Ortiz M.I.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2011
There is evidence that administration of sulfonylureas, such as glibenclamide and tolbutamide, blocks diclofenac-induced antinociception, suggesting that diclofenac activates ATP-sensitive K + channels. However, there is no evidence for the interaction between diclofenac and other hypoglycemic drugs, such as the biguanides metformin or phenformin. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine whether two sulfonylureas, glibenclamide and glipizide, as well as two biguanides, metformin and phenformin, have any effect on the systemic antinociception that is induced by diclofenac and indomethacin using the rat formalin test as an animal model. Systemic injections of diclofenac (10 to 30 mg/kg) and indomethacin (10 to 30 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent antinociception during the second phase of the test. Systemic pretreatment with glibenclamide (3 and 10 mg/kg), glipizide (3 and 10 mg/kg), metformin (100 and 180 mg/kg) or phenformin (100 and 180 mg/kg) blocked diclofenac-induced systemic antinociception in the second phase of the test (P < 0.05). In contrast, pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin or phenformin did not block indomethacin-induced systemic antinociception (P > 0.05). These data suggest that diclofenac, but not indomethacin, activated K + channels and metformin and phenformin-dependent mechanisms, which resulted in systemic antinociceptive effects in the rat formalin test. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lopez-Ortega O.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013
For creativity to be computed, it is paramount to understand the cognitive processes involved, which have been elucidated by either surveying creative people or discovering regions of the human brain that activate during creative endeavors. From this scattering, the author proposes a holistic framework to describe them and their interaction. Hence, creativity can be regarded as a meta process which coordinates autonomous cognitive processes such as planning or divergent thinking. To represent the interplay of cognitive processes around creativity, models are developed in the Agent Unified Modeling Language (AUML). Then, the execution of each process is delegated to autonomous agents and a global coordination protocol is devised. The implementation of the MAS is done on the JADE platform. Two modules of the resultant system are exemplified: opus planning and divergent exploration. The coordination protocol is also presented. The domain in which the software system is tested is the creation of musical pieces. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ben-Youssef C.,Technological Institute of Cancun |
Vazquez-Rodriguez G.A.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011
Microbial degradation of phenol was studied using batch and fedbatch cultures of acclimatized activated sludge under a wide range of phenol (0-793mgl-1) and biomass (0.74-6.7gl-1) initial concentrations. As cell growth continued after total phenol removal, the production and later consumption of a main metabolic intermediate was considered the step governing the biodegradation kinetics. A model that takes explicitly into account the kinetics of the intermediate was developed by introducing a specific growth rate model associated with its consumption and the incorporation of a dual-substrate inhibitory effect on phenol degradation. Biomass growth and phenol removal were adequately predicted in all the cultures. Moreover, the model-based design of the fedbatch feeding strategies allowed driving separately the phenol degradation under substrate-limitation and substrate-inhibition modes. A sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to establish the importance of the parameters in the accuracy of model predictions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Moreno C.E.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo |
Rodriguez P.,Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad
Oecologia | Year: 2011
After decades of misusing the term diversity in community ecology, over the last 5 years some papers have offered important advances toward developing a more rigorous mathematical background, which allows us to achieve more clarity in the terminology for the vast range of biological phenomena that have been placed under the umbrella of this term. Some points have been clearly stated in previous papers of this Views and Comments section, and new terms have even been proposed for specific cases, but other issues, such as the need for the prefix true have not been discussed. Our aim is to clarify some of the terms and concepts, the proper use of which appears still to remain unclear, and to provide biologists with a simplified version of the general framework resulting from recent contributions, with an emphasis on identifying points of consensus in the field. We also comment on the possibility of extending the basics of this general framework to other facets of the broad term biodiversity, such as functional or phylogenetic diversity. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Ortiz M.I.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2010
Objective: To evaluate the prevalence, impact and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea among Mexican university students. Study design: A multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to 1539 students in six university programs: medicine, nursing, nutrition, dentistry, pharmacy and psychology. Data on the presence, severity, symptoms, treatment and limitations caused by dysmenorrhea were obtained and analyzed. Results: The mean ± SD age of the women was 20.4 ± 2.0 years; the mean age of menarche was 12.3 ± 1.5 years. A total of 64% of the women experienced dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea was more prevalent among nutrition and psychology students than among medicine, pharmacy and dentistry students (p < 0.05). Dysmenorrhea was mild in 36.1% of women, moderate in 43.8% and severe in 20.1%. Nursing students showed an intensity of pain that was significantly higher than that of medicine and dentistry students (p < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of the women with dysmenorrhea reported that it limited their daily activities, and 42.1% reported school absenteeism (SA) as a result. Of those who experienced dysmenorrhea, 25.9% consulted a physician, and 61.7% practiced self-medication (SM). The most common medications used were an over-the-counter (OTC) medication with paracetamol (an analgesic), pamabrom (a diuretic), and pyrilamine (a histamine antagonist), another OTC with metamizol (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]) plus butylhioscine (an antispasmodic drug) and naproxen (a NSAID). Of those women using prescribed medications, 18.4% reported complete remission of their symptoms, while 78.1% reported little to moderate alleviation, and 3.6% reported no effect on their menstrual distress. Similarly, of the women who practiced SM, 23.4% reported complete relief, 75.5% reported little to moderate effectiveness, and 1.0% reported no efficacy. Conclusion: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea among Mexican university students is high, and the pain that these women suffer can be severe, disabling and result in short-term SA. The pain is often not completely relieved despite the use of medication. It is necessary to improve the therapeutic options for relief of pain caused by dysmenorrhea and to minimize the impact of dysmenorrhea on social, economic and school activities. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.