction modes issued by the FP7 program SITEX project (2012-2013), in view of developing an Expertise function network. This network is expected to ensure a sustainable capability of developing and coordinating joint and harmonized activities related to the independent technical expertise in the field of safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. SITEX-II tasks include: the definition of the Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) based on the common R&D orientations defined by SITEX (2012-2013), the definition of the ToR for the implementation of specific topics from the SRA, and the interaction with IGD-TP and other external entities mandated to implement research on radioactive waste disposal regarding the potential setting up of an European Joint Programming on radioactive waste disposal; the production of a guidance on the technical review of the safety case at its different phases of development, fostering a common understanding on the interpretation and proper implementation of safety requirements for developing, operating and closing a geological repository and on the verification of compliance with these requirements; the development of a training module for generalist experts involved in the safety case review process, including the implementation a pilot training session; the commitment of CS in the definition of the SRA mentioned above, considering the expectations and technical questions to be considered when developing R&D for the purpose of Expertise function. Close interactions between experts conducting the review work will allow enhancing the safety culture of CS and more globally, proposing governance patterns with CS in the framework of geological disposal; the preparation of the administrative framework for a sustainable network, by addressing the legal, organisational and management aspects.

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