Ortega-Torres E.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Sanchez-Lopez C.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Mendoza-Lopez J.,University of Seville
Revista Mexicana de Fisica | Year: 2013
In multiscroll chaotic circuit design based on active devices, piece-wise linear (PWL) approaches are often used to model the behavior of nonlinear functions, thereby that the behavior of a chaotic system can be forecasted through numerical simulations. However, although PWL models are relatively easy to build, they do not include any information related on the performance parameters of the active devices to be used. This a serious shortcoming, since PWL-models introduces a level of inaccuracy into a numerical analysis which is more evident when numerical simulations and experimental results are compared. These differences are more pronounced when the chaotic waveforms to be generated are pushed to operate at high-frequency. This paper introduces experimental results on the frequency behavior of a nonlinear function called saturated nonlinear function series based on operational amplifiers. These new results are key not only on the automatic synthesis of chaotic attractors and on the synchronization schemes used in secure communication systems based on chaos, but also on the metrics used to evaluate the complexity of a chaotic system. A mathematical model to characterize the behavior of the nonlinear function is also derived, showing a better accuracy compared with the PWL approach. The theoretical derivations and related results are experimentally validated through implementations from commercially available devices.
Mota-Vargas C.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Rojas-Soto O.R.,Institute Ecologia
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2012
Delimitation of the distribution areas of species has fundamental implications for the understanding of biodiversity and for decision-making in conservation. This is illustrated by the case of the Bearded Wood-Partridge (Dendrortyx barbatus), which is endemic to Mexico and was classified as threatened by the IUCN. Recently the discovery of this species in new locations caused an increase in the known distribution area whereupon it was reclassified in a lower risk category. In our study, delimitation and comparison of the Bearded Wood-Partridge distribution area is carried out utilising five different methods: minimum convex polygon; areographic; cartographic; ecological niche modeling; and, "free hand" A number of locality records are also used to demonstrate the chronological order of appearance. The results show that the size and shape of the distribution area of this species vary depending on the number of records and on their spatial and environmental location, as well as on the particular delimitation method used. However, ecological niche modeling provides the best results in terms of spatial and numerical sensitivity as well as lower values of omission and a moderate extent of predicted areas. We suggest that decisions related to species conservation (categories of risk, areas of endemism, etc.), particularly those species of high geographical restriction, should be contingent on the formalised delimitation of distribution areas based on ecological niche modeling methods. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.
Lomanowska A.M.,Laval University |
Melo A.I.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2016
This article is part of a Special Issue on "Parental Care". Maternal behavior has an important function in stimulating adequate growth and development of the young. Several approaches have been used in primates and rodents to deconstruct and examine the influence of specific components of maternal stimulation on offspring development. These approaches include observational studies of typical mother-infant interactions and studies of the effects of intermittent or complete deprivation of maternal contact. In this review, we focus on one unique approach using rats that enables the complete control of maternal variables by means of rearing rat pups artificially without contact with the mother or litter, while maintaining stable nutrition, temperature and exposure to stressful stimuli. This artificial rearing model permits the removal and controlled replacement of relevant maternal and litter stimuli and has contributed valuable insights regarding the influence of these stimuli on various developmental outcomes. It also enables the analysis of factors implicated in social isolation itself and their long-term influence. We provide an overview of the effects of artificial rearing on behavior, physiology, and neurobiology, including the influence of replacing maternal tactile stimulation and littermate contact on these outcomes. We then discuss the relevance of these effects in terms of the maternal role in regulating different aspects of offspring development and implications for human research. We emphasize that artificial rearing of rats does not lead to a global insult of nervous system development, making this paradigm useful in investigating specific developmental effects associated with maternal stimulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Gonzalez-Mariscal G.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Lemus A.C.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Vega-Gonzalez A.,University of Guanajuato |
Aguilar-Roblero R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Chronobiology International | Year: 2013
Nursing in rabbits occurs inside the nest with circadian periodicity. To determine the contribution of suckling stimulation in regulating such periodicity, we varied the size of the litters provided (1, 2, 4, or 6-8 pups). Nursing does, kept under a 14:10 (L:D) photoperiod, were continuously videotaped from parturition into lactation day 15. Although parturitions occurred throughout the day, a significant negative linear correlation (p < 0.0001; r = -0.68) was evident between time of delivery and time of nursing on lactation day 1, regardless of newborn number: longer intervals between these two events were seen in does delivering in the early morning than in those that gave birth late in the day. In rabbits suckling 6-8 pups, a Rayleigh analysis revealed that the population vector best describing their nursing pattern (across lactation days 1-15) had a phase angle = 58° (corresponding to solar time 0352 h and rho = 0.78; p < 0.001). In contrast, the nursing pattern of does nursing litters smaller than 6 pups did not show circadian periodicity; rather, mothers showed multiple entrances into the nest box throughout the day. Cluster analysis revealed that the main equilibrium point of intervals between suckling bouts shifted from 24 h (6-8 pups) to 6 h (4 and 2 pups) and to as low as 4 h with 1 pup. In the groups nursing 2, 4, or 6-8 pups, most nursing episodes were followed by food and water intake. Those mothers also showed self-grooming of the ventrum and nipples after nursing. The incidence of these behaviors was lower in does nursing 1 pup. In conclusion, nursing in rabbits spontaneously occurs with circadian periodicity, but it is largely modulated by a threshold of suckling stimulation. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Jimenez-Cortes J.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Serrano-Meneses M.A.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Cordoba-Aguilar A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2012
Few studies have looked jointly at the effects of larval stressors on life history and physiology across metamorphosis, especially in tropical insects. Here we investigated how the variation of food availability during the larval stage of the tropical and territorial American rubyspot damselfly (Hetaerina americana) affects adult body size and body mass, and two physiological indicators of condition - phenoloxidase activity (an indicator of immune ability) and protein concentration. We also investigated whether larval developmental time is prolonged when food is scarce, an expected situation for tropical species whose larval time is less constrained, compared to temperate species. Second instar larvae were collected from their natural environments and reared in one of two diet regimes: (i) " rich" provided with five Artemia salina prey every day, and (ii) " poor" provided with two A. salina prey every day. In order to compare how distinct our treatments were from natural conditions, a second set of last-instar larvae were also collected and allowed to emerge. Only body size and phenoloxidase increased in the rich regime, possibly to prioritize investment on sexually selected traits (which increase mating opportunities), and immune ability, given pathogen pressure. The sexes did not differ in body size in relation to food regimes but they did differ in body mass and protein concentration; this can be explained on the basis of the energetically demanding territorial activities by males (for the case of body mass), and female allocation to egg production (for the case of protein). Finally, animals delayed larval development when food was scarce, which is coherent for tropical environments. These findings provide key insights in the role of food availability in a tropical species. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Suarez-Rodriguez M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Lopez-Rull I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Lopez-Rull I.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Garcia C.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Biology Letters | Year: 2013
Birds are known to respond to nest-dwelling parasites by altering behaviours. Some bird species, for example, bring fresh plants to the nest, which contain volatile compounds that repel parasites. There is evidence that some birds living in cities incorporate cigarette butts into their nests, but the effect (if any) of this behaviour remains unclear. Butts from smoked cigarettes retain substantial amounts of nicotine and other compounds that may also act as arthropod repellents. We provide the first evidence that smoked cigarette butts may function as a parasite repellent in urban bird nests. The amount of cellulose acetate from butts in nests of two widely distributed urban birds was negatively associated with the number of nest-dwelling parasites. Moreover, when parasites were attracted to heat traps containing smoked or non-smoked cigarette butts, fewer parasites reached the former, presumably due to the presence of nicotine. Because urbanization changes the abundance and type of resources upon which birds depend, including nesting materials and plants involved in self-medication, our results are consistent with the view that urbanization imposes new challenges on birds that are dealt with using adaptations evolved elsewhere. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez-Pena M.D.L.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala
International Journal of Impotence Research | Year: 2016
A spinal pattern generator controls the ejaculatory response. Central pattern generators (CPGs) may be entrained to improve the motor patterns under their control. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that training of the spinal generator for ejaculation (SGE) by daily copulation until ejaculation, could promote substantive changes in its functioning permitting a better SGE control of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation (GMPE) and, as a consequence, a normalization of the ejaculation latency of rats with rapid ejaculation. To that aim, we evaluated in sexually experienced male rats with rapid ejaculation (1) the effects of daily copulation to ejaculation, following different entrainment schedules, on their ejaculation latencies, (2) the impact of these different ejaculatory entrainment schedules upon the parameters of the GMPE and (3) the possible emergence of persistent changes in the functioning of the SGE associated to the daily ejaculation entrainment schedules. The data obtained show that intense ejaculatory training of rats with rapid ejaculation lengthens the ejaculation latency during copulation and augments the ejaculatory capacity of the SGE in this population when spinalized. Thus, present data reveal that like other CPGs, the SGE can be trained and put forward that training of the SGE by daily copulation to ejaculation might be a promising alternative that should be taken into consideration for the treatment of premature ejaculation.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 27 October 2016; doi:10.1038/ijir.2016.42. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
Hoffman K.L.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Basurto E.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2014
Studies in humans indicate that acute administration of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, provokes schizophrenic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers, and exacerbates existing symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. These and other findings suggest that NMDA receptor hypofunction might participate in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and have prompted the development of rodent pharmacological models for this disorder based on acute or subchronic treatment with NMDA receptor antagonists, as well as the development of novel pharmacotherapies based on increasing extrasynaptic glycine concentrations. In the present study, we tested whether acute hyperlocomotory behavior and/or deficits in the novel object recognition (NOR) task, induced in male rabbits by the acute subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of MK-801 (0.025 and 0.037. mg/kg s.c., respectively), were prevented by prior administration of the atypcial antipsychotic, clozapine (0.2. mg/kg, s.c.), or the glycine pro-drug glycinamide (56. mg/kg, s.c.). We found that clozapine fully prevented the MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion, and both clozapine and glycinamide prevented MK-801-induced deficits in the NOR task. The present results show that MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in the NOR task in the domestic rabbit demonstrate predictive validity as an alternative animal model for symptoms of schizophrenia. Moreover, these results indicate that glycinamide should be investigated in pre-clinical models of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders, where augmentation of extrasynaptic glycine concentrations may have therapeutic utility. © 2014.
Juarez R.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala |
Cruz Y.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala
Neurourology and Urodynamics | Year: 2014
Aims The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of the external urethral sphincter (EUS), the ischiocavernous (IC), or the bulbospongiosus (BS) on the control of micturition, copulatory behavior and semen expulsion in male rats. We hypothesized that the EUS contributes to maintain urinary continence, while all three muscles participate in expulsive urethral functions. Methods In Experiment 1, it was analyzed the effects of bilateral denervation of IC, BS or EUS, or sham surgery, on voiding behavior and urinary parameters measured before surgery and 2 and 10 days post-surgery. In Experiment 2, copulatory behavior and the weight of the seminal plug expelled during ejaculation were recorded before and after sham surgery or bilateral denervation of the aforementioned muscles. Immediately after ejaculation, the animals were anesthetized to confirm the denervation and determine whether seminal material had accumulated in the lower urinary tract. Results In IC-denervated animals, voiding duration and the number of mounts was increased, and intromission or ejaculation patterns were absent. Denervation of BS induced signs of post-micturition dribble, decreased voiding frequency, increased urine volume and reduced the amount of semen ejaculated. Denervation of EUS induced signs of post-micturition dribble and urinary incontinence, as well as retrograde ejaculation. Conclusions Striated muscles anatomically related to the urethra contribute differentially to the control of continence and expulsive urethral functions. Damages to the muscles or to their innervation, as may occur during pelvic surgery, would result in sexual and urinary dysfunctions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sanchez Lopez C.,Autonomous University of Tlaxcala
Revista Mexicana de Fisica | Year: 2012
In this paper, a high-frequency Chua's chaotic oscillator based on unity gain cells (UGCs) is introduced. Leveraging the internal buffers of the integrated circuit AD844, a voltage mirror (VM) and a positive current follower (CF+) are designed, taking into account the parasitic elements associated to each UGC. Afterwards, the behavior of the nonlinear resistor and of the grounded inductor are designed by using several VMs, CF+s, discrete capacitors and resistors. In this way, Chua's circuit is built by coupling a nonlinear resistor and an active LC tank circuit by using an RC passive filter. Hspice simulations performed at the state space and in the time and frequency domains show that the proposed topology generates chaos at 1.7 MHz. Experimental results are given, verifying that the chaotic spectrum is extended to high-frequency and showing close agreement with theoretical analysis. The proposed topology is compared with other topologies reported in the literature, showing that a number reduced of active devices and passive elements along with smaller supply voltages can be used to generate chaotic oscillations at high-frequency. Sensitivity and Monte Carlo analysis are also done in order to research the robustness of the proposed chaotic circuit.