Caspeta L.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos |
Caspeta L.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Nielsen J.,Chalmers University of Technology |
Nielsen J.,Novo Nordisk AS
mBio | Year: 2015
A major challenge for the production of ethanol from biomass-derived feedstocks is to develop yeasts that can sustain growth under the variety of inhibitory conditions present in the production process, e.g., high osmolality, high ethanol titers, and/or elevated temperatures (≥40°C). Using adaptive laboratory evolution, we previously isolated seven Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved growth at 40°C. Here, we show that genetic adaptations to high temperature caused a growth trade-off at ancestral temperatures, reduced cellular functions, and improved tolerance of other stresses. Thermotolerant yeast strains showed horizontal displacement of their thermal reaction norms to higher temperatures. Hence, their optimal and maximum growth temperatures increased by about 3°C, whereas they showed a growth trade-off at temperatures below 34°C. Computational analysis of the physical properties of proteins showed that the lethal temperature for yeast is around 49°C, as a large fraction of the yeast proteins denature above this temperature. Our analysis also indicated that the number of functions involved in controlling the growth rate decreased in the thermotolerant strains compared with the number in the ancestral strain. The latter is an advantageous attribute for acquiring thermotolerance and correlates with the reduction of yeast functions associated with loss of respiration capacity. This trait caused glycerol overproduction that was associated with the growth tradeoff at ancestral temperatures. In combination with altered sterol composition of cellular membranes, glycerol overproduction was also associated with yeast osmotolerance and improved tolerance of high concentrations of glucose and ethanol. Our study shows that thermal adaptation of yeast is suitable for improving yeast resistance to inhibitory conditions found in industrial ethanol production processes. IMPORTANCE Yeast thermotolerance can significantly reduce the production costs of biomass conversion to ethanol. However, little information is available about the underlying genetic changes and physiological functions required for yeast thermotolerance. We recently revealed the genetic changes of thermotolerance in thermotolerant yeast strains (TTSs) generated through adaptive laboratory evolution. Here, we examined these TTSs’ physiology and computed their proteome stability over the entire thermal niche, as well as their preadaptation to other stresses. Using this approach, we showed that TTSs exhibited evolutionary trade-offs in the ancestral thermal niche, as well as reduced numbers of growth functions and preadaptation to other stresses found in ethanol production processes. This information will be useful for rational engineering of yeast thermotolerance for the production of biofuels and chemicals. © 2015 Caspeta and Nielsen.
Odic D.,University of British Columbia |
Le Corre M.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos |
Halberda J.,Johns Hopkins University
Cognition | Year: 2015
Humans can represent number either exactly - using their knowledge of exact numbers as supported by language, or approximately - using their approximate number system (ANS). Adults can map between these two systems - they can both translate from an approximate sense of the number of items in a brief visual display to a discrete number word estimate (i.e., ANS-to-Word), and can generate an approximation, for example by rapidly tapping, when provided with an exact verbal number (i.e., Word-to-ANS). Here we ask how these mappings are initially formed and whether one mapping direction may become functional before the other during development. In two experiments, we gave 2-5. year old children both an ANS-to-Word task, where they had to give a verbal number response to an approximate presentation (i.e., after seeing rapidly flashed dots, or watching rapid hand taps), and a Word-to-ANS task, where they had to generate an approximate response to a verbal number request (i.e., rapidly tapping after hearing a number word). Replicating previous results, children did not successfully generate numerically appropriate verbal responses in the ANS-to-Word task until after 4. years of age - well after they had acquired the Cardinality Principle of verbal counting. In contrast, children successfully generated numerically appropriate tapping sequences in the Word-to-ANS task before 4. years of age - well before many understood the Cardinality Principle. We further found that the accuracy of the mapping between the ANS and number words, as captured by error rates, continues to develop after this initial formation of the interface. These results suggest that the mapping between the ANS and verbal number representations is not functionally bidirectional in early development, and that the mapping direction from number representations to the ANS is established before the reverse. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Martinez S.S.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos |
Uribe E.V.,Autonomous University of Mexico State
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2012
The degradation of azure B dye (C15H16ClN 3S; AB) has been studied by Fenton, sonolysis and sono-electroFenton processes employing ultrasound at 23 kHz and the electrogeneration of H 2O2 at the reticulated vitreous carbon electrode. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first-order kinetics in all the degradation processes tested. The rate constant was affected by both the pH of the solution and initial concentration of Fe2+, with the highest degradation obtained at pH between 2.6 and 3. The first-order rate constant decreased in the following order: sono-electroFenton > Fenton > sonolysis. The rate constant for AB degradation by sono-electroFenton is ∼10-fold that of sonolysis and ∼2-fold the one obtained by Fenton under silent conditions. The chemical oxygen demand was abated ∼68% and ∼85% by Fenton and sono-electroFenton respectively, achieving AB concentration removal over 90% with both processes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burlak G.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos
Progress in Electromagnetics Research | Year: 2012
We numerically studied the spectrum of Cherenkov optical radiation by a nonrelativistic anisotropic electron bunch crossing 3D dispersive metamaterial. A practically important case when such a medium is described by Drude model is investigated in details. In our theory only parameters of a metamaterial are fixed. The frequency spectrum of internal excitations is left to be defined as a result of the numerical simulation. It is found that a periodic field structure coupled to plasmonic excitations is arisen when the dispersive refractive index of a metamaterial becomes negative. In this case the reversed Cherenkov radiation is observed.
Le Corre M.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos
British Journal of Developmental Psychology | Year: 2014
Many have proposed that the acquisition of the cardinal principle (CP) is a result of the discovery of the numerical significance of the order of the number words in the count list. However, this need not be the case. Indeed, the CP does not state anything about the numerical significance of the order of the number words. It only states that the last word of a correct count denotes the numerosity of the counted set. Here, we test whether the acquisition of the CP involves the discovery of the later-greater principle - that is, that the order of the number words corresponds to the relative size of the numerosities they denote. Specifically, we tested knowledge of verbal numerical comparisons (e.g., Is 'ten' more than 'six'?) in children who had recently learned the CP. We find that these children can compare number words between 'six' and 'ten' only if they have mapped them onto non-verbal representations of numerosity. We suggest that this means that the acquisition of the CP does not involve the discovery of the correspondence between the order of the number words and the relative size of the numerosities they denote. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Butler M.,University of Manitoba |
Meneses-Acosta A.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012
The demand for production of glycoproteins from mammalian cell culture continues with an increased number of approvals as biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of unmet medical needs. This is particularly the case for humanized monoclonal antibodies which are the largest and fastest growing class of therapeutic pharmaceuticals. This demand has fostered efforts to improve the efficiency of production as well as to address the quality of the final product. Chinese hamster ovary cells are the predominant hosts for stable transfection and high efficiency production on a large scale. Specific productivity of recombinant glycoproteins from these cells can be expected to be above 50 pg/cell/day giving rise to culture systems with titers of around 5 g/L if appropriate fed-batch systems are employed. Cell engineering can delay the onset of programmed cell death to ensure prolonged maintenance of productive viable cells. The clinical efficacy and quality of the final product can be improved by strategic metabolic engineering. The best example of this is the targeted production of afucosylated antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity, an important function for use in cancer therapies. The development of culture media from non-animal sources continues and is important to ensure products of consistent quality and without the potential danger of contamination. Process efficiencies may also be improved by employing disposable bioreactors with the associated minimization of downtime. Finally, advances in downstream processing are needed to handle the increased supply of product from the bioreactor but maintaining the high purity demanded of these biopharmaceuticals. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.
Sussman R.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Delgado Gaspar I.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015
We examine the spatial extrema (local maxima, minima and saddle points) of the covariant scalars (density, Hubble expansion, spatial curvature and eigenvalues of the shear and electric Weyl tensors) of the quasispherical Szekeres dust models. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of distributions of multiple extrema in spatial comoving locations that can be prescribed through initial conditions. These distributions evolve without shell crossing singularities at least for ever expanding models (with or without cosmological constant) in the full evolution range where the models are valid. By considering the local maxima and minima of the density, our results allow for setting up elaborated networks of "pancake" shaped evolving cold dark matter overdensities and density voids whose spatial distribution and amplitudes can be controlled from initial data compatible with standard early Universe initial conditions. We believe that these results have an enormous range of potential application by providing a fully relativistic nonperturbative coarse grained modeling of cosmic structure at all scales. © 2015 American Physical Society.
Salgado-Garcia R.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014
In this work we study the transport properties of non-interacting overdamped particles, moving on tilted disordered potentials, subjected to Gaussian white noise. We give exact formulas for the drift and diffusion coefficients for the case of random potentials resulting from the interaction of a particle with a "random polymer". In our model the polymer is made up, by means of some stochastic process, of monomers that can be taken from a finite or countable infinite set of possible monomer types. For the case of uncorrelated random polymers we found that the diffusion coefficient exhibits a non-monotonous behavior as a function of the noise intensity. Particularly interesting is the fact that the relative diffusivity becomes optimal at a finite temperature, a behavior which is reminiscent of stochastic resonance. We explain this effect as an interplay between the deterministic and noisy dynamics of the system. We also show that this behavior of the diffusion coefficient at a finite temperature is more pronounced for the case of weakly disordered potentials. We test our findings by means of numerical simulations of the corresponding Langevin dynamics of an ensemble of noninteracting overdamped particles diffusing on uncorrelated random potentials. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Burlak G.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos |
Malomed B.A.,Tel Aviv University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013
We introduce one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) models of parity-time (PT)-symmetric couplers with the mutually balanced linear gain and loss applied to the two cores and cubic-quintic (CQ) nonlinearity acting in each one. The 2D and 1D models may be realized in dual-core optical wave guides in the spatiotemporal and spatial domains, respectively. Stationary solutions for PT-symmetric solitons in these systems reduce to their counterparts in the usual coupler. The most essential problem is the stability of the solitons, which become unstable against symmetry breaking with the increase of the energy (norm) and retrieve the stability at still larger energies. The boundary value of the intercore-coupling constant, above which the solitons are completely stable, is found by means of an analytical approximation, based on the cw (zero-dimensional) counterpart of the system. The approximation demonstrates good agreement with numerical findings for the 1D and 2D solitons. Numerical results for the stability limits of the 2D solitons are obtained by means of the computation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, and verified in direct simulations. Although large parts of the soliton families are unstable, the instability is quite weak. Collisions between 2D solitons in the PT-symmetric coupler are studied by means of simulations. Outcomes of the collisions are inelastic but not destructive, as they do not break the PT symmetry. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Autonomous University of the State of Morelos | Date: 2011-10-04
The present invention relates to the field of human and veterinary medicine. The invention solves the problem associated with the lack of an agent for improving the immune response in immunosuppressed individuals, or with autoimmunity problems as well as infections; reducing the effects of the stress, combating tissue fibrosis; the need for anti-inflammatory agents; treatments for acute and chronic hepatitis, treatments against malignant processes and metastasis, as well as thrombocytopenia, both in humans and animals. The present invention comprises a molecular complex formed by a metallic ion and a peptide as novel compound, which is denominated as an immunomodulator metallopeptide hereafter abbreviated as IMMP. Claims also include the process for obtaining the complex, the use of the metallopeptide for producing a therapeutic or nutraceutic agent, and the use of that agent in humans and animals.