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The Autonomous University of Madrid is commonly known by its Spanish initials UAM or as "la Autónoma". UAM is a Spanish public university established in 1968, along with the autonomous universities of Barcelona and Bilbao during one of Spain's most ambitious educational reforms, which took place during the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Since 1971, the university's main campus has been located in Cantoblanco, a rural area in the northern outskirts of Madrid. Despite being part of the municipality of Madrid, the campus is nearer the towns of Alcobendas and Tres Cantos. Throughout its history, UAM has been one of Spain's most prominent higher education institutions, being ranked first amongst Spanish universities by the El Mundo University Supplement , by The Times Higher Education Supplement, and by the Academic Ranking of World Universities yearly published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University. For the subject "Mathematics" the university was ranked within top 51-75 universities in the world . In the "Times Higher Education 100 Under 50 University Rankings", the University achieved 49th position globally in 2012. In another similar ranking "QS Top 50 Under 50" by Quacquarelli Symonds , the Autonomous University of Madrid recently achieved 15th place in international comparison. Its Faculty of Law is the most prestigious one in Spain. It is the Spanish university that has more researchers among the most cited according to the Thomson Reuters ranking citation in 2011. Wikipedia.

Catalan J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

A thorough analysis of the absorption and emission spectra of p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) in ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, 1-chlorobutane, dichloromethane and trimethyl phosphate recorded at both 298 K and the melting point of each solvent allowed us to examine the corresponding emission excitation spectra by monitoring light across the dual fluorescence emission for DMABN. Based on its excitation spectra, DMABN forms charge transfer structures in solvents with a dipolarity exceeding 0.9 on the SdP (solvent dipolarity) scale that can be directly excited to a TICT structure from their ground electronic state. These results contradict the widespread assumptions made about the photophysics of DMABN over the past fifty years. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Oliveira A.,University of Porto | Lopes C.,University of Porto | Rodriguez-Artalejo F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: The Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) is the traditional diet in northern Portugal and Galicia, a region in northwest Spain. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between adherence to the SEAD and the occurrence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design: This was a population-based case-control study in Porto, Portugal. Cases were patients aged ≥18 y who were hospitalized with an incident AMI (n = 820), and controls were individuals without AMI selected at random from the resident population of the participating hospitals' catchment area (n = 2196). A validated food-frequency questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews to assess dietary intake in the previous year. We developed an SEAD adherence index with 9 key components: fresh fish excluding cod, cod, red meat and pork products, dairy products, legumes and vegetables, vegetable soup, potatoes, whole-grain bread, and wine. A score of 1 or 0 was assigned to each food consumed and reflected consumption that was higher or lower, respectively, than the sex-specific median in controls. Results: After adjustment for the main confounders, a 1-point increment in the SEAD score was associated with a 10% reduced odds of AMI [odds ratio (OR): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.96]. In comparison with individuals in the lower quartile of the SEAD index (lowest adherence), those in the upper quartile had a 33% lower likelihood of experiencing an AMI (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.88; P for trend = 0.003). An SEAD index calculated by reverse scoring for red meat and pork products and potatoes led to an even stronger inverse association between the SEAD and AMI (OR for the upper compared with the lower quartile of SEAD index: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.52; P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions: Adherence to the SEAD was associated with lower odds of nonfatal AMI. However, some but not all food components of the SEAD may contribute to the very low coronary mortality in northern Portugal and Galicia. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.

Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2014

Some intriguing results, obtained in a recent survey of octupole properties for all even-even nuclei, are reanalyzed in order to understand the origin of the strong disagreement with experimental data and/or the strange behaviours observed. The limitations of the rotational formula to describe E1 and E3 transition strengths are discussed as well as the role played by octupole-quadrupole coupling in some specific nuclei. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

Catalan J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2015

The currently accepted model for the photophysics of indole assumes that the first UV absorption band encompasses two orthogonal electronic transitions (1Lb and 1La), leading to two electronic states with a markedly different dipole moment. However, there is a body of evidence not explained by this model, which led us to develop a new photophysical model for indole. Based on the new model, the polarity of the electronic ground state (S0) in indoles is very similar to that of the first electronic excited state (S1) producing this structured emission; however, this excited state can lead to a highly dipolar excited state (S1′) with largely structureless emission under the influence of the polarity of the medium, and also, very likely, of its viscosity. The molecular structure of the new excited state can be reversibly converted into the normal structure of the compound. Previous observations were confirmed by the absorption, emission, and excitation spectra for indole, as well as by its polarized emission and excitation spectra in various media. Thus, the polarized emission spectra for indole in glycerol at 283 K and 223 K showed the transition dipole moments for the emission from the first two excited states in a polar medium, S1 and S1′, to differ by less than 20°. © the Owner Societies 2015.

Manzanares M.V.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Current Biology | Year: 2013

A new study reveals that non-muscle myosin II plays a central role in the durotaxis of mesenchymal stem cells, with the two major isoforms, II-A and II-B, being cooperatively required for this cell movement, and serine phosphorylation of the II-A isoform playing a negative role. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mendez R.,Autonomous University of Madrid
PLoS computational biology | Year: 2010

Mutation bias in prokaryotes varies from extreme adenine and thymine (AT) in obligatory endosymbiotic or parasitic bacteria to extreme guanine and cytosine (GC), for instance in actinobacteria. GC mutation bias deeply influences the folding stability of proteins, making proteins on the average less hydrophobic and therefore less stable with respect to unfolding but also less susceptible to misfolding and aggregation. We study a model where proteins evolve subject to selection for folding stability under given mutation bias, population size, and neutrality. We find a non-neutral regime where, for any given population size, there is an optimal mutation bias that maximizes fitness. Interestingly, this optimal GC usage is small for small populations, large for intermediate populations and around 50% for large populations. This result is robust with respect to the definition of the fitness function and to the protein structures studied. Our model suggests that small populations evolving with small GC usage eventually accumulate a significant selective advantage over populations evolving without this bias. This provides a possible explanation to the observation that most species adopting obligatory intracellular lifestyles with a consequent reduction of effective population size shifted their mutation spectrum towards AT. The model also predicts that large GC usage is optimal for intermediate population size. To test these predictions we estimated the effective population sizes of bacterial species using the optimal codon usage coefficients computed by dos Reis et al. and the synonymous to non-synonymous substitution ratio computed by Daubin and Moran. We found that the population sizes estimated in these ways are significantly smaller for species with small and large GC usage compared to species with no bias, which supports our prediction.

Gonzalez-Miquel M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Palomar J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Rodriguez F.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

A systematic thermodynamic analysis has been carried out for selecting cations and anions to enhance the absorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at low concentration in gaseous streams by ionic liquids (ILs), using COSMO-RS methodology. The predictability of computational procedure was validated by comparing experimental and COSMO-RS calculated Henry's law constant data over a sample of 125 gaseous solute-IL systems. For more than 2400 solute-IL mixtures evaluated, including 9 solutes and 270 ILs, it was found that the lower the activity coefficient at infinite dilution (γ ∞) of solutes in the ILs, the more the exothermic excess enthalpy (HE) of the equimolar IL-solute mixtures. Then, the solubility of a representative sample of VOC solutes, with very different chemical nature, was screened in a wide number of ILs using COSMO-RS methodology by means of γ∞ and HE parameters, establishing criteria to select the IL structures that promote favorable solute-solvent intermolecular interactions. As a result of this analysis, an attempt of classification of VOCs respect to their potential solubility in ILs was proposed, providing insights to rationally select the cationic and anionic species for a possible development of absorption treatments of VOC pollutants based on IL systems. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Karami N.,Liverpool John Moores University | Clemente R.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Moreno-Jimenez E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Beesley L.,Liverpool John Moores University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

Green waste compost and biochar amendments were assessed for their assistance in regulating the mobility of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) and the resultant uptake of these metals into vegetation. The amendments were mixed with a heavily Cu and Pb contaminated soil (600 and 21,000mgkg-1, respectively) from a former copper mine in Cheshire (UK), on a volume basis both singly and in combination in greenhouse pot trials. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Cadix) was grown for the following 4 months during which biomass, metals in soil pore water and plant uptake were measured in three consecutive harvests. Very high Pb concentrations in pore water from untreated soil (>80mgl-1) were reduced furthest by compost amendment (<5mgl-1) whereas biochar was the more effective treatment at reducing pore water Cu concentrations. Duly, ryegrass shoot Cu levels were reduced and large, significant reductions in shoot Pb levels were observed after biochar and compost amendments, respectively during successive harvests. However, because green waste compost singly and in combination with biochar vividly enhanced biomass yields, harvestable amounts of Pb were only significantly reduced by the compost amendment which had reduced shoot Pb levels furthest. The low biomass of ryegrass with biochar amendment meant that this was the only amendment which did not significantly increase harvestable amounts of Cu. Therefore the two amendments have opposing metal specific suitability for treating this contaminated soil regarding whether it is a maximum reduction in plant tissue metal concentration or a maximum reduction in harvestable amount of metal that is required. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Rabinovich M.I.,University of California at San Diego | Simmons A.N.,University of California at San Diego | Varona P.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Trends in Cognitive Sciences | Year: 2015

The bridge between brain structures as computational devices and the content of mental processes hinges on the solution of several problems: (i) inference of the cognitive brain networks from neurophysiological and imaging data; (ii) inference of cognitive mind networks - interactions between mental processes such as attention and working memory - based on cognitive and behavioral experiments; and (iii) the discovery of general dynamical principles for cognition based on dynamical models. In this opinion article, we focus on the third problem and discuss how it provides the bridge between the solutions to the first two problems. We consider the possibility of creating low-dimensional dynamical models from multidimensional spatiotemporal data and its application to robust sequential cognitive processes in the context of finite processing capacity of the mind. © 2015.

Pillai J.K.,University of Maryland University College | Puertas M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Chellappa R.,University of Maryland University College
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2014

Due to the increasing popularity of iris biometrics, new sensors are being developed for acquiring iris images and existing ones are being continuously upgraded. Re-enrolling users every time a new sensor is deployed is expensive and time-consuming, especially in applications with a large number of enrolled users. However, recent studies show that cross-sensor matching, where the test samples are verified using data enrolled with a different sensor, often lead to reduced performance. In this paper, we propose a machine learning technique to mitigate the cross-sensor performance degradation by adapting the iris samples from one sensor to another. We first present a novel optimization framework for learning transformations on iris biometrics. We then utilize this framework for sensor adaptation, by reducing the distance between samples of the same class, and increasing it between samples of different classes, irrespective of the sensors acquiring them. Extensive evaluations on iris data from multiple sensors demonstrate that the proposed method leads to improvement in cross-sensor recognition accuracy. Furthermore, since the proposed technique requires minimal changes to the iris recognition pipeline, it can easily be incorporated into existing iris recognition systems. © 1979-2012 IEEE.

Cuadrado A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a master regulator of cellular homeostasis that controls the expression of more than 1% of human genes related to biotransformation reactions, redox homeostasis, energetic metabolism, DNA repair, and proteostasis. Its activity has a tremendous impact on physiology and pathology and therefore it is very tightly regulated, mainly at the level of protein stability. In addition to the very well established regulation by the ubiquitin E3 ligase adapter KEAP1, recent advances have identified a novel mechanism based on signaling pathways that regulate glycogen synthase kinse-3 (GSK-3). This kinase phosphorylates specific serine residues in the Neh6 domain of NRF2 to create a degradation domain that is then recognized by the ubiquitin ligase adapter β-TrCP and tagged for proteasome degradation by a Cullin1/Rbx1 complex. Here we review the mechanistic elements and the signaling pathways that participate in this regulation by GSK-3/β-TrCP. These pathways include those activated by ligands of tyrosine kinase, G protein-coupled, metabotropic, and ionotropic receptors that activate phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ATK and by the canonical WNT signaling pathway, where a fraction of NRF2 interacts with Axin1/GSK-3. Considering that free NRF2 protein is localized in the nucleus, we propose a model termed "double flux controller" to explain how KEAP1 and β-TrCP coordinate the stability of NRF2 in several scenarios. The GSK-3/β-TrCP axis provides a novel therapeutic strategy to modulate NRF2 activity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Guimon J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Technovation | Year: 2011

This article explores how the globalization of corporate R&D has led to the emergence of new policy strategies across the EU, involving a more proactive role of governments and a closer connection between innovation policies and FDI promotion policies. The first part presents an analytical framework encompassing the main policy objectives and instruments at stake, which aims at facilitating the design and evaluation of policies geared towards the globalization of corporate R&D. Both the policies to attract inward FDI in R&D and those towards R&D offshoring are addressed, as well as the distinct policy implications of alternative entry modes. The second part provides evidence of the evolution of European policies in response to the globalization of corporate R&D, pointing out a set of country-specific examples and suggesting avenues for policy intervention at the EU level. Although the focus is on the EU, this study may inform policy learning in other developed and developing countries alike. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Diaz-Uriarte R.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Bioinformatics | Year: 2014

Motivation: Studies of genomic DNA copy number alteration can deal with datasets with several million probes and thousands of subjects. Analyzing these data with currently available software (e.g. as available from BioConductor) can be extremely slow and may not be feasible because of memory requirements. Results: We have developed a BioConductor package, ADaCGH2, that parallelizes the main segmentation algorithms (using forking on multicore computers or parallelization via message passing interface, etc., in clusters of computers) and uses ff objects for reading and data storage. We show examples of data with 6 million probes per array; we can analyze data that would otherwise not fit in memory, and compared with the non-parallelized versions we can achieve speedups of 25-40 times on a 64-cores machine. © 2014 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Ruiz-Mirazo K.,University of the Basque Country | Briones C.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | De La Escosura A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

In order to explain how the first organisms might have appeared on Earth, or elsewhere, it is necessary to develop chemistries that enable the synthesis of information-bearing polymers, protometabolic networks, and protocellular compartments under compatible prebiotic conditions. In this direction, the first step would be the synthesis of the monomeric units that constitute peptides, nucleic acids or their analogue polymers, and vesicle membranes. Some of these building blocks could have been delivered to Earth from extraterrestrial sources, while their endogenous synthesis on our planet is another feasible option. Catalysis, in particular organocatalysis and organometallic catalysis, could have enlarged and diversified the set of compounds potentially present in different prebiotic scenarios. Vesicles composed of mixtures of simple amphiphilic molecules and surfactants, on the other hand, have shown the required stability and permeability for encapsulation of nucleic acids and peptides.

Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2013

Arthroscopic synovectomy (AS) of the elbow, while providing similar pain relief to open synovectomy (OS), may place patients at higher risk for recurrence. The primary predictor of outcome is degree of pre-existing degenerative changes within the joint. Regarding haemophilia patients, radiosynovectomy (RS) is the best choice for patients with persistent synovitis of the elbow. In the elbow we recommend a dose of 30-40 megabecquerels (mBq) in children and a dose of 56-74 mBq in adults. If three consecutive RSs with 6 months intervals are ineffective, an AS or OS must be indicated. Synovectomy (by any method) significantly reduces bleeding episodes. Although the dose of radiation of RS is minimal, 0.32 millisieverts (mSv) in children, 0.54 mSv in adults, and neither articular nor systemic neoplastic changes related to RS have been reported so far, all patients must be given opportunity to consider risk/benefit ratios. Radiation dose due to natural sources is 2 mSv per year and the recommended limit for patients (apart from natural sources is 1 mSv per year). My current recommendation is to use RS in children older than 12 years of age. Therefore, in children younger than 12 years of age an AS should be indicated. OS should be reserved for adults requiring radial head excision (due to a severe limitation of pronation-supination) and synovectomy in the same surgical session. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pertuz S.,Rovira i Virgili University | Puig D.,Rovira i Virgili University | Garcia M.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Fusiello A.,University of Verona
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2013

The limited depth-of-field of some cameras prevents them from capturing perfectly focused images when the imaged scene covers a large distance range. In order to compensate for this problem, image fusion has been exploited for combining images captured with different camera settings, thus yielding a higher quality all-in-focus image. Since most current approaches for image fusion rely on maximizing the spatial frequency of the composed image, the fusion process is sensitive to noise. In this paper, a new algorithm for computing the all-in-focus image from a sequence of images captured with a low depth-of-field camera is presented. The proposed approach adaptively fuses the different frames of the focus sequence in order to reduce noise while preserving image features. The algorithm consists of three stages: 1) focus measure; 2) selectivity measure; 3) and image fusion. An extensive set of experimental tests has been carried out in order to compare the proposed algorithm with state-of-the-art all-in-focus methods using both synthetic and real sequences. The obtained results show the advantages of the proposed scheme even for high levels of noise. © 2012 IEEE.

Sanchez-Conde M.A.,Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology | Prada F.,Campus of International Excellence UAMCSIC | Prada F.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Prada F.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Iaa Csic
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

In the standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory for understanding the formation of structure in theUniverse, there exists a tight connection between the properties of darkmatter (DM) haloes, and their formation epochs. Such relation can be expressed in terms of a single key parameter, namely the halo concentration. In this work, we examine the median concentration-mass relation, c(M), at present time, over more than 20 orders of magnitude in halo mass, i.e. from tiny Earth-mass microhaloes up to galaxy clusters. The c(M) model proposed by Prada et al. (2012), which links the halo concentration with the rms amplitude of matter linear fluctuations, describes remarkably well all the available N-body simulation data down to ~10-6 h -1M( microhaloes. A clear fattening of the halo concentration-mass relation towards smaller masses is observed, that excludes the commonly adopted power-law c(M) models, and stands as a natural prediction for the CDM paradigm. We provide a parametrization for the c(M) relation that works accurately for all halo masses. This feature in the c(M) relation at low masses has decisive consequences e.g. for γ -ray DM searches, as it implies more modest boosts of the DM annihilation flux due to substructure, i.e. ~35 for galaxy clusters and ~15 for galaxies like our own, as compared to those huge values adopted in the literature that rely on such power-law c(M) extrapolations. We provide a parametrization of the boosts that can be safely used for dwarfs to galaxy cluster-size haloes. © 2014 The Authors.

Tripathi A.,University of Navarra | Prensa L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Mengual E.,University of Navarra
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2013

The ventral pallidum (VP) is a key component of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits that process motivational and emotional information, and also a crucial site for reward. Although the main targets of the two VP compartments, medial (VPm) and lateral (VPl) have already been established, the collateralization patterns of individual axons have not previously been investigated. Here we have fully traced eighty-four axons from VPm, VPl and the rostral extension of VP into the olfactory tubercle (VPr), using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine in the rat. Thirty to fifty percent of axons originating from VPm and VPr collateralized in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and lateral habenula, indicating a close association between the ventral basal ganglia-thalamo- cortical loop and the reward network at the single axon level. Additional collateralization of these axons in diverse components of the extended amygdala and corticopetal system supports a multisystem integration that may take place at the basal forebrain. Remarkably, we did not find evidence for a sharp segregation in the targets of axons arising from the two VP compartments, as VPl axons frequently collateralized in the caudal lateral hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area, the well-known targets of VPm, while VPm axons, in turn, also collateralized in typical VPl targets such as the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata, and retrorubral field. Nevertheless, VPl and VPm displayed collateralization patterns that paralleled those of dorsal pallidal components, confirming at the single axon level the parallel organization of functionally different basal ganglia loops. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2015

The ground state octupole correlation energy is computed with the D1M variant of the Gogny force in different theoretical frameworks and analyzed in detail. First I consider the correlation energy gained at the mean field level by breaking reflection symmetry. Next I consider the energy gain coming from symmetry (parity) restoration and finally I analyze the ground state correlation energy after configuration mixing with axially symmetric octupole states. The impact of the latter on theoretical binding energies indicates that octupole correlations do not affect in a significant way the trend and systematic of binding energies and therefore can not improve the performance of theoretical models in this respect. In particular, the too-large 'shell gaps' predicted by self-consistent mean field models and relevant in astrophysics scenarios are not altered by the octupole correlations. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Petty R.E.,Ohio State University | Brinol P.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Cognition and Emotion | Year: 2015

This article addresses the multiple ways in which emotions can influence attitudes and persuasion via primary and secondary (meta-) cognition. Using the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion as a guide, we review evidence for five fundamental processes that occur at different points along the elaboration continuum. When the extent of thinking is constrained to be low, emotions influence attitudes by relatively simple processes that lead them to change in a manner consistent with the valence of the emotion. When thinking is constrained to be high, emotions can serve as arguments in favour of a proposal if they are relevant to the merits of the advocacy or they can bias thinking if the emotion precedes the message. If thinking is high and emotions become salient after thinking, they can lead people to rely or not rely on the thoughts generated either because the emotion leads people to like or dislike their thoughts (affective validation) or feel more confident or doubtful in their thoughts (cognitive validation). When thinking is unconstrained, emotions influence the extent of thinking about the persuasive communication. Although prior theories have addressed one or more of these fundamental processes, no other approach has integrated them into one framework. © 2014, Taylor & Francis.

Grushin A.G.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Rodriguez-Lopez P.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cortijo A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

In this work we study the Casimir effect with three-dimensional topological insulators including the effects of temperature and uniaxial anisotropy. Although precise experimental values for the optical properties of these materials are yet to be established, a qualitative analysis is still possible. We find qualitatively that the reported repulsive behavior and the equilibrium point are robust features of the system, and are favored by low temperatures and the enhancement of the optical response parallel to the optical axis. The dependence of the equilibrium point with temperature and with the topological magnetoelectric polarizability characteristic of three-dimensional topological insulators is also discussed. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, body weight perception and physical fitness perception. Methods: Survey by means of personal interview. The sample consisted of 8,594 participants living in Spain between 15 and 97 years of age. Sampling error was ±1.07%. Results: Of the people who reported having good or excellent physical fitness, there was a proportionally greater prevalence of males, people aged 15 to 34, people with university studies and people from an upper or very upper social class (P < 0.001). It was also inferred that there was a greater possibility of perceiving deficient or very bad physical fitness in cohorts who felt that they should gain a bit of weight (OR = 2.87), lose a bit of weight (OR = 2.31) or lose a lot of weight (OR = 8.78). Conclusion: Perception of physical fitness is associated with perception of body weight, independently of people's sociodemographic characteristics.

Avriller R.,Donostia International Physics Center | Avriller R.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

We propose a general framework that unifies the description of counting statistics of transmitted (fermionic) charges as it is commonly used in the quantum transport community with the description of counting statistics of phonons (bosons). As a particular example, we study on the same footing the counting statistics of electrons transferred through a molecular junction and the corresponding population dynamics of the associated molecular vibrational mode. In the tunnel limit, non-perturbative results in the electron-phonon interaction are derived that unify complementary approaches based on rate equations or on the use of non-equilibrium Green functions. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Ruting F.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Ruting F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Disorder-induced effects on plasmon coupling in chains of metallic nanoparticles are studied within a dipole model by considering two types of disorder: fluctuations of the particles' shapes and of their positions. Typical localization effects are found both in the eigenmodes and in the transport behavior of the system, and an estimate of the localization length is made. It is argued that chains with deliberately introduced disorder constitute promising systems for studying localization effects of electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies under well-controllable and manipulable conditions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Medina I.,Autonomous University of Madrid
European Urban and Regional Studies | Year: 2016

Past studies of business associations conducted in the late 1980s indicated that employers were reluctant to support devolution due to economic fears and political uncertainties. However, profound changes have altered the dominant economic and political paradigms over the course of the last three decades. Regional innovation has become a linchpin for competitive economies, whereas secession has become a skyrocketing political issue in Catalonia and Scotland, and a number of regional agencies have been settled throughout Europe, even in unitary states. Have business associations adapted to this new reality? This article examines 18 regional business associations from three Spanish regions (Catalonia, Andalusia and the Valencian Community) and three UK regions (Scotland, Wales and South West England). The first part of the article discusses six theoretical arguments linking business associations and regionalism. A general overview of the cases is offered in the second section. The third section of the article performs a fuzzy sets/Qualitative Comparative Analysis to identify the main factors that bolster the regionalisation of business associations. By way of conclusion, there are two routes towards successful regional business mobilisation. On the one hand, this happens in regions where a competent institutional arrangement has been established. On the other hand, this also happens when business associations recognise the economic and political strengths of the region while they are able to interact with regional institutions. © The Author(s) 2014.

Llorente M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Mattila P.,University of Helsinki
Nonlinearity | Year: 2010

We give sufficient conditions to guarantee that if two self-conformal sets E and F have Lipschitz equivalent subsets of positive measure, then there is a bilipschitz map of E into, or onto, F. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.

Calvo-Gallardo E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology | Year: 2015

Altered synaptic transmission with excess glutamate release has been implicated in the loss of motoneurons occurring in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Hyperexcitability or hypoexcitability of motoneurons from mice carrying the ALS mutation SOD1(G93A) (mSOD1) has also been reported. Here we have investigated the excitability, the ion currents, and the kinetics of the exocytotic fusion pore in chromaffin cells from postnatal day 90 to postnatal day 130 mSOD1 mice, when motor deficits are already established. With respect to wild-type (WT), mSOD1 chromaffin cells had a decrease in the following parameters: 95% in spontaneous action potentials, 70% in nicotinic current for acetylcholine (ACh), 35% in Na(+) current, 40% in Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) current, and 53% in voltage-dependent K(+) current. Ca(2+) current was increased by 37%, but the ACh-evoked elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) was unchanged. Single exocytotic spike events triggered by ACh had the following differences (mSOD1 vs. WT): 36% lower rise rate, 60% higher decay time, 51% higher half-width, 13% lower amplitude, and 61% higher quantal size. The expression of the α3-subtype of nicotinic receptors and proteins of the exocytotic machinery was unchanged in the brain and adrenal medulla of mSOD1, with respect to WT mice. A slower fusion pore opening, expansion, and closure are likely linked to the pronounced reduction in cell excitability and in the ion currents driving action potentials in mSOD1, compared with WT chromaffin cells. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

Nikitin A.Yu.,University of Zaragoza | Nikitin A.Yu.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Guinea F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

The extraordinary properties of graphene make it a very promising material for optoelectronics. However, basic attributes of the electromagnetic field in graphene are still unexplored. Here we report on the in-plane fields radiated by a nanoemitter lying on a graphene sheet in terahertz regime, which present a rich dependence on frequency, distance to the source, and orientation of the dipole moment. The field pattern is mainly composed of a core region, dominated by surface plasmons, where the electric field can be several orders of magnitude larger than in vacuum, and an outer region where the field is virtually the same as what it would be in vacuum. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Zazunov A.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Yeyati A.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Egger R.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

We study Coulomb charging effects for transport through a topologically nontrivial superconducting wire, where Majorana bound states are present at the interface to normal-conducting leads. We construct the general Keldysh functional integral representation and provide detailed results for the nonlinear current-voltage relation under weak Coulomb blockade conditions. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Nikitin A.Y.,University of Zaragoza | Nikitin A.Y.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Guinea F.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Surface plasmon modes supported by graphene ribbon waveguides are studied and classified. The properties of both modes with the field concentration within the ribbon area (waveguiding modes) and on the edges (edge modes) are discussed. The waveguide and edge modes are shown to be separated from each other by a gap in wave numbers. The even-parity hybridized edge mode results to be the fundamental electromagnetic mode of the ribbon, possessing also the lowest losses. All of the plasmonic modes in the ribbons have an optimum frequency, at which the absorption losses are minimum, due to compromise between the plasmon confinement and the decrease of the group velocity close to the modal cutoff. The presented results show that the diffraction limit in graphene ribbons can be surpassed. © 2011 American Physical Society.

MacIas J.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part C: Applications and Reviews | Year: 2012

The use of resource description framework-based ontologies as knowledge repositories has become increasingly popular over the past few years. The semantic web has rapidly spread, appearing as a new challenge for knowledge sharing and automatic processing. However, the reality is that the power of the semantic web is still barely used. This is mostly because of the fact that the semantic web is a powerful but complex technology that most end users cannot afford to use for their common problem-solving activities. This has probably made the semantic web to stay in the background of interactive technologies, unlike other new end-user-oriented paradigms (e.g., the so-called Web 2.0 and later approaches) that have very much increased along these years. Nevertheless, the semantic web can be considered as a highly valuable paradigm that has not been, conveniently, exploited yet. In this paper, we propose a semantic environment to exploit semantic interaction by end users in order to help them access semantic information easily. We follow a programming by demonstration approach, where the user navigates and modifies HTML presentation of data and the system, automatically, infers changes to the underlying semantic models. Furthermore, we provide an evaluation of the interaction, including the most important results obtained for the proposed approach. © 1998-2012 IEEE.

Nikitin A.Yu.,University of Zaragoza | Nikitin A.Yu.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

We present an analytical expression for the electromagnetic field at the surface radiated by a hole in a metal film. This expression is valid for any metal, from the optical range to longer wavelengths, and for distances to the hole larger than a few tens of nanometers. The field pattern presents a rich behavior, showing three regions (a complex short distance, an intermediate range dominated by surface plasmon polaritons, and a long-distance one dominated by Norton waves). The crossover distances between these regimes depend strongly on both the wavelength and the angle with respect to the incident field. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Hernandez-Lobato D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Hernandez-Lobato J.M.,University of Cambridge | Dupont P.,Catholic University of Louvain
Journal of Machine Learning Research | Year: 2013

We describe a Bayesian method for group feature selection in linear regression problems. The method is based on a generalized version of the standard spike-and-slab prior distribution which is often used for individual feature selection. Exact Bayesian inference under the prior considered is infeasible for typical regression problems. However, approximate inference can be carried out efficiently using Expectation Propagation (EP). A detailed analysis of the generalized spike-and-slab prior shows that it is well suited for regression problems that are sparse at the group level. Furthermore, this prior can be used to introduce prior knowledge about specific groups of features that are a priori believed to be more relevant. An experimental evaluation compares the performance of the proposed method with those of group LASSO, Bayesian group LASSO, automatic relevance determination and additional variants used for group feature selection. The results of these experiments show that a model based on the generalized spike-and-slab prior and the EP algorithm has state-of-the-art prediction performance in the problems analyzed. Furthermore, this model is also very useful to carry out sequential experimental design (also known as active learning), where the data instances that are most informative are iteratively included in the training set, reducing the number of instances needed to obtain a particular level of prediction accuracy. © 2013 Daniel Hernández-Lobato, José Miguel Hernández-Lobato and Pierre Dupont.

Bullon T.,Autonomous University of Madrid
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2015

The present research is based on the hypertemporal analysis of a set of 212 images from the NDVI index from January 2003 to March 2012 provided by the medium-resolution sensor MODIS TERRA. The study area is located in the center of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain). The specific objectives of the study are to investigate the rhythms of the annual development of the NDVI of each of the classes, determine the classes that are most sensitive to climatic variability and define the interannual sequences of variation in NDVI with an associated trend analysis. The classes situated in lower-altitude areas are strongly dependent on autumn rainfall and present negative temporal tendencies, and those situated at mountaintops and on upper slopes are correlated with spring-summer temperatures and exhibit stable or positive tendencies © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Santini S.,Autonomous University of Madrid
VLDB Journal | Year: 2015

This paper analyzes the decidability and complexity problems that arise when matching regular expressions on infinite streams of sets of symbols. We show that in important application domains, several apparently obvious semantics lead to detecting spurious events (events that are mere artifacts of the semantics) or to missing events of potential interest. We single out a class of semantics, of interest in many applications, which we dub use-and-throw: In a use-and-throw semantics, an elementary event can participate in the creation of at most one detected complex event. Many areas of research have identified this as a desirable requirement (we give the examples of databases and video surveillance), but hitherto there has been no systematic study of the characteristics of these semantics, in particular their decidability and algorithmic complexity. This paper is meant to provide at least some initial answers on this subject. We analyze several semantics, provide polynomial algorithms for them, and prove their correctness and their properties. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Diez-Guerra F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
IUBMB Life | Year: 2010

Neurogranin (Ng) (also named RC3, p17 or BICKS) is a small protein originally identified in rat brain and abundantly expressed in several telencephalic areas, such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and striatum. In neurons, it is found concentrated at dendritic spines where it participates in synaptic signaling events through the regulation of calmodulin (CaM) availability. Ng features an IQ motif that mediates its interaction with CaM and phosphatidic acid (PA) and that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) at serine 36 (Ser36). Ser36-phosphorylated Ng is unable to bind either CaM or PA. Ng knockout mice display an apparently normal phenotype; however, they show severe deficits in spatial and emotional learning and a decrease in LTP induction, mostly due to the attenuation of the signaling that depends on calcium/CaM kinase II (CaMKII), PKC, and protein kinase A (PKA) activation. The present review is an update on the most relevant information about Ng expression, localization, interactions, and modifications as well as on its role in synaptic plasticity. © 2010 IUBMB.

Requena J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Frontiers in Bioscience | Year: 2011

Regulation of gene expression is one of the most intriguing aspects of Leishmania biology. This review deals with current knowledge concerning gene organization and regulation of gene expression in this protozoan parasite, which cause serious illness and death in humans living in tropical and subtropical regions. Post-transcriptional regulation is especially important for Leishmania, and other trypanosomatids, due to the unusual features related to transcription and mRNA maturation. In these organisms, genes are organized into polycistronic transcription units, whereby many genes are cotranscribed by RNA polymerase II from not well characterized, upstream promoters. These organisms represent an extreme in which the expression of their genome is almost exclusively controlled post-transcriptionally. Because the regulatory needs of these parasites are considerable as they undergo complex developmental transitions, post-transcriptional mechanisms that involve RNA and protein regulatory processes are of paramount importance for these protozoa. This review summarizes recent results on the posttranscriptional mechanisms in Leishmania that regulate protein abundance through influencing RNA splicing, nuclear-cytoplasmic mRNA stability, translation, or posttranslational events such as protein stability and modification.

Caurier E.,University of Strasbourg | Nowacki F.,University of Strasbourg | Poves A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We study in this Letter the double beta decay of 136Xe with emission of two neutrinos which has been recently measured by the EXO-200 Collaboration. We use the same shell model framework, valence space, and effective interaction that we have already employed in our calculation of the nuclear matrix element (NME) of its neutrinoless double beta decay. Using the quenching factor of the Gamow-Teller operator which is needed to reproduce the very recent high resolution 136Xe ( 3He, t) 136Cs data, we obtain a nuclear matrix element M 2ν=0.025 MeV -1 compared with the experimental value M 2ν=0.019(2) MeV -1. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Cottet A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Kontos T.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Yeyati A.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We suggest a way to characterize the coherence of the split Cooper pairs emitted by a double-quantum-dot based Cooper pair splitter (CPS), by studying the radiative response of such a CPS inside a microwave cavity. The coherence of the split pairs manifests in a strongly nonmonotonic variation of the emitted radiation as a function of the parameters controlling the coupling of the CPS to the cavity. The idea to probe the coherence of the electronic states using the tools of cavity quantum electrodynamics could be generalized to many other nanoscale circuits. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Gamez J.A.,Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung | Yanez M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2013

The present contribution analyzes the special bonding situation of the [FAAF]- anions (A = O, S, Se, Te), where the addition on an extra charge turns the covalent A-A bond of the neutral into a charge-shift (CS) bond. By means of theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that electrostatic interactions produced by negative point charges can transform the covalent A-A bond in the A2 + cation into a CS one. Consequently, the electric field created by the fluorine atoms can be behind the unusual bonding situation of [FAAF]-, showing how electrostatic interactions can influence and alter the nature of the chemical bond. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Wittenmyer R.A.,University of New South Wales | Horner J.,University of New South Wales | Marshall J.P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Butters O.W.,University of Leicester | Tinney C.G.,University of New South Wales
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

It has recently been proposed, on the basis of eclipse-timing data, that the eclipsing polar cataclysmic variable HU Aquarii is host to at least two giant planets. However, that result has been called into question based upon the dynamical stability of the proposed planets. In this work, we present a detailed re-analysis of all eclipse-timing data available for the HU Aquarii system, making use of standard techniques used to fit orbits to radial-velocity data. We find that the eclipse timings can be used to obtain a two-planet solution that does not require the presence of additional bodies within the system. We then perform a highly detailed dynamical analysis of the proposed planetary system. We show that the improved orbital parameters we have derived correspond to planets that are dynamically unstable on unfeasibly short time-scales (of the order of 10 4 yr or less). Given these results, we discuss briefly how the observed signal might in fact be the result of the intrinsic properties of the eclipsing polar, rather than being evidence of dynamically improbable planets. Taken in concert, our results highlight the need for caution in interpreting such timing variations as being planetary in nature. © 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS.

Bastolla U.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science | Year: 2014

Elastic network models ENMs allow to analytically predict the equilibrium dynamics of proteins without the need of lengthy simulations and force fields, and they depend on a small number of parameters and choices. Despite they are valid only for small fluctuations from the mean native structure, it was observed that large functional conformation changes are well described by a small number of low frequency normal modes. This observation has greatly stimulated the application of ENMs for studying the functional dynamics of proteins, and it is prompting the question whether this functional dynamics is a target of natural selection. From a physical point of view, the agreement between low frequency normal modes and large conformation changes is stimulating the study of anharmonicity in protein dynamics, probably one of the most interesting direction of development in ENMs. ENMs have many applications, of which we will review four general types: (1) the efficient sampling of native conformation space, with applications to molecular replacement in X-ray spectroscopy, cryo electro-miscroscopy, docking and homology modeling; (2) the prediction of paths of conformation change between two known end states; (3) the comparison of the dynamics of evolutionarily related proteins; (4) the prediction of dynamical couplings that allow the allosteric regulation of the active site from a distant control regions, with possible applications in the development of allosteric drugs. These goals have important biotechnological applications that are driving more and more attention on the analytical study of protein dynamics through ENMs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tamargo J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Solini A.,University of Pisa | Ruilope L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Seminars in Nephrology | Year: 2014

The first aldosterone blocker, spironolactone, initially was used as a diuretic but was accompanied by a significant amount of side effects that necessitated the withdrawal of the drug in a relevant number of patients. The discovery of the many receptor-mediated actions of aldosterone in several different organs greatly contributed to expand the indications of aldosterone blockers. Eplerenone was the second component of this class of drugs and differed from spironolactone because of its significantly better safety, albeit this was accompanied by a lower potency when used at equinumeric doses. Although these two drugs were being used in clinical practice, the epithelial sodium channel blockers, amiloride and triamterene, with a similar antialdosterone action, continued to be used in clinical practice in combination with thiazides and loop diuretics. New members of the third and fourth generation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and aldosterone synthase inhibitors are in development. These new compounds, which include the new nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists and aldosterone synthase inhibitors, try to maintain adequate efficacy, avoiding the drawbacks of spironolactone and eplerenone. Ongoing studies will show the certainty of the capacities of these new compounds to override the virtues of the first mineralocorticoid-receptor spironolactone while avoiding the side effects leading so frequently to the withdrawal of the drug, including a significantly lower prevalence of hyperkalemia when chronic kidney disease is present. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Garcia-Martos C.,Technical University of Madrid | Rodriguez J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sanchez M.J.,Technical University of Madrid
Energy Economics | Year: 2011

The liberalization of electricity markets more than ten years ago in the vast majority of developed countries has introduced the need of modelling and forecasting electricity prices and volatilities, both in the short and long term. Thus, there is a need of providing methodology that is able to deal with the most important features of electricity price series, which are well known for presenting not only structure in conditional mean but also time-varying conditional variances. In this work we propose a new model, which allows to extract conditionally heteroskedastic common factors from the vector of electricity prices. These common factors are jointly estimated as well as their relationship with the original vector of series, and the dynamics affecting both their conditional mean and variance. The estimation of the model is carried out under the state-space formulation. The new model proposed is applied to extract seasonal common dynamic factors as well as common volatility factors for electricity prices and the estimation results are used to forecast electricity prices and their volatilities in the Spanish zone of the Iberian Market. Several simplified/alternative models are also considered as benchmarks to illustrate that the proposed approach is superior to all of them in terms of explanatory and predictive power. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lario L.D.,National University of Rosario | Ramirez-Parra E.,Technical University of Madrid | Gutierrez C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Spampinato C.P.,National University of Rosario | Casati P.,National University of Rosario
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

ANTI-SILENCING FUNCTION1 (ASF1) is a key histone H3/H4 chaperone that participates in a variety of DNA- and chromatin-related processes, including DNA repair, where chromatin assembly and disassembly are of primary relevance. Information concerning the role of ASF1 proteins in the post-ultraviolet (UV) response in higher plants is currently limited. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), an initial analysis of in vivo localization of ASF1A and ASF1B indicates that both proteins are mainly expressed in proliferative tissues. In silico promoter analysis identified ASF1A and ASF1B as potential targets of Elongation Factor2 (E2F) transcription factors. These observations were experimentally validated, both in vitro, by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and in vivo, by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and expression analysis using transgenic plants with altered levels of different E2F transcription factors. These data suggest that ASF1A and ASF1B are regulated during cell cycle progression through E2F transcription factors. In addition, we found that ASF1A and ASF1B are associated with the UV-B-induced DNA damage response in Arabidopsis. Transcript levels of ASF1A and ASF1B were increased following UV-B treatment. Consistent with a potential role in UV-B response, RNA interference-silenced plants of both genes showed increased sensitivity to UV-B compared with wild-type plants. Finally, by coimmunoprecipitation analysis, we found that ASF1 physically interacts with amino-terminal acetylated histones H3 and H4 and with acetyltransferases of the Histone Acetyl Transferase subfamily, which are known to be involved in cell cycle control and DNA repair, among other functions. Together, we provide evidence that ASF1A and ASF1B are regulated by cell cycle progression and are involved in DNA repair after UV-B irradiation. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

Chuang C.-H.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Wang Y.,University of Oklahoma
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Galaxy clustering data can be used to measure the cosmic expansion history H(z), the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the linear redshift-space distortion parameter β(z). Here we present a method for using effective multipoles of the galaxy two-point correlation function ( ̂ξ0(s), ̂ξ2(s), ̂ξ4(s) and ̂ξ6(s), with s denoting the comoving separation) to measure H(z), DA(z) and β(z), and validate it using LasDamas mock galaxy catalogues. Our definition of effective multipoles explicitly incorporates the discreteness of measurements, and treats the measured correlation function and its theoretical model on the same footing. We find that for the mock data, ̂ξ0 + ̂ξ2 + ̂ξ4 captures nearly all the information, and gives significantly stronger constraints on H(z), DA(z) and β(z), compared to using only ̂ξ0 + ̂ξ2. We apply our method to the sample of luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 without assuming a dark energy model or a flat universe. We find that ̂ξ4(s) deviates on scales of s < 60 Mpc h-1 from the measurement from mock data [in contrast to ̂ξ0(s), ̂ξ2(s) and ̂ξ6(s)]; thus, we only use ̂ξ0 + ̂ξ2 for our fiducial constraints. We obtain {H(0.35), DA(0.35), ωmh2, β(z)} = {79.6+8.3 -8.7 km s-1 Mpc-1, 1057+88 -87 Mpc, 0.103 ± 0.015, 0.44 ± 0.15} using ̂ξ0 + ̂ξ2. We find that H(0.35) rs(zd)/c and DA(0.35)/rs(zd) [where rs(zd) is the sound horizon at the drag epoch] are more tightly constrained: {H(0.35) rs(zd)/c, DA(0.35)/rs(zd)} = {0.0437+0.0041 -0.0043,6.48+0.44 -0.43} using ̂ξ0 + ̂ξ2. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Wittenmyer A.,University of New South Wales | Horner J.,University of New South Wales | Marshall J.P.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We present a detailed dynamical analysis of the orbital stability of the two circumbinary planets recently proposed to orbit the evolved eclipsing binary star system NSVS 14256825. As is the case for other recently proposed circumbinary planetary systems detected through the timing of mutual eclipses between the central binary stars, the proposed planets do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. The proposed orbits for the two planets are extremely unstable on time-scales of less than a thousand years, regardless of the mutual inclination between the planetary orbits. For the scenario where the planetary orbits are coplanar, a small region of moderate stability was observed, featuring orbits that were somewhat protected from destabilization by the influence of mutual 2:1 mean-motion resonance between the orbits of the planets. Even in this stable region, however, the systems tested typically only survived on time-scales of the order of 1 Myr, far shorter than the age of the system. Our results suggest that if there are planets in the NSVS 14256825 system, they must move on orbits dramatically different to those proposed in the discovery work. More observations are clearly critically required in order to constrain the nature of the suggested orbital bodies. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Wang Y.,University of Oklahoma | Chuang C.-H.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Hirata C.M.,California Institute of Technology
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Galaxy redshift surveys are becoming increasingly important as a dark energy probe. We improve the forecasting of dark energy constraints from galaxy redshift surveys by using the 'dewiggled' galaxy power spectrum, Pdw(k), in the Fisher matrix calculations. Since Pdw(k) is a good fit to real galaxy clustering data over most of the scale range of interest, our approach is more realistic compared to previous work in forecasting dark energy constraints from galaxy redshift surveys. We find that our new approach gives results in excellent agreement when compared to the results from the actual data analysis of the clustering of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 luminous red galaxies. We provide forecasts of the dark energy constraints from a plausible Stage IV galaxy redshift survey. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Chuang C.-H.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Wang Y.,University of Oklahoma
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

We present a simple and efficient phenomenological model for the two-dimensional two-point galaxy correlation function that works well over a wide range of scales, from large scales down to scales as small as 25 h-1 Mpc. Our model incorporates non-linear effects and a scaledependent galaxy bias on small scales, and it allows the redshift-space distortions to be scale and direction dependent. We validate our model using LasDamas mock catalogues and apply it to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release Seven (DR7) luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Using only the monopole and quadrupole of the correlation function measured from the SDSS DR7 LRGs, we obtain improved measurements H(z)rs(zd)/c = 0.0433 ± 0.0042, DA(z)/rs (zd ) = 6.59 ± 0.46 and f (z)σ8(z) = 0.429 ± 0.089 at z = 0.35, using the scale range 25 < s < 120 h-1 Mpc.We expect our results and model to be useful in tightening dark energy and gravity constraints from the full analysis of current and future galaxy clustering data. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Revers F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Revers F.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Garcia J.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Advances in Virus Research | Year: 2015

Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Byrne R.A.,TU Munich | Joner M.,TU Munich | Alfonso F.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Kastrati A.,TU Munich
Nature Reviews Cardiology | Year: 2014

Nonstent-based local drug delivery during percutaneous intervention offers potential for sustained antirestenotic efficacy without the limitations of permanent vascular implants. Preclinical studies have shown that effective local tissue concentrations of drugs can be achieved using drug-coated balloon (DCB) catheters. Matrix coatings consisting of a mixture of lipophilic paclitaxel and hydrophilic spacer (excipient) are most effective. Clinical applications most suited to DCB therapy are those for which stent implantation is not desirable or less effective, such as in-stent restenosis, bifurcation lesions, or peripheral artery stenoses. Randomized trials have shown superiority of DCBs over plain-balloon angioplasty for both bare-metal and drug-eluting coronary in-stent restenosis, and similar efficacy as repeat stenting with a drug-eluting stent (DES). Bycontrast, randomized trials of DCBs in de novo coronary stenosis have, to date, not shown similar efficacy to standard-of-care DES therapy. In peripheral artery disease, DCB therapy has proven superior to plain-balloon angioplasty for treatment of de novo femoropoliteal and below-the-knee disease, and shown promising results for in-stent restenosis. Overall, however, despite many years of clinical experience with DCBs, the number of large, high-quality, randomized clinical trials is low, and further data are urgently needed across the spectrum of clinical indications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Salas M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2012

This article is a survey of my scientific work over 52 years. During my postdoctoral stay in Severo Ochoa's laboratory, I determined the direction of reading of the genetic message, and I discovered two proteins that I showed to be involved in the initiation of protein synthesis. The work I have done in Spain with bacteriophage φ29 for 45 years has been very rewarding. I can say that I was lucky because I did not expect that φ29 would give so many interesting results, but I worked hard, with a lot of dedication and enthusiasm, and I was there when the luck arrived. I would like to emphasize our work on the control of φ29 DNA transcription and, in particular, the finding for the first time of a protein covalently linked to the 5′-ends of φ29 DNA that we later showed to be the primer for the initiation of phage DNA replication. Very relevant was the discovery of the φ29 DNA polymerase, with its properties of extremely high processivity and strand displacement capacity, together with its high fidelity. The φ29 DNA polymerase has become an ideal enzyme for DNA amplification, both rolling-circle and whole-genome linear amplification. I am also very proud of the many brilliant students and collaborators with whom I have worked over the years and who have become excellent scientists. This Reflections article is not intended to be the end of my scientific career. I expect to work for many years to come. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Catalan J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2012

The thermochromic behavior of solutions of stilbazolium dyes in dipolar 1-chlorobutane toward a solvent dipolarity change was used for the first time to demonstrate that stilbazolium betaine dyes exhibit inverted solvatochromism, with a bathochromic band shift in the low-dipolarity solvent region and a hypsochromic band shift in the high-dipolarity solvent region. Interestingly, the hypsochromic band shifts of the stilbazolium betaine dyes studied here are twice more sensitive to the dipolarity of the medium than its bathochromic band shifts. The solvatochromic behavior observed affords the following conclusions: (a) the solvated molecular forms of the chromophore involved in the hypsochromic band shifts are identical for absorption and emission in stilbazolium betaine dyes; (b) the absorbing form involved in the hypsochromic band shifts absorb at a longer wavelength (λ max = 696 nm) than that involved in the bathochromic band shifts (λ max = 609 nm) in the gas-phase spectrum, a fact which should be considered in developing structural models to account for this phenomenon. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nattino F.,Leiden University | Diaz C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Jackson B.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Kroes G.-J.,Leiden University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations using the specific reaction parameter approach to density functional theory are presented for the reaction of D 2 on Cu(111) at high surface temperature (T s=925K). The focus is on the dependence of reaction on the alignment of the molecule's angular momentum relative to the surface. For the two rovibrational states for which measured energy resolved rotational quadrupole alignment parameters are available, and for the energies for which statistically accurate rotational quadrupole alignment parameters could be computed, statistically significant results of our AIMD calculations are that, on average, (i) including the effect of the experimental surface temperature (925 K) in the AIMD simulations leads to decreased rotational quadrupole alignment parameters, and (ii) including this effect leads to increased agreement with experiment. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Marques M.I.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

In this Letter, the optical forces on an electric dipole generated by a beam made up of two circularly polarized Hermite-Gaussian modes have been analyzed. When the intensity of the two modes is not the same, the mechanical action of the scattering force is completely different from the behavior of the Poynting vector. The dynamics of resonant metallic nanoparticles under this field have been calculated by means of Langevin molecular dynamic simulations. This configuration could be useful to experimentally verify how radiation pressure on a Rayleigh particle is due to the transfer of linear momentum coming solely from the orbital part of the Poynting vector. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Brook C.B.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Brook C.B.,University of Central Lancashire | Stinson G.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Gibson B.K.,University of Central Lancashire | And 2 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

We use the same physical model to simulate four galaxies that match the relation between stellar and total mass, over a mass range that includes the vast majority of disc galaxies. The resultant galaxies, part of the Making Galaxies in a Cosmological Context (MaGICC) programme, also match observed relations between luminosity, rotation velocity, size, colour, star formation rate, Hi mass, baryonic mass and metallicity. Radiation energy feedback from massive stars and supernova energy balance the complex interplay between cooling gas, regulated star formation, large-scale outflows and recycling of gas in a manner which correctly scales with the mass of the galaxy. Outflows, driven by the expansion of shells and superbubbles of overlapping supernova explosions, also play a key role in simulating galaxies with exponential surface brightness profiles, flat rotation curves and dark matter cores. Our study implies that large-scale outflows are the primary driver of the dependence of disc galaxy properties on mass. We show that the degree of outflows invoked in our model is required to meet the constraints provided by observations of Ovi absorption lines in the circumgalactic media of nearby galaxies. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.

Ruiz-Rodriguez A.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales | Reglero G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ibanez E.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010

The consumption of dietary fats have been long associated to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, asthma, and cardiovascular disease; although some controversy still exists in the role of dietary fats in human health, certain fats have demonstrated their positive effect in the modulation of abnormal fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism, both of them associated to chronic diseases. Among the different fats, some fatty acids can be used as functional ingredients such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), γ-linolenic acid (GLA), stearidonic acid (STA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), among others. The present review is focused on recent developments in FAs analysis, covering sample preparation methods such as extraction, fractionation and derivatization as well as new advances in chromatographic methods such as GC and HPLC. Special attention is paid to trans fatty acids due its increasing interest for the food industry. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Calzada M.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2010

Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene is responsible for the development of renal carcinomas, pheochromocytomas and tumours in other organs. The gene product (pVHL) is a central component in the oxygen-sensing pathway through its role in the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Loss of pVHL leads to activation of the HIF pathway in normoxia with the concomitant increase in tumour vascularisation due to the up-regulation of pro-angiogenic genes. However, although the role of pVHL in the regulation of HIF has proved to be important for tumour growth, other pVHL functions independent of HIF have been reported and help to explain why loss of VHL leads to renal cancer. Studies aimed to characterise other molecular pathways that shed light on its physiological roles as a gatekeeper gene in kidney and other organs will be very helpful for the development of novel anticancer therapies. © 2010 Feseo.

Abollo-Jimenez F.,University of Salamanca | Jimenez R.,University of Salamanca | Cobaleda C.,University of Salamanca | Cobaleda C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2010

The traditional approaches to cancer research and therapy have been primarily focused in the aspect of aberrant, uncontrolled, proliferation. Although this is clearly a very important issue, however, the emphasis on this characteristic has led to a relative neglect of an essential aspect of cancer biology: the alteration of normal differentiation processes. The oncogenic alterations that arise in an otherwise healthy cell lead to a whole reprogramming of the normal cellular fate and open a new pathologic developmental program. In this way cancer, reprogramming and cellular plasticity are tightly intertwined, since only some cells posses the necessary plasticity so as to allow the tumoral reprogramming to take place, and only some oncogenes have, in the right cellular context, the required tumoral reprogramming capacity. Research in the field of induced pluripotency is shedding a new light on the molecular mechanisms of tumor initiation and differentiation. In this review we discuss the latest findings in the area of cellular reprogramming and their implications from the point of view of tumor biology. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Espada J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Esteller M.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Esteller M.,Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2010

Symmetrical methylation of cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides of the DNA molecule is a central epigenetic and heritable hallmark of the genome. This epigenetic modification of DNA is directly associated with a closed molecular conformation of the chromatin fibre which is, in turn, intrinsically linked to an inactive transcriptional status. Thus, DNA methylation is a major determinant of the functional outcome of the nucleus. Equally important, DNA methylation is also involved in the large-scale maintenance of the nuclear architecture, which is required for proper nuclear function. Densely DNA methylated regions tend to occupy large and discrete regions of the genome and can act as referential structural blocks for building up the whole functional organization of the nucleus. In this context, interpreting the three-dimensional pattern of DNA methylation is crucial to our understanding of the dynamic biology of genomes. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Iglesias I.,University of Murcia | Saenz J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Optics Express | Year: 2012

An incomplete modeling of the scattering forces on a Rayleigh particle without taking into account the light spin forces in "Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization" by Q. Zhan, leads to erroneous statements on the advantages of using radial polarization to trap metallic particles. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Butler P.A.,University of Liverpool
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

The relevance of coupling of quadrupole and octupole collective degrees of freedom in physical observables is explored in calculations with the Gogny force for the light radon, radium, and thorium isotopes. The results of the generator coordinate method calculations for the properties of negative parity states show an improvement over the traditional ones that consider just the octupole moment. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Contreras L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Neurochemistry International | Year: 2015

Brain energetic requirements are elevated due to the high cost of impulse transmission and information storage, and are met mainly by glucose oxidation. The energy needs are closely matched by metabolic regulation, which requires the close cooperation of neurons and astrocytes and involves highly regulated fluxes of metabolites between cells. The metabolism in each type of cell is determined in part by its proteomic profile, which has been regarded as complementary. This review will consider the cellular distribution of the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier, aralar/AGC1/SLC25A12, and its role in the synergic metabolism between neurons and astrocytes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Alfageme Roldan F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas | Year: 2014

The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV.

Arregui L.,University of Calgary | Dobrinski I.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Reproduction | Year: 2014

Spermatogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves endocrine and testicular factors. During xenotransplantation of testicular tissue fragments into immunodecifient mice, a functional communication between host brain and donor testis is established. This interaction allows for the progression of spermatogenesis and recovery of fertilisation-competent spermatozoa from a broad range of mammalian species. In the last few years, significant progress has been achieved in testis tissue xenografting that improves our knowledge about the factors determining the success of grafting. The goal of this review is to provide up to date information about the role of factors such as donor age, donor species, testis tissue preservation or type of recipient mouse on the efficiency of this technique. Applications are described and compared with other techniques with similar purposes. Recent work has demonstrated that testicular tissue xenografting is used as a model to study gonadotoxicity of drugs and to obtain sperm from valuable young males. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Kujawska M.,University of Lodz | Pardo-De-Santayana M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Using the example of Polish migrants living in the subtropics of Argentina, we attempt to expand knowledge about migrant strategies for retaining their agency in medicinal plant procurement. Aim of the study: Is to state which environments play a pivotal role as a source of medicinal plants for the study community, and if a gradient of relevance exists in the exploitation of medicinally useful species between the most proximate and the most distant habitats. We particularly aim to answer the following questions: (1) if Polish migrants have changed their patterns of obtaining medicinal plants during the migratory process; and (2) if the choice of strategies for medicinal plants depends on: (a) the degree of floristic and environmental similarity between the home and host country; (b) the perception and usefulness of certain environments as a source of medicinal plants; (c) the degree of contact with the local population in the host country, and/or (d) the degree of contact between migrants and their homeland. Material and methods: The analysis is grounded in data from different types of interviews and a homegarden inventory addressed to 72 study participants. Voucher specimens of species mentioned were gathered and identified. Two indices were used as proxy measures: (1) the number of species obtained from each habitat, and (2) the number of citations for both modes and places of obtaining medicinal plants. Results: Due to different flora found in Argentina, Polish migrants could reconstruct only bits and pieces of their native pharmacopoeia. They could not acquire medicinal plants either from relatives in Poland or via importation. Therefore they had to develop new strategies for securing medicinal resources. During the migratory process, Poles in Misiones changed forms and places of obtaining medicinal plants. Cultivated species from homegardens play the most important role, while in the native country homegarden species were used sparsely. The second most important environment for medicinal plant procurement is the forest, whose exploitation was increased by contact with local mestizos and indigenous groups. Conclusions: This study clearly shows that traditional knowledge can be adaptive and resilient. New species have been selected and incorporated from mestizos, and indigenous people, and at the same time the use of some legacy plants has been preserved. The importance of home gardens as a venue for medicinal plants is another facet of this adaptive process. Traditional knowledge is resilient too, because despite the many changes that have occurred, Polish people have maintained phytotherapy as their preferred form of treating ailments, and managed to retain certain species brought from Europe as the most relevant. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery | Year: 2014

The aim of this review article is to analyze the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR) compared to unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) in patients with medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis (MUO) in terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The search engine was MedLine. The keywords used were: Medial knee osteoarthritis. Three thousand and ninety-six articles were found on 28 April 2014. Of those, only twenty-eight were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, patients who undergo UKR have higher revision rates and lower survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years. The reported overall risk of postoperative complications for patients undergoing TKR is 11%, compared with 4.3% for patients undergoing UKR. In conclusion, UKR have higher revision rates and lower survival rates than TKR. There is, however, an increased risk of postoperative complications after TKR. © 2014 by The Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Poch C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Campo P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Campo P.,Polytechnic University of Mozambique
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Working memory (WM) is the ability to transiently maintain and manipulate internal representations beyond its external availability to the senses. This process is thought to support high level cognitive abilities and been shown to be strongly predictive of individual intelligence and reasoning abilities. While early models of WM have relied on a modular perspective of brain functioning, more recent evidence suggests that cognitive functions emerge from the interactions of multiple brain regions to generate large-scale networks. Here we will review the current research on functional connectivity of WM processes to highlight the critical role played by neural interactions in healthy and pathological brain states. Recent findings demonstrate that WM abilities are not determined solely by local brain activity, but also rely on the functional coupling of neocortical-hippocampal regions to support WM processes. Although the hippocampus has long been held to be important for long-term declarative memory, recent evidence suggests that the hippocampus may also be necessary to coordinate disparate cortical regions supporting the periodic reactivation of internal representations in WM. Furthermore, recent brain imaging studies using connectivity measures, have shown that changes in cortico-limbic interactions can be useful to characterize WM impairments observed in different neuropathological conditions. Recent advances in electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques to model network activity has led to important insights into how neocortical and hippocampal regions support WM processes and how disruptions along this network can lead to the memory impairments commonly reported in many neuropathological populations. ©2012 Pochand Campo.

Kiermaier M.,Princeton University | Okawa Y.,University of Tokyo | Soler P.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We construct analytic solutions of open string field theory using boundary condition changing (bcc) operators. We focus on bcc operators with vanishing conformal weight such as those for regular marginal deformations of the background. For any Fock space state φ, the component string field (φ, Ψ) of the solution Ψ exhibits a remarkable factorization property: it is given by the matter three-point function of φ with a pair of bcc operators, multiplied by a universal function that only depends on the conformal weight of φ. This universal function is given by a simple integral expression that can be computed once and for all. The three-point functions with bcc operators are thus the only needed physical input of the particular open string background described by the solution. We illustrate our solution with the example of the rolling tachyon profile, for which we prove convergence analytically. The form of our solution, which involves bcc operators instead of explicit insertions of the marginal operator, can be a natural starting point for the construction of analytic solutions for arbitrary backgrounds. © SISSA 2011.

Kelley R.,Harvard University | Schwartz M.D.,Harvard University | Schabinger R.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Zhu H.X.,Beijing University of Technology
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We investigate the exclusive jet mass distribution in e +e - events, defined with a veto on the out-of-jet radiation, at two-loop order. In particular, we calculate the two-loop soft function, which is required to describe this distribution in the region of small jet mass. When combined with other ingredients using the soft-collinear effective theory, this generates the complete singular distribution for jet thrust, the sum of the jet masses, at two-loop order. The result is in excellent agreement with full quantum chromodynamics. The integrated jet thrust distribution is found to depend in an intricate way on both the finite jet cone size, R, and the jet veto scale. The result clarifies the structure of the potentially large logarithms (both global and nonglobal) which arise in jet observables for the first time at this order. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that, in the small R limit, there is a precise and simple correspondence between the nonglobal contribution to the integrated jet thrust distribution and the previously calculated nonglobal contribution to the integrated hemisphere soft function, including subleading terms. This suggests that the small R limit may provide a useful expansion for studying other exclusive jet substructure observables. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Calvet-Mir L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gomez-Baggethun E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gomez-Baggethun E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Reyes-Garcia V.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Ecological Economics | Year: 2012

Interest in ecosystem services provided by agroecosystems has grown over the last decades with research focusing on the type of environmental, economic and social benefits delivered by agroecosystems. Researchers suggest that, besides the provisioning of food, fuel, and fiber, agroecosystems provide habitat, cultural, and regulating services. One type of agroecosystem that remains relatively unexplored from an ecosystem service perspective is home gardens. In this paper, we aim at advancing the understanding of the value of home gardens by conducting an assessment of home gardens ecosystem services. For the empirical analysis we use home gardens in Vall Fosca (Catalan Pyrenees). We identify and characterize the most important ecosystem services provided by home gardens, and conduct a valuation of the social importance of home garden ecosystem services. The methodological approach for this work included an in-depth literature review, participant observation, semi-structured interviews, a valuation questionnaire, and a scientific panel consultation. We identified and characterized 19 ecosystem functions and related services. According to our informants, home gardens provide a large set of ecosystem services, being cultural services the category most valued. We found that the most important ecosystem services provided by home gardens differ from those provided by other types of agroecosystems. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Hernandez-Apaolaza L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Planta | Year: 2014

Silicon protects plants against various biotic and abiotic stresses, including metal toxicity. Under a high metal concentration, Si can externally decrease metal availability to the plant by its precipitation in the growth media, and Si also affects the metal distribution inside the plant, diminishing the damage. Could Si also protect plants against metal deficiency stress? Recently, the physiological role of Si in relation to micronutrients deficiency symptoms has been assessed in several plant species in hydroponics. In cucumber, Si supply mitigated the symptoms of Fe deficiency, but this effect was not clear under Zn- or Mn-deficiency conditions. The main factor controlling this beneficial effect seems to be the Si contribution to the formation of metal deposits in the root and/or leaves apoplast and its role in their following remobilization when required. The enhancement of the content of long-distance transport molecules (such as citrate) due to Si addition should also contribute to the metal transport from root to shoot, which will diminish deficiency symptoms. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Catalan J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2012

The two forms of methyl salicylate bearing an intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) are responsible for the three fluorescence emissions produced by this compound on electronic excitation in inert media. Whereas the form possessing an IMHB between its hydroxyl group and ether oxygen undergoes no excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in its first excited electronic state, that with an IMHB involving the carbonyl oxygen exhibits ESIPT with near-unity efficiency. Whereas the former species exhibits standard photophysical behaviour, the latter species exhibits two fluorescence emissions from the same electronic excited state; a photophysical scheme is proposed, which brings together all the available photophysical evidence for methyl salicylate in inert media. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

De Diego A.M.G.,Autonomous University of Madrid
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2010

The ability of adrenal chromaffin cells to fast-release catecholamines relies on their capacity to fire action potentials (APs). However, little attention has been paid to the requirements needed to evoke the controlled firing of APs. Few data are available in rodents and none on the bovine chromaffin cell, a model extensively used by researchers. The aim of this work was to clarify this issue. Short puffs of acetylcholine (ACh) were fast perifused to current-clamped chromaffin cells and produced the firing of single APs. Based on the currents generated by such ACh applications and previous literature, current waveforms that efficiently elicited APs at frequencies up to 20 Hz were generated. Complex waveforms were also generated by adding simple waveforms with different delays; these waveforms aimed at modeling the stimulation patterns that a chromaffin cell would conceivably undergo upon strong synaptic stimulation. Cholinergic innervation was assessed using the acetylcholinesterase staining technique on the supposition that the innervation pattern is a determinant of the kind of stimuli chromaffin cells can receive. It is concluded that 1) a reliable method to produce frequency-controlled APs by applying defined current injection waveforms is achieved; 2) the APs thus generated have essentially the same features as those spontaneously emitted by the cell and those elicited by fast-ACh perifusion; 3) the higher frequencies attainable peak at around 30 Hz; and 4) the bovine adrenal medulla shows abundant cholinergic innervation, and chromaffin cells show strong acetylcholinesterase staining, consistent with a tight cholinergic presynaptic control of firing frequency. Copyright © 2010 the American Physiological Society.

Argenti L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2014

Metastable states are important actors in the ionisation of atoms and molecules. Sub-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses can coherently populate several transiently bound states at once, thus starting the attosecond clocks which are required to monitor and control ultrafast electronic evolution above the ionisation threshold. Here we illustrate, from a theoretical point of view, the effects coherent superpositions of 1Po doubly excited states in the helium atom have on channel-resolved photoelectron spectra as well as on the transient absorption spectrum of the atom in the extreme ultraviolet region, when they are created by a single-attosecond pulse in the presence of a strong few-cycle near-infrared/visible pulse which acts as a probe. Interference fringes varying rapidly with the pump-probe time delay are visible in both photoelectron and transient absorption spectra. From such fringes, the wave packet itself can conceivably be reconstructed. Conversely, all observables are modulated by the characteristic beating periods of the wave packet, so that control of partial ionisation yields, branching ratios, and light absorption or amplification can be achieved.

Donaire M.,University of Porto | Donaire M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We offer a unified approach to several phenomena related to the electromagnetic vacuum of a complex medium made of point electric dipoles. To this aim, we apply the linear response theory to the computation of the polarization field propagator and study the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. The physical distinction among the local density of states which enter the spectra of light propagation, total dipole emission, coherent emission, total vacuum energy, and Schwinger-bulk energy is made clear. Analytical expressions for the spectrum of dipole emission and for the vacuum energy are derived. Their respective relations with the spectrum of external light and with the Schwinger-bulk energy are found. The light spectrum and the Schwinger-bulk energy are determined by the Dyson propagator. The emission spectrum and the total vacuum energy are determined by the polarization propagator. An exact relationship of proportionality between both propagators is found in terms of local field factors. A study of the nature of stimulated emission from a single dipole is carried out. Regarding coherent emission, it contains two components. A direct one which is transferred radiatively and directly from the emitter into the medium and whose spectrum is that of external light. And an indirect one which is radiated by induced dipoles. The induction is mediated by one (and only one) local field factor. Regarding the vacuum energy, we find that in addition to the Schwinger-bulk energy the vacuum energy of an effective medium contains local field contributions proportional to the resonant frequency and to the spectral line width. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Kroes G.-J.,Leiden University | Diaz C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2016

We review the state-of-the art in dynamics calculations on the reactive scattering of H2 from metal surfaces, which is an important model system of an elementary reaction that is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis. In many applications, quantum dynamics and classical trajectory calculations are performed within the Born-Oppenheimer static surface model. However, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) is finding increased use in applications aimed at modeling the effect of surface phonons on the dynamics. Molecular dynamics with electronic friction has been used to model the effect of electron-hole pair excitation. Most applications are still based on potential energy surfaces (PESs) or forces computed with density functional theory (DFT), using a density functional within the generalized gradient approximation to the exchange-correlation energy. A new development is the use of a semi-empirical version of DFT (the specific reaction parameter (SRP) approach to DFT). We also discuss the accurate methods that have become available to represent electronic structure data for the molecule-surface interaction in global PESs. It has now become possible to describe highly activated H2 + metal surface reactions with chemical accuracy using the SRP-DFT approach, as has been shown for H2 + Cu(111) and Cu(100). However, chemical accuracy with SRP-DFT has yet to be demonstrated for weakly activated systems like H2 + Ru(0001) and non-activated systems like H2 + Pd(111), for which SRP DFs are not yet available. There is now considerable evidence that electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation does not need to be modeled to achieve the (chemically) accurate calculation of dissociative chemisorption and scattering probabilities. Dynamics calculations show that phonons can be safely neglected in the chemically accurate calculation of sticking probabilities on cold metal surfaces for activated systems, and in the calculation of a number of other observables. However, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest that the decision on whether or not to neglect phonons should be taken with care, with appropriate consideration of the observable to be computed and of the relevant surface temperature. AIMD calculations have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms that are operative in the dissociative adsorption and absorption of hydrogen on/in precovered metal surfaces. Classical and quantum dynamics calculations have shown that the reaction probability of H2 on Pt surfaces consisting of (100) steps and (111) terraces can to a very good approximation be computed as a weighted average of the reactivities on the steps and terraces. Progress obtained with dynamics calculations on the scattering of H2 from alloys and from simple low index metal surfaces is also reported. Insights that may be obtained on the reactivity of a metal surface from the prominent presence of out-of-plane diffraction or, conversely, the complete absence of diffraction, are discussed. A new field has been opened up by experiments on H2 scattering from surfaces at fast grazing incidence, and we discuss new predictions regarding diffraction and dissociative scattering of H2 under such conditions. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

The present paper provides new information on Pleistocene glacial activity in a mountainous area of the Iberian Central System. A sediment analysis associated with Pleistocene modelling was carried out using: (1) granulometric and morphometric procedures, (2) quartz grain microtexture techniques (SEM) to discriminate between glacial and no glacial origins of sediments, (3) clay X-ray diffraction study to determine intra-Pleistocene climate variability, and (4) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) absolute dating. The results show that the sediments were formed in two different phases associated with glacial dynamics, one of them was 35–30 ky BP and another was 25–20 ky BP, separated by a short intermediate warm-wet period. Identification of glacial phenomena is new for the northern slopes of the Guadarrama Mountains (facing the north Meseta, Duero basin), although they are not unusual within the general context of the Iberian Central System. From the data provided, we deduce that glaciation in these mountains was much more intense and widespread than had previously been thought because, on the northern slopes, glaciers occupied large areas reaching the base of the mountains. The evidence favours new interpretations of Pleistocene morphology in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula and, by extension, on the southwestern edge of Europe; it also highlights the sensitivity of mountainous areas with regard to Quaternary climate changes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Franceschini R.,University of Maryland University College | Torre R.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Torre R.,University of Padua | Torre R.,International School for Advanced Studies
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2013

We study the 8 TeV LHC reach on pair produced heavy flavored di-jet resonances. Motivated by theories of R-parity violation in supersymmetry we concentrate on a final state with two b-jets and two light jets. We exploit b-tagging to reject the background and discuss its importance at the trigger level to probe light stops. We present kinematical selections that can be used to isolate the signal as a bump in the mass distribution of the candidate resonances. We find that stops with R-parity violating couplings giving rise to fully hadronic final states can be observed in the current run of the LHC. Remarkably, the LHC can probe stop masses well within the range predicted by naturalness. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica.

Gonzalez-Garcia M.C.,University of Barcelona | Gonzalez-Garcia M.C.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Maltoni M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Schwetz T.,The Oskar Klein Center
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Abstract: We present a global analysis of solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino oscillations based on data available in summer 2014. We provide the allowed ranges of the six oscillation parameters and show that their determination is stable with respect to uncertainties related to reactor neutrino and solar neutrino flux predictions. We find that the maximal possible value of the Jarlskog invariant in the lepton sector is 0.033 ±0.010 (±0.027) at the 1σ (3σ) level and we use leptonic unitarity triangles to illustrate the ability of global oscillation data to obtain information on CP violation. We discuss “tendencies and tensions” of the global fit related to the octant of θ23 as well as the CP violating phase δCP. The favored values of δCP are around 3π/2 while values around π/2 are disfavored at about Δχ2 ≃6. We comment on the non-trivial task to assign a confidence level to this Δχ2 value by performing a Monte Carlo study of T2K data. © 2014, The Author(s).

Marchetti F.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Keeling J.,University of St. Andrews
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We consider the possible phases of microcavity polaritons tuned near a bipolariton Feshbach resonance. We show that, as well as the regular polariton superfluid phase, a "molecular" superfluid exists, with (quasi-)long-range order only for pairs of polaritons. We describe the experimental signatures of this state. Using variational approaches we find the phase diagram (critical temperature, density, and exciton-photon detuning). Unlike for ultracold atoms, the molecular superfluid is not inherently unstable, and our phase diagram suggests it is attainable in current experiments. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Franco S.,Durham University | Uranga A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We develop tools for determining the gauge theory resulting from a configuration of Type IIB D3-branes probing a non-compact, toric Calabi-Yau 3-fold, in the presence of additional flavor D7-branes with general embeddings. Two main ingredients of our approach are dimer models and mirror symmetry. D7-branes with general embeddings are obtained by recombination of elementary D7-brane constituents. These tools are then used to engineer a large set of Bipartite Field Theories, a class of 4d, N = 1 quantum field theories defined by bipartite graphs on bordered Riemann surfaces. Several explicit examples, including infinite families of models, associated to both planar and non-planar graphs are presented. © The Authors.

Basilakos S.,Academy of Athens | Nesseris S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Perivolaropoulos L.,University of Ioannina
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We demonstrate that a wide range of viable f(R) parametrizations (including the Hu and Sawicki and the Starobinsky models) can be expressed as perturbations deviating from the ΛCDM Lagrangian. We constrain the deviation parameter b using a combination of geometrical and dynamical observational probes. In particular, we perform a joint likelihood analysis of the recent type Ia supernova data, the cosmic microwave background shift parameters, the baryonic acoustic oscillations and the growth rate data provided by the various galaxy surveys. This analysis provides constraints for the following parameters: the matter density Ωm0, the deviation from ΛCDM parameter b and the growth index γ(z). We parametrize the growth index γ(z) in three manners (constant, Taylor expansion around z=0, and Taylor expansion around the scale factor). We point out the numerical difficulty for solving the generalized f(R) Friedmann equation at high redshifts due to the stiffness of the resulting ordinary differential equation. We resolve this problem by constructing an efficient analytical perturbative method in the deviation parameter b. We demonstrate that this method is highly accurate, by comparing the resulting analytical expressions for the Hubble parameter with the numerical solutions at low and intermediate redshifts. Surprisingly, despite its perturbative nature, the accuracy of the method persists even for values of b that are of O(1). © 2013 American Physical Society.

Nieto-Vesperinas M.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Saenz J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Saenz J.J.,Donostia International Physics Center
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

We report the first study on the optical force exerted by an evanescent wave on a small sphere with both electric and magnetic responses to the incident field, immersed in an arbitrary nondissipative medium. New expressions and effects from their gradient, radiation pressure, and curl components are obtained owing to the particle induced electric and magnetic dipoles, as well as to their mutual interaction. We predict possible dramatic changes in the force depending on the host medium, the polarization, and the nature of the surface wave. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds of obvious technical and medical interest. In the present work, we analyze the optical and reactive properties of several small (6-50 Carbon atoms) and large (100-5000 Carbon atoms) irregular PAHs. These properties have been calculated by using the (Frozen) spin molecular orbital (SMO) Hartree-Fock (HF) approach, referred to as FHF, because of its high computational efficiency. There is a reasonable agreement of our results with those previously obtained by other authors. The FHF approach is (about 1000 times) faster than the conventional semi-empirical methods, and only requires the chemical formula of the PAH as input. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Dominguez G.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

The sequential accumulation of genetic alterations has been classically considered responsible for the origin and subsequent progression of colorectal cancer, although recent cumulative data provide strong evidence of the significance of epigenetic changes in the development of this multi-step malignancy. Among the epigenetic alterations, miRNAs deregulation has emerged as an exciting and promising field in cancer research. In a recent issue of the Journal of Pathology, Wang and colleagues identify miR-149 as being silenced by methylation in colorectal cancer. The authors also identified Sp1 as a target of miR-149. These intriguing observations have important biological prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nomura K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Rodriguez-Guzman R.,Kuwait University | Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

Collective quadrupole and octupole states are described in a series of Sm and Gd isotopes within the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM), whose Hamiltonian parameters are deduced from mean-field calculations with the Gogny energy density functional. The link between both frameworks is the (β2β3) potential energy surface computed within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework in the case of the Gogny force. The diagonalization of the IBM Hamiltonian provides excitation energies and transition strengths of an assorted set of states including both positive- and negative-parity states. The resultant spectroscopic properties are compared with the available experimental data and also with the results of the configuration mixing calculations with the Gogny force within the generator coordinate method (GCM). The structure of excited 0+ states and its connection with double-octupole phonons is also addressed. The model is shown to describe the empirical trend of the low-energy quadrupole and octupole collective structure fairly well and turns out to be consistent with GCM results obtained with the Gogny force. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Rodriguez-Guzman R.,CSIC - Institute for the Structure of Matter | Sarriguren P.,CSIC - Institute for the Structure of Matter | Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

The isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes and the systematics of one-quasiproton configurations are studied in odd-A Rubidium isotopes. We use a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism based on the Gogny energy density functional with two parametrizations, D1S and D1M, and implemented with the equal-filling approximation. We find clear signatures of a sharp shape transition at N=60 in both the charge radii and spin parity of the ground states, which are robust, consistent with each other, and in agreement with experiment. We point out that the combined analysis of these two observables could be used to predict unambiguously new regions where shape transitions might develop. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Nieto-Vesperinas M.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Saenz J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Saenz J.J.,Donostia International Physics Center | Gomez-Medina R.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Chantada L.,University of Fribourg
Optics Express | Year: 2010

We present a study of the optical force on a small particle with both electric and magnetic response, immersed in an arbitrary nondissipative medium, due to a generic incident electromagnetic field. This permits us to establish conclusions for any sign of this medium refractive index. Expressions for the gradient force, radiation pressure and curl components are obtained for the force due to both the electric and magnetic dipoles excited in the particle. In particular, for the magnetic force we tentatively introduce the concept of curl of the spin angular momentum density of the magnetic field, also expressed in terms of 3D generalizations of the Stokes parameters. From the formal analogy between the conservation of momentum and the optical theorem, we discuss the origin and significance of the electric-magnetic dipolar interaction force; this is done in connection with that of the angular distribution of scattered light and of the extinction cross section. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Nesseris S.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

It has been long known that by appropriately modifying gravity one can always reproduce the expansion history of any dark energy model, e.g. the ΛCDM. This degeneracy cannot be broken with geometric probes like the Type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background, or the baryon acoustic oscillations since they are based on the measurement of distances and scales and therefore require the expansion history H(z), so one may only hope to break this degeneracy by using dynamic probes like the growth rate data that track the matter density perturbations. We demonstrate that breaking this degeneracy is not currently possible by explicitly constructing f(R), f(G), and f(T) theories that mimic exactly the ΛCDM model at the background level and confronting them against the latest observational cosmological data. We also determine the necessary improvement in the growth rate data in order to discriminate these theories from ΛCDM. We found that at least a threefold improvement is necessary, something which will be possible with a survey like Euclid. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Arana A.,Risk MR Pharmacovigilance Services | Wentworth C.E.,Risk MR | Ayuso-Mateos J.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Arellano F.M.,Risk MR Pharmacovigilance Services
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: A previous meta-analysis of data from clinical trials showed an association between antiepileptic drugs and suicidality (suicidal ideation, behavior, or both). We used observational data to examine the association between the use or nonuse of antiepileptic drugs and suicide-related events (attempted suicides and completed suicides) in patients with epilepsy, depression, or bipolar disorder. Methods: We used data collected as part of the clinical care of patients who were representative of the general population in the United Kingdom to identify patients with epilepsy, depression, or bipolar disorder and to determine whether they received antiepileptic drugs. We estimated the incidence rate of suicide-related events and used logistic regression to compute odds ratios, controlling for confounding factors. Results: In a cohort of 5,130,795 patients, the incidence of suicide-related events per 100,000 person-years was 15.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6 to 15.5) among patients without epilepsy, depression, bipolar disorder, or antiepileptic-drug treatment, 38.2 (95% CI, 26.3 to 53.7) among patients with epilepsy who did not receive antiepileptic drugs, and 48.2 (95% CI, 39.4 to 58.5) among patients with epilepsy who received antiepileptic drugs. In adjusted analyses, the use of antiepileptic drugs was not associated with an increased risk of suicide-related events among patients with epilepsy (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) or bipolar disorder (1.13; 95% CI, 0.35 to 3.61) but was significantly associated with an increased risk among patients with depression (1.65; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.19) and those who did not have epilepsy, depression, or bipolar disorder (2.57; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.71). Conclusions: The current use of antiepileptic drugs was not associated with an increased risk of suicide-related events among patients with epilepsy, but it was associated with an increased risk of such events among patients with depression and among those who did not have epilepsy, depression, or bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Criado J.I.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2012

This article investigates the interoperability of eGovernment policy in the European Union (EU). Are the EU institutions building up regional integration through the interoperability of eGovernment policy? To address this issue, the article analyzes the evolution of interoperability policy making from its inception in 1995 to date. It also outlines the principal implementation instruments deployed by the EU institutions to foster interoperability across member states' public administrations, as well as employing a sample of key case studies to illustrate them. Results confirm the existence of an integrated approach to the interoperability of eGovernment policy fostered at EU level. They also corroborate the utilization of the open method of coordination (OMC) as the governance system operating within this policy field. Finally, and more importantly, this work pinpoints the growing role of interoperability policy for advancing the regional integration process within the multilevel and mutinational governance system epitomized by the EU. © SAGE Publications 2012.

Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2013

Background: Patellar tendinopathy (PT) presents a challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. The purpose of this review is to revise strategies for treatment of PT Materials and methods: A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2002-2012 was performed using "patellar tendinopathy" and "treatment" as keywords. The twenty-two articles addressing the treatment of PT with a higher level of evidence were selected. Results: Conservative treatment includes therapeutic exercises (eccentric training), extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), and different injection treatments (platelet-rich plasma, sclerosing polidocanol, steroids, aprotinin, autologous skin-derived tendon-like cells, and bone marrow mononuclear cells). Surgical treatment may be indicated in motivated patients if carefully followed conservative treatment is unsuccessful after more than 3-6 months. Open surgical treatment includes longitudinal splitting of the tendon, excision of abnormal tissue (tendonectomy), resection and drilling of the inferior pole of the patella, closure of the paratenon. Postoperative inmobilisation and aggressive postoperative rehabilitation are also paramount. Arthroscopic techniques include shaving of the dorsal side of the proximal tendon, removal of the hypertrophic synovitis around the inferior patellar pole with a bipolar cautery system, and arthroscopic tendon debridement with excision of the distal pole of the patella. Conclusion: Physical training, and particularly eccentric training, appears to be the treatment of choice. The literature does not clarify which surgical technique is more effective in recalcitrant cases. Therefore, both open surgical techniques and arthroscopic techniques can be used. © 2012 The Author(s).

Gonzalez-Garcia M.C.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Gonzalez-Garcia M.C.,University of Barcelona | Maltonic M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Salvadod J.,University of Barcelona
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

We present an up-to-date global analysis of solar, atmospheric, reactor and accelerator neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino oscillations. We discuss in detail the statistical signi cance of the observed "hint" of non-zero 13 in the solar sector at the light of the latest experimental advances, such as the Borexino spectral data, the lower value of Gallium rate recently measured in SAGE, and the low energy threshold analysis of the combined SNO phase I and phase II. We also study the robustness of the results under changes of the inputs such as the choice of solar model uxes and a possible modication of the Gallium capture cross-section as proposed by SAGE. In the atmospheric sector we focus on the latest results for - e appearance from MINOS and on the recent Super- Kamiokande results from the combined phases I, II and III, and we discuss their impact on the determination of θ 13. Finally, we combine all the data into a global analysis and determine the presently allowed ranges of masses and mixing. © SISSA 2010.

Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2010

I discuss the inadequacy of the 'projected density' prescription to be used in density-dependent forces/functionals when calculations beyond mean field are pursued. The case of calculations aimed at the symmetry restoration of mean fields obtained with effective realistic forces of the Skyrme or Gogny type is considered in detail. It is shown that, at least for the restoration of spatial symmetries like rotations, translations or parity, the above prescription yields catastrophic results for the energy that drive the intrinsic wave-function to configurations with infinite deformation, thereby preventing its use both in projection after and before variation. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Zumalacarregui M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Zumalacarregui M.,University of Oslo | Koivisto T.S.,University of Oslo | Mota D.F.,University of Oslo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

It is shown that a disformally coupled theory in which the gravitational sector has the Einstein-Hilbert form is equivalent to a quartic Dirac-Born-Infeld Galileon Lagrangian, possessing nonlinear higher derivative interactions, and hence allowing for the Vainshtein effect. This Einstein frame description considerably simplifies the dynamical equations and highlights the role of the different terms. The study of highly dense, nonrelativistic environments within this description unravels the existence of a disformal screening mechanism, while the study of static vacuum configurations reveals the existence of a Vainshtein radius, at which the asymptotic solution breaks down. Disformal couplings to matter also allow the construction of dark energy models, which behave differently than conformally coupled ones and introduce new effects on the growth of large scale structure over cosmological scales, on which the scalar force is not screened. We consider a simple disformally coupled dark matter model in detail, in which standard model particles follow geodesics of the gravitational metric and only dark matter is affected by the disformal scalar field. This particular model is not compatible with observations in the linearly perturbed regime. Nonetheless, disformally coupled theories offer enough freedom to construct realistic cosmological scenarios, which can be distinguished from the standard model through characteristic signatures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis | Year: 2012

The rate of infection following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the general population is 1% on average. However, in persons with haemophilia (PWH), the mean rate of infection following primary TKA is nearly 8%. Questions: why is the infection rate higher in persons with haemophilia compared with the general population? what should be done to correct this? A PubMed (MEDLINE) search and a Cochrane Library search were performed. The most important articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed the prevention of infection in PWH undergoing TKA. Patient-related risk factors predisposing to postoperative infection in the general population include immunodepression and previous infection in the knee. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most common organism in infected TKAs. Systematic preoperative screening by swab is very important. Prevention of MRSA-positive cases by means of nasal decontamination (mupirocin 3 days) is advisable. Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis has shown itself to be an efficient method to lower infection rates. Operating theatres ideally should be equipped with laminar flow. In PWH, there are three additional risk factors: insufficient haemostasis, HIV-positive status, and central venous catheters (CVCs). Implementing the preventive measures for the general population and a sufficient level of clotting factor for 2-3 weeks can help diminish the infection in PWH undergoing TKA. In HIV-positive patients with CD4 count less than 200?cells/μl , early, vigorous treatment should be instituted for suspected infection and surgical intervention individualized based on the balance of risks and benefits. Strict adherence to handwashing and aseptic technique are essential elements of catheter care. Caregiver education is an integral part of CVC use and the procedural practices of users should be regularly reassessed. If TKA is contraindicated, arthroscopic knee joint debridement can relieve pain for several years and delay the need for TKA. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health.

Lenzi S.M.,University of Padua | Nowacki F.,University of Strasbourg | Poves A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sieja K.,University of Strasbourg
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

We study the development of collectivity in the neutron-rich nuclei around N=40, where the experimental and theoretical evidence suggest a rapid shape change from the spherical to the rotational regime, in analogy to what happens at the island of inversion surrounding Na31. Theoretical calculations are performed within the interacting shell-model framework in a large valence space, based on a Ca48 core, which encompasses the full pf shell for the protons and the 0f5/2, 1p3/2, 1p1/2, 0g9/2, and 1d5/2 orbits for the neutrons. The effective interaction is based on a G matrix obtained from a realistic nucleon-nucleon potential whose monopole part is corrected empirically to produce effective single-particle energies compatible with the experimental data. We find a good agreement between the theoretical results and the available experimental data. We predict the onset of deformation at different neutron numbers for the various isotopic chains. The maximum collectivity occurs in the chromium isotopes where the large deformation regime already starts at N=38. The shell evolution responsible for the observed shape changes is discussed in detail, in parallel to the situation in the N=20 region. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Masjuan P.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Sanz-Cillero J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2013

Based on the mathematically well defined Padé theory, a theoretically safe new procedure for the extraction of the pole mass and width of a resonance is proposed. In particular, thanks to the Montessus de Ballore theorem we are able to unfold the second Riemann sheet of an amplitude to search for the position of the resonance pole in the complex plane. The method is systematic and provides a model-independent treatment of the prediction and the corresponding errors of the approximation. Likewise, it can be used in combination with other well-established approaches to improve future determinations of resonance parameters. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica.

Izquierdo J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

The differential expression levels of T-cell intracellular antigens (TIA) and Hu antigen R (HuR) are concomitant with a splicing switch in apoptosis receptor Fas in HCT-116 cells. Thus, overexpression and knockdown of HuR led to Fas exon 6 skipping and inclusion, respectively. These results suggest that the TIA and HuR cellular ratio influences cell-type specific Fas exon 6 splicing pattern. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Arranz A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2012

The 3 keV O + 2 reactive ion beam mixing of Cr/X interfaces (X=Al or Si) has been used to synthesize Cr-based mixed oxide thin films. The kinetics of growth, composition, and electronic structure of those films has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and factor analysis. Initially, for low ion doses, Cr 2O 3 species are formed. Later, with increasing the ion dose, Cr 2O 3 species are first transformed into Cr 3+-O-X species, and subsequently, those Cr 3+-O-X species are transformed into Cr 6+-O-X species. This sequential transformation, Cr 2O 3→Cr 3+-O-X→Cr 6+-O-X, is accompanied by a slight increase of the oxygen concentration and a decrease of the Cr/X ratio in the films formed leading to the synthesis of custom designed Cr-based mixed oxides. The changes observed in the valence band and Auger parameters further support the formation of Cr-X mixed oxide species. Angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that for low ion doses, when only Cr 2O 3 and Cr 3+-O-X species coexist, Cr 3+-O-X species are located nearer the surface than Cr 2O 3 species, whereas for higher ion doses, when only Cr 3+-O-X and Cr 6+-O-X species coexist, the Cr 6+-O-X species are those located nearer the surface. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Andre M.,Polytechnic University Jose Antonio Echeverria | Baldoquin M.G.,Polytechnic University Jose Antonio Echeverria | Acuna S.T.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Information and Software Technology | Year: 2011

Context: Human resources play a critical role in software project success. However, people are still the least formalized factor in today's process models. Generally, people are assigned to roles and project teams are formed on the basis of project leaders' experience of people, constraints (e.g. availability) and skill requirements. Yet this process has to take multiple factors into account. Few works in the literature model this process. Most of these are informal proposals focusing on the individual assignment of people to project tasks and do not consider other aspects like team formation as a whole. Objective: In this paper we formulate a formal model for assigning human resources to software project teams. Additionally, we describe the key results of the knowledge management process enacted to output the elements of the model. Method: The model elements were identified using the Delphi expert consultation method and applying psychological tests. The proposed model was implemented in a software tool and validated on two software development organization assignment scenarios. Results: We built a formal model for the process of assigning human resources to software project teams. This model takes into account as many factors as possible and aids the assignment of individuals to project roles, as well as the formation of the team as a whole. We found that the rules that were identified to form software development project teams are useful. From the tests we found that model implementation was feasible (all the executions of the implemented problem-solving algorithms output feasible solutions in response times that can be considered as acceptable). Conclusion: Using the Delphi method we were able to propose software project roles and competences. Psychological tests and data mining tools identified useful rules for forming software project teams. These were used to build a formal model. This model was built into a tool that returns role assignments in acceptable response times. This decision support tool helps managers assign people to roles and to form teams. Using the tool, project leaders can flexibly evaluate different team make-ups, taking into account several factors, as well as different constraints and objectives. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sanchez-Madrid F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Early studies described CD69 as a leukocyte activation marker, and suggested its involvement in the activation of different leukocyte subsets as well as in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. However, recent investigations have showed that CD69 knockout mice exhibit an enhanced or reduced susceptibility to different experimental models of inflammatory diseases, including those mediated by T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes. In this regard, the expression of CD69, both in Th17 lymphocytes and by a subset of regulatory T cells, has an important role in the control of the immune response and the inflammatory phenomenon. Therefore, different evidence indicates that CD69 exerts a complex immunoregulatory role in humans, and that it could be considered as a target molecule for the therapy of immune-mediated diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Diffusion coefficients of two mobile ions are computed from the conductivity variation with time of three In-rich chalcopyrite single crystals of the AB n-3In n1VI 2n system (AB=Cu and Ag and VI=Se or Te). The coefficients have similar values in the three compounds, higher than in chalcopyrite compounds (ABInSe 2) due to a higher number of (2V CuIn Cu) defect pairs in the lattice. In each compound, the potential across the sample or the current intensity, V m and I, can increase or decrease within time due to a change in the interface potential by the ion arrival, where the decrease could be explained by a charge decrease. Mobile ions arrive while others, with higher charge, should leave related to the formation or disappearance of (2V CuIn Cu) defect pairs. Compositional measurements confirm the motion of Cu ions and In antisites, In Cu, in the Cu sublattice. Therefore, these compounds are mixed ionic and electronic conductors, MIECs, with two mobile ions, where the electronic and ionic conductions are non-blocked and blocked in the metal/semiconductor interface respectively. An equivalent electrical circuit is proposed, extensible at MIECs with j mobile ions, where the interface potential is similar to the potential drop in the charge or discharge in the capacitor. The analysis of the total flux of ions due to diffusion, j diff, and to the action of electrical field, j drift, permits compute the number of ions, their diffusion coefficients and the change of the potential drop within time in the interface in compounds with several mobile ions. This electrical model is checked using the experimental data in the three single crystals in a computer program. To know different mobile ions in In-rich chalcopyrites and their diffusion coefficients will permit to understand and have mechanisms of control in solar cell fabrication based in chalcopyrite thin films. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Arranz A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2012

Nb- and Ta-based mixed nitrides have been grown by 3keVN 2 + nanoscale reactive ion beam mixing (IBM) of Nb/Si and Ta/Al interfaces. The kinetics of growth, composition and electronic structure of the films formed has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). A similar reactive IBM kinetics of three stages has been found for both interfaces by means of factor analysis. In a first stage, a mixture of substoichiometric and stoichiometric nitride species are formed up to ion doses of ~1.5×10 16ions/cm 2. In a second stage, for ion doses up to ~5-6×10 16ions/cm 2, subtoichiometric nitride species are completely transformed into stoichiometric nitride species. Subsequently, in a third stage, stoichiometric nitride species are transformed progressively into mixed nitride species due to the strong intermixing taking place at the interfaces, in such a way that a transition from metallic to insulator behaviour is observed in the UPS valence band. This transformation is accompanied by changes in the nitrogen concentration and a decrease of the Nb/Si or Ta/Al ratio in the thin mixed nitride films formed leading to the synthesis of custom designed group V transition metal-based mixed nitrides. Angle resolved XPS shows that the composition of the films formed by reactive IBM is rather uniform in the near-surface region. Experimental results have been compared with Monte Carlo TRIDYN simulations, suggesting that, in addition to pure ballistic mechanisms, radiation enhanced diffusion effects and the reaction with nitrogen should be also taken into account to explain the reactive IBM of Nb/Si and Ta/Al interfaces. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Yepes G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gottlober S.,Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam | Hoffman Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
New Astronomy Reviews | Year: 2014

We review how dark matter is distributed in our local neighbourhood from an observational and theoretical perspective. We will start by describing first the dark matter halo of our own galaxy and in the Local Group. Then we proceed to describe the dark matter distribution in the more extended area known as the Local Universe. Depending on the nature of dark matter, numerical simulations predict different abundances of substructures in Local Group galaxies, in the number of void regions and the abundance of low rotational velocity galaxies in the Local Universe. By comparing these predictions with the most recent observations, strong constrains on the physical properties of the dark matter particles can be derived. We devote particular attention to the results from the Constrained Local UniversE Simulations (CLUES) project, a special set of simulations whose initial conditions are constrained by observational data from the Local Universe. The resulting simulations are designed to reproduce the observed structures in the nearby universe. The CLUES provides a numerical laboratory for simulating the Local Group of galaxies and exploring the physics of galaxy formation in an environment designed to follow the observed Local Universe. It has come of age as the numerical analogue of Near-Field Cosmology. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sacha G.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

A method to calculate electric magnitudes at very small tip-sample distances in atomic force microscopy is presented. We show that the method accurately calculates the electrostatic potential and vertical force for electrostatic force microscopy geometries that cannot be correctly simulated by the standard techniques. This technique can accurately calculate tip-sample distances four orders of magnitude smaller than the tip radius. We also demonstrate that, at this range, traditional techniques underestimate the electrostatic force in almost 30%. Finally, we calculate the jump-to-contact distance for geometries obtained from experiments that combine atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Saugar I.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Saugar I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Parker J.L.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Zhao S.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Ulrich H.D.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Mgs1, the budding yeast homolog of mammalian Werner helicase-interacting protein 1 (WRNIP1/WHIP), contributes to genome stability during undisturbed replication and in response to DNA damage. A ubiquitin-binding zinc finger (UBZ) domain directs human WRNIP1 to nuclear foci, but the functional significance of its presence and the relevant ubiquitylation targets that this domain recognizes have remained unknown. Here, we provide a mechanistic basis for the ubiquitin-binding properties of the protein. We show that in yeast an analogous domain exclusively mediates the damage-related activities of Mgs1. By means of preferential physical interactions with the ubiquitylated forms of the replicative sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the UBZ domain facilitates recruitment of Mgs1 to sites of replication stress. Mgs1 appears to interfere with the function of polymerase δ, consistent with our observation that Mgs1 inhibits the interaction between the polymerase and PCNA. Our identification of Mgs1 as a UBZ-dependent downstream effector of ubiquitylated PCNA suggests an explanation for the ambivalent role of the protein in damage processing. © 2011 The Author(s).

Lopez-Gutierrez J.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2011

PHACES syndrome is a spectrum of anomalies, P, posterior fossa anomalies as Dandy-Walker malformation; H, hemangioma; A, arterial lesions of the head and neck (the most commonly detected include dysplasia, aberrant origin or course, hypoplasia, and absence or agenesis); C, cardiac abnormalities as aortic coarctation; E, abnormalities of the eye and S, sternal defect, that may be present in up to 2% of children with facial hemangiomas and 20% of children with segmental facial hemangiomas. The constellation of PHACES syndrome symptoms may vary significantly between different patients. Major and minor criteria for PHACES syndrome have been recently described in order to improve their classification and management. We report the case of a newborn with PHACES syndrome, who had additional congenital defects including ectopia cordis as the most severe form of midline defect. Although the list and variety of published cardiac malformations in PHACES syndrome are extensive, ectopia cordis has not been previously reported. © 2011 Published by European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

A-Gonzalez N.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Castrillo A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Castrillo A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2011

The liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are members of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors that play essential roles in the transcriptional control of lipid metabolism. LXRs are endogenously activated by modified forms of cholesterol known as oxysterols and control the expression of genes important for cholesterol uptake, efflux, transport, and excretion in multiple tissues. In addition to their role as cholesterol sensors, a number of studies have implicated LXRs in the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Both through activation and repression mechanisms, LXRs regulate diverse aspects of inflammatory gene expression in macrophages. The ability of LXRs to coordinate metabolic and immune responses constitutes an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translating nuclear receptors from health to disease. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Vinagre M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Munoz B.,Emden Leer University of Applied Sciences
Language Learning and Technology | Year: 2011

Recent studies illustrate the potential that intercultural telecollaborative exchanges entail for language development through the use of corrective feedback from collaborating partners (Kessler, 2009; Lee, 2008; Sauro, 2009; Ware & O'Dowd, 2008). We build on this growing body of research by presenting the findings of a three-month-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on the development of learner accuracy. Our aim was to study participants' attention to form and the relative effectiveness of error correction strategies. In order to do so, we organised an e-mail exchange between seventeen post-secondary learners of Spanish and German. Data consist of exchanges between the five dyads who completed the full three-month project. As suggested by Vinagre and Lera (2008), analysis of these data indicate that despite frequent use of error correction, the use of remediation led to a higher percentage of errors recycled and was more conducive to error recycling in later language production. © 2011.

Del Mar Alonso-Almeida M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

The tourist industry can only operate with adequate energy, water and waste management facilities. This work analyzes the perceptions among university students attending tourism degree courses of the most important responsibilities in this respect for companies operating in the tourist sector, and examines the adoption of environmental practices by companies from a gender perspective. A survey was conducted involving 197 tourism students and 409 restaurant managers. The ANOVA method was used to identify differences. The findings show that in the case of both the group of students and the group of managers, women are more concerned about environmental management than men. The results provide new evidence relating to tourism education and eco-feminist theories.© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sublette M.E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Psychiatric Genetics | Year: 2015

Fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS1-FADS2) encode desaturases participating in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. As long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide risk, and as both are partly heritable, we studied the association of FADS1-FADS2 polymorphisms with MDD (635 cases, 480 controls) and suicide attempt status (291 attempters, 344 MDD nonattempters). Eighteen FADS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped from Caucasians enrolled in Madrid (n=791) or New York City (n=324) and entered as predictors into logistic regression analyses with diagnostic group or suicide attempt history as outcomes and location and sex as covariates. No associations were observed between any single-nucleotide polymorphisms and diagnosis or attempt status. As statistical power was adequate, we conclude that FADS1-FADS2 genetic variants may not be a common determinant of MDD. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Background: Cancer progression is caused by the sequential accumulation of mutations, but not all orders of accumulation are equally likely. When the fixation of some mutations depends on the presence of previous ones, identifying restrictions in the order of accumulation of mutations can lead to the discovery of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive comparison of the performance of all available methods to identify these restrictions from cross-sectional data. I used simulated data sets (where the true restrictions are known) but, in contrast to previous work, I embedded restrictions within evolutionary models of tumor progression that included passengers (mutations not responsible for the development of cancer, known to be very common). This allowed me to assess, for the first time, the effects of having to filter out passengers, of sampling schemes (when, how, and how many samples), and of deviations from order restrictions. Results: Poor choices of method, filtering, and sampling lead to large errors in all performance measures. Having to filter passengers lead to decreased performance, especially because true restrictions were missed. Overall, the best method for identifying order restrictions were Oncogenetic Trees, a fast and easy to use method that, although unable to recover dependencies of mutations on more than one mutation, showed good performance in most scenarios, superior to Conjunctive Bayesian Networks and Progression Networks. Single cell sampling provided no advantage, but sampling in the final stages of the disease vs. sampling at different stages had severe effects. Evolutionary model and deviations from order restrictions had major, and sometimes counterintuitive, interactions with other factors that affected performance. Conclusions: This paper provides practical recommendations for using these methods with experimental data. It also identifies key areas of future methodological work and, in particular, it shows that it is both possible and necessary to embed assumptions about order restrictions and the nature of driver status within evolutionary models of cancer progression to evaluate the performance of inferential approaches. © Diaz-Uriarte; licensee BioMed Central. 2015.

Corraliza J.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
The Spanish journal of psychology | Year: 2013

The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale has been extensively used to measure adults' environmental attitudes. However, it has only recently been adapted for use with children. This paper presents a Spanish version of the NEP Scale for Children, examines children's ecological beliefs according to socio-demographic variables as well as the relationship between children's ecological beliefs and pro-environmental behavior. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted, followed by confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the instrument's internal consistency was studied and links between environmental attitudes, age, and ecological behavior in children were examined through correlation analyses. The results show that children's ecological worldviews can be described by a dimension called "overall ecocentrism". Analysis of variance demonstrated that children from rural areas exhibit a more ecocentric worldview than those from urban areas. The results also denote gender differences.

Gonzalez-Gonzalez A.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Polop C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Vasco E.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The growth stress generated once grains coalesce in Volmer-Weber-type thin films is investigated by time-multiscale simulations comprising complementary modules of (i) finite-element modeling to address the interactions between grains happening at atomic vibration time scales (∼0.1 ps), (ii) dynamic scaling to account for the surface stress relaxation via morphology changes at surface diffusion time scales (∼μs-ms), and (iii) the mesoscopic rate equation approach to simulate the bulk stress relaxation at deposition time scales (h). On the basis of addressing the main experimental evidence reported so far on the topic dealt with, the simulation results provide key findings concerning the interplay between anisotropic grain interactions at complementary space scales, deposition conditions (such as flux and mobility), and mechanisms of stress accommodation-relaxation, which underlies the origin, nature and spatial distribution, and the flux dependence of the postcoalescence growth stress. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Bernal J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Morte B.,Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2013

Background: The transcriptional activity of the thyroid hormone receptors is modulated by the ligand, T3, but they have also activity as aporeceptors, in the unliganded state. Aporeceptor activity is thought to contribute to the severity of profound hypothyroidism. During development thyroid hormone receptors are expressed before onset of thyroid gland function and are present therefore in many tissues mainly as aporeceptors. The question we address is whether thyroid hormone aporeceptors are involved in physiological and/or developmental processes. Scope of review: The scope of this article is to review the evidence for a role of thyroid hormone aporeceptors in physiology and development. Related to this topic is the activity of mutant receptors unable to bind hormone. These receptors usually have dominant negative activity. This review focuses on the wild type receptors, and does not discuss the properties of mutant receptors. Major conclusions: Unliganded thyroid hormone receptors influence the timing and control certain aspects of amphibian pre-metamorphosis. In mammals they are likely to influence maturational processes in the brain and other organs before onset of thyroid gland function. Expression of types 2 and 3 deiodinases which control the local tissue concentration of T3 regulates the fractional receptor occupancy and therefore the relative proportion of aporeceptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Thyroid hormone signalling. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Papadimitriou I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Taliotis A.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Any second order homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation can be transformed into a first order non-linear Riccati equation. We argue that the Riccati form of the linearized fluctuation equations that determine the holographic 2-point functions simplifies considerably the numerical computation of such 2-point functions and of the corresponding transport coefficients by computing directly the response functions, eliminating the arbitrary source from the start. Moreover, it provides a neat criterion for the infrared regularity of the fluctuations. In particular, it is shown that the infrared regularity conditions for scalar and tensor fluctuations coincide, and hence they are either both regular or both singular. We demonstrate our numerical recipe based on the Riccati equations by computing the holographic 2-point functions for the stress tensor and a scalar operator in a number of asymptotically anti de Sitter backgrounds of bottom up scalar-gravity models. Analytical results are obtained for the 2-point function of the transverse traceless part of the stress tensor in two confining geometries, including a geometry that belongs to the class of IHQCD. We find that in this background the spin-2 spectrum is linear and, as expected, the position space 2-point function decays exponentially at large distances at a rate proportional to the confinement scale. © The Authors.

Gonzalez-Tudela A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Porras D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Implementations of solid-state quantum optics provide us with devices where qubits are placed at fixed positions in photonic or plasmonic one-dimensional waveguides. We show that solely by controlling the position of the qubits and with the help of a coherent driving, collective spontaneous decay may be engineered to yield an entangled mesoscopic steady state. Our scheme relies on the realization of pure superradiant Dicke models by a destructive interference that cancels dipole-dipole interactions in one dimension. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Bernal J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Bernal J.,Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2011

Purpose of Review: To discuss the recent advances on thyroid hormone transport in the brain. A special attention is paid to the X-linked thyroid hormone cell transport (THCT) defect (also known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome), caused by mutations of the specific thyroid hormone transporter MCT8 gene. Recent Findings: MCT8 is involved in thyroid hormone transport in the brain. MRI of patients with THCT defect showed myelination delays, probably related to impaired thyroid hormone action on oligodendrocytes. MCT8 is also expressed in the thyroid and has an important role in thyroid hormone secretion. The altered circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone in the patients are partly because of impaired secretion and altered peripheral metabolism. Increased deiodinase activity is important in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. High D1 activity in liver and kidney increases T4 and r T3 deiodination, and contributes to the increased serum T3. High D2 activity in the brain contributes to compensate the deficient T3 transport by increasing local T3 production. Summary: Patients with suspected X-linked leukoencephalopathy should be screened for MCT8 gene mutations. Research on the brain pathophysiology of the THCT defect should focus on the specific role of Mct8 on oligodendrocytes and myelination. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Salvio A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Mazumdar A.,Lancaster University | Mazumdar A.,Durham University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We investigate whether Higgs inflation can occur in the Standard Model starting from natural initial conditions or not. The Higgs has a non-minimal coupling to the Ricci scalar. We confine our attention to the regime where quantum Einstein gravity effects are small in order to have results that are independent of the ultraviolet completion of gravity. At the classical level we find no tuning is required to have successful Higgs inflation, provided the initial homogeneity condition is satisfied. On the other hand, at the quantum level we obtain that the renormalization for large non-minimal coupling requires an additional degree of freedom, unless a tuning of the initial values of the running parameters is made. In order to see that this effect may change the predictions we finally include such degree of freedom in the field content and show that Starobinsky's R2 inflation dominates over Higgs inflation. © 2015 The Authors.

San-Jose P.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Prada E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Aguado R.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We show that Josephson junctions made of multiband semiconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling carry a critical supercurrent Ic that contains information about the nontrivial topology of the system. In particular, we find that the emergence and annihilation of Majorana bound states in the junction is reflected in strong even-odd effects in Ic at small junction transparency. This effect allows for a mapping between Ic and the topological phase diagram of the junction, thus providing a dc measurement of its topology. © 2014 American Physical Society.

De Rujula A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | De Rujula A.,CIEMAT | De Rujula A.,Boston University | De Rujula A.,CERN
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Pohl et al. have reported a very precise measurement of the Lamb-shift in muonic hydrogen (Pohl et al., 2010) [1], from which they infer the radius characterizing the proton's charge distribution. The result is 5 standard deviations away from the one of the CODATA compilation of physical constants. This has been interpreted (Pohl et al., 2010) [1] as possibly requiring a 4.9 standard-deviation modification of the Rydberg constant, to a new value that would be precise to 3.3 parts in 1013, as well as putative evidence for physics beyond the standard model (Flowers, 2010) [2]. I demonstrate that these options are unsubstantiated. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Herrero P.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Peptides | Year: 2012

An important question in contemporary sensory neuroscience is how animals perceive their environment and make appropriate behavioral choices based on chemical perceptions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster exhibits robust tastant and odor-evoked behaviors. Understanding how the gustatory and olfactory systems support the perception of these contact and volatile chemicals and translate them into appropriate attraction or avoidance behaviors has made an unprecedented contribution to our knowledge of the organization of chemosensory systems. In this review, I begin by describing the receptors and signaling mechanisms of the Drosophila gustatory and olfactory systems and then highlight their involvement in the control of simple and complex behaviors. The topics addressed include feeding behavior, learning and memory, navigation behavior, neuropeptide modulation of chemosensory behavior, and I conclude with a discussion of recent work that provides insight into pheromone signaling pathways. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Villaver E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Manchado A.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Garcia-Segura G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We study the hydrodynamical behavior of the gas expelled by moving asymptotic giant branch stars interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM). Our models follow the wind modulations prescribed by stellar evolution calculations, and we cover a range of expected relative velocities (10-100kms-1), ISM densities (between 0.01 and 1 cm-3), and stellar progenitor masses (1 and 3.5 M ). We show how and when bow shocks and cometary-like structures form, and in which regime the shells are subject to instabilities. Finally, we analyze the results of the simulations in terms of the different kinematical stellar populations expected in the Galaxy. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Hernandez-Torres G.,Scripps Research Institute | Hernandez-Torres G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Tan B.,Scripps Research Institute | Barbas C.F.,Scripps Research Institute
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

Organocatalytic stereospecific dibromination of a wide variety of functionalized alkenes was achieved using a stable, inexpensive halogen source, 1,3-dibromo 5,5-dimethylhydantoin, and a simple thiourea catalyst at room temperature. The presence of a tertiary amine enhanced the rate of the dibromination reaction, and yields were good in various solvents, including aqueous solvents. The procedure was extended to alkynes and aromatic rings and to dichlorination reactions by using the 1,3-dichloro hydantoin derivative. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

Two-body matrix elements of arbitrary local interactions are written as the sum of separable terms in a way that is well suited for the exchange and pairing channels present in mean-field calculations. The expansion relies on the transformation to center of mass and relative coordinate (in the spirit of Talmi's method) and therefore it is only useful (finite number of expansion terms) for harmonic oscillator single particle states. The converge of the expansion with the number of terms retained is studied for a Gaussian two body interaction. The limit of a contact (delta) force is also considered. Ways to handle the general case are also discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
HSS Journal | Year: 2010

The most important clinical strategy for management of patients with hemophilia is the avoidance of recurrent hemarthroses by means of continuous, intravenous hematological prophylaxis. When only intravenous on-demand hematological treatment is available, frequent evaluations are necessary for the early diagnosis and treatment of episodes of intra-articular bleeding. The natural history of the disease in patients with poorly controlled intra-articular bleeding is the development of chronic synovitis and, later, multi-articular hemophilic arthropathy. Once arthropathy develops, the functional prognosis is poor. Treatment of these patients should be conducted through a comprehensive program by a multidisciplinary hemophilia unit. Although continuous prophylaxis can avoid the development of the orthopedic complications of hemophilia still seen in the twenty-first century, such a goal has not, so far, been achieved even in developed countries. Therefore, many different surgical procedures such as arthrocentesis, radiosynoviorthesis (radiosynovectomy) (yttrium-90, rhenium-186), tendon lengthenings, alignment osteotomies, joint arthroplasties, removal of pseudotumours, and fixation of fractures are still frequently needed in the care of these patients. © Hospital for Special Surgery 2009.

Polo-Cavia N.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Polo-Cavia N.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station | Gomez-Mestre I.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station
Functional Ecology | Year: 2014

Alien predators are one of the major causes for rapid decline and extinction of native species, because they often create novel ecological contexts in which the antipredatory responses of native organisms are no longer fit. Although larval amphibians are often capable of innately responding to chemical cues from local predators through changes in morphology and behaviour, naïve tadpoles generally cannot recognize introduced predators with which they have not shared an evolutionary past. However, in a few documented cases, aquatic organisms have been observed to alter morphology or behaviour in response to alien predators. Such a response may have evolved as adaptive recognition, increasing their repertoire of innate responses to include the novel predator or may have evolved as the prey's ability to learn new threats by association with conspecific alarm cues. The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, is a harmful invasive species in aquatic systems world-wide, causing great ecological impact on native amphibian populations during the last decades through intense predation of eggs and tadpoles. We demonstrate that naïve tadpoles of the western spadefoot toad, Pelobates cultripes, are not capable of innately recognizing water-borne predator cues from the red swamp crayfish. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that P. cultripes tadpoles can learn to recognize the cues of the invasive predatory crayfish as a threat when they are exposed to predator cues combined with conspecific alarm cues. Finally, we show that tadpoles conditioned by joint exposure to crayfish and alarm cues enjoy higher survival during predation trials with invasive crayfish. Learning to recognize a newly introduced predator through association with conspecific alarm cues may allow successful generalization of antipredatory responses by tadpoles. This cognitive ability of tadpoles may contribute to reduce their vulnerability to alien predators and soothe the impact of invasions in natural populations. © 2013 The Authors. Functional Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

Tan B.,Scripps Research Institute | Hernandez-Torres G.,Scripps Research Institute | Hernandez-Torres G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Barbas III C.F.,Scripps Research Institute
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Amide nucleophiles on demand: Rationally designed pyrazoleamides function as Michael donors in urea-catalyzed asymmetric Michael reactions with excellent chemical and optical yields (see scheme). The pyrazoleamide group performs as an ester equivalent, a directing group, an activating group, and functions as a good leaving group in further transformations of the product. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gonzalez-Masia J.A.,General University Hospital of Albacete | Garcia-Olmo D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Garcia-Olmo D.C.,General University Hospital of Albacete
OncoTargets and Therapy | Year: 2013

The presence of small amounts of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum (CNAPS) is not a new finding. The verification that such amounts are significantly increased in cancer patients, and that CNAPS might carry a variety of genetic and epigenetic alterations related to cancer development and progression, has aroused great interest in the scientific community in the last decades. Such alterations potentially reflect changes that occur during carcinogenesis, and include DNA mutations, loss of heterozygosity, viral genomic integration, disruption of microRNA, hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes, and changes in the mitochondrial DNA. These findings have led to many efforts toward the implementation of new clinical biomarkers based on CNAPS analysis. In the present article, we review the main findings related to the utility of CNAPS analysis for early diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of cancer, most of which appear promising. However, due to the lack of harmonization of laboratory techniques, the heterogeneity of disease progression, and the small number of recruited patients in most of those studies, there has been a poor translation of basic research into clinical practice. In addition, many aspects remain unknown, such as the release mechanisms of cell-free nucleic acids, their biological function, and the way by which they circulate in the bloodstream. It is therefore expected that in the coming years, an improved understanding of the relationship between CNAPS and the molecular biology of cancer will lead to better diagnosis, management, and treatment. © 2013 González-Masiá et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Escudero C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2013

The effect of a uniform dilation of space on stochastically driven nonlinear field theories is examined. This theoretical question serves as a model problem for examining the properties of nonlinear field theories embedded in expanding Euclidean Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metrics in the context of cosmology, as well as different systems in the disciplines of statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics. Field theories are characterized by the speed at which they propagate correlations within themselves. We show that for linear field theories correlations stop propagating if and only if the speed at which the space dilates is higher than the speed at which correlations propagate. The situation is in general different for nonlinear field theories. In this case correlations might stop propagating even if the velocity at which space dilates is lower than the velocity at which correlations propagate. In particular, these results imply that it is not possible to characterize the dynamics of a nonlinear field theory during homogeneous spatial dilation a priori. We illustrate our findings with the nonlinear Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Poves A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2016

We shall discuss the meaning of the 'nuclear shape' in the laboratory frame proper to the spherical shell model. A brief historical promenade will bring us from Elliott's SU3 breakthrough to today's large scale shell model calculations. A section is devoted to the algebraic model which extends drastically the field of applicability of Elliot's SU3, providing a precious heuristic guidance for the exploration of collectivity in the nuclear chart. Shape coexistence and shape mixing will be shown to occur as the result of the competition between the main actors in the nuclear dynamics; the spherical mean field, and the pairing and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions. These ideas will be illustrated with examples in magic nuclei (40Ca and 68Ni); neutron rich semi-magic (32Mg, and 64Cr); and in proton rich N = Z (72Kr). © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Weiland C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2016

We present the first complete calculation of flavour violating lepton decays taking into account all supersymmetric (SUSY) and non-SUSY contributions in the context of the supersymmetric inverse seesaw, a specific SUSY low-scale seesaw model. We consider radiative and 3-body lepton decays as well as neutrinoless μ - e conversion in muonic atoms and perform a full one-loop calculation in the mass basis. Taking CMSSM-like boundary conditions for the soft SUSY breaking parameters, we find that cancellations between different contributions are present in several regions, which might reduce the branching ratios by as much as one order of magnitude. This has important consequences when translating current measurements into constraints and estimating the reach of future experiments, and justifies the use of a full calculation. We also show that the ratio of different cross-sections can discriminate between dominant SUSY or non-SUSY contributions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Cinacchi G.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2013

This work reports on the phase behavior of hard spherical caps in the interval of particle shapes delimited by the hard platelet and hemispherical cap models. These very simple model colloidal particles display a remarkably complex phase behavior featuring a competition between isotropic-nematic phase separation and clustering as well as a sequence of structures, from roundish to lacy aggregates to no ordinary hexagonal columnar mesophases, all characterized by groups of particles tending to arrange on the same spherical surface. This behavior parallels that one of many molecular systems forming micelles but here it is purely entropy-driven. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Lucini B.,University of Swansea | Panero M.,Helsinki Institute of Physics | Panero M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

An elementary, pedagogical introduction to the large-N limit of QCD and to its phenomenological implications is presented, and a survey of lattice results in the 't Hooft limit is briefly discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Benincasa P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Benincasa P.,Autonomous University of Madrid
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2014

We review some recent developments in the understanding of field theories in the perturbative regime. In particular, we discuss the notions of analyticity, unitarity and locality, and therefore the singularity structure of scattering amplitudes in general interacting theories. We describe their tree-level structure and their on-shell representations, as well as the links between the tree-level structure itself and the structure of the loop amplitudes. Finally, we describe the on-shell diagrammatics recently proposed both on general grounds and in the remarkable example of planar supersymmetric theories. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Granados A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
AI Communications | Year: 2012

This thesis takes a small step towards better understanding both the nature of texts and the nature of compression distances. Broadly speaking, the way in which this is done is exploring the effects that several distortion techniques have on one of the most successful distances in the family of compression distances, the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD). The experimental results show that changing the representation of texts applying one of the explored distortion techniques can be beneficial both in NCD-based document clustering and in NCD-based document search. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Nova A.,Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia | Mas-Balleste R.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lledos A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Organometallics | Year: 2012

In this review, transformations of C-F to C-X bonds mediated by transition-metal complexes are considered from the ligand's perspective. In C-F bond activation reactions, the ligands (L) bonded to transition-metal complexes can act as spectators but can also assist the reaction. The latter case is important in the heterolytic cleavage of C-F bonds by nucleophilic addition reactions. When L is an electrophile (E), the assistance of the ligand facilitates the fluoride departure when the metal attacks at C. In contrast, when L is a nucleophile (X), the ligand is responsible for the nucleophilic addition and the reaction leads to a new C-X bond, allowing the direct functionalization of C-F bonds. This article presents an overview of the reactions that are initiated by the nucleophilic attack of a coordinated ligand (a hydride or an N-, O-, or S-nucleophile) to a CF carbon resulting in formation of a new C-H, C-N, C-O, or C-S bond. The possible mechanisms are discussed. The attack of a nucleophilic ligand at the electrophilic carbon of a C-F bond is comparable to fluoride elimination by organic nucleophiles. However, the presence of the metal center introduces new features in this process, both in the selectivity and in the thermodynamics. Herein these effects are analyzed. Thus, the aim of this review is to show how these kinds of processes put together the best of both organic and inorganic worlds in order to achieve a wide range of reactions with fluorinated compounds. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Klingenberg C.P.,University of Manchester | Marugan-Lobon J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Systematic Biology | Year: 2013

Quantifying integration and modularity of evolutionary changes in morphometric traits is crucial for understanding how organismal shapes evolve. For this purpose, comparative studies are necessary, which need to take into account the phylogenetic structure of interspecific data. This study applies several of the standard tools of geometric morphometrics, which mostly have been used in intraspecific studies, in the new context of analyzing integration and modularity based on comparative data. Morphometric methods such as principal component analysis, multivariate regression, partial least squares, and modularity tests can be applied to phylogenetically independent contrasts of shape data.We illustrate this approach in an analysis of cranial evolution in 160 species from all orders of birds. Mapping the shape information onto the phylogeny indicates that there is a significant phylogenetic signal in skull shape. Multivariate regression of independent contrasts of shape on independent contrasts of size reveals clear evolutionary allometry. Regardless of whether or not a correction for allometry is used, evolutionary integration between the face and braincase is strong, and tests reject the hypothesis that the face and braincase are separate evolutionarymodules. These analyses can easily be applied to other taxa and can be combined with other morphometric tools to address a wide range of questions about evolutionary patterns and processes. [Aves;comparativemethods; independent contrasts;morphological integration; partial least squares; Procrustes superimposition; shape; skull.] © The Author(s) 2013.

Roig P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Sanz Cillero J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The anomalous V V P Green function and related form-factors (π0→γ *γ * and τ -→X - ντ vector form-factors, with X - = (K Kπ) -, φ -γ, (φV) -) are analyzed in this letter in the large-N C limit. Within the single (vector and pseudoscalar) resonance approximation and the context of Resonance Chiral Theory, we show that all these observables overdetermine in a consistent way a unique set of compatible high-energy constraints for the resonance couplings. This result is in agreement with analogous relations found in the even intrinsic-parity sector of QCD like, e.g., FV2=3F2. The antisymmetric tensor formalism is considered for the spin-one resonance fields. Finally, we have also worked out and provide here the relation between the two bases of odd intrinsic-parity Lagrangian operators commonly employed in the literature. © 2014 The Authors.

Rodriguez-Guzman R.,Rice University | Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

The most recent parametrizations D1S, D1N, and D1M of the Gogny energy density functional are used to describe fission in the isotopes 232-280U. Fission paths, collective masses, and zero-point quantum corrections, obtained within the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation, are used to compute the systematics of the spontaneous fission half-lives tSF, the masses and charges of the fission fragments, and their intrinsic shapes. The Gogny-D1M parametrization has been benchmarked against available experimental data on inner and second barrier heights, excitation energies of the fission isomers, and half-lives in a selected set of Pu, Cm, Cf, Fm, No, Rf, Sg, Hs, and Fl nuclei. It is concluded that D1M represents a reasonable starting point to describe fission in heavy and superheavy nuclei. Special attention is also paid to understand the uncertainties in the predicted tSF values arising from the different building blocks entering the standard semiclassical Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin formula. Although the uncertainties are large, the trend with mass or neutron numbers are well reproduced and therefore the theory still has predictive power. In this respect, it is also shown that modifications of a few percent in the pairing strength can have a significant impact on the collective masses leading to uncertainties in the tSF values of several orders of magnitude. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Caurier E.,University of Strasbourg | Nowacki F.,University of Strasbourg | Poves A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Poves A.,CERN
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

The N=20 and N=28 "islands of inversion" are described by large scale shell model calculations with an extension of the interaction SDPF-U that makes it possible to mix configurations with different N ω or equivalently with different numbers of particles promoted from the sd shell to the pf shell. It allows to connect the classical sd-shell calculations below N=18 with the sd (protons)-pf (neutrons) calculations beyond N=24-26, for all the isotopes from oxygen to sulfur, using the same interaction. For some isotopes this range contains all the nuclei between the proton and the neutron drip lines and includes the N=20 and N=28 islands of inversion. We pay particular attention to the properties of the states at fixed N ω which turn out to be the real protagonists of the physics at N=20. The existence of islands of inversion or deformation are explained as the result of the competition between the spherical mean field which favors the 0 ω configurations and the nuclear correlations which favor the deformed N ω configurations. The magnesium chain is exceptional because in it the N=20 and N=28 islands of inversion merge, enclosing all the isotopes between N=19 and N=30. Indeed, this would be also the case for the neon and sodium chains if their drip lines would reach N=28. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Alvarez-Collado J.R.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Theoretical Chemistry Accounts | Year: 2011

In this work, we have developed an efficient (very fast) theoretical methodology able to calculate the quantum properties of any molecular heteroatomic PAH. If all the heteroatoms are Nitrogens, we can obtain these results directly from its chemical formula. We have obtained and analyzed the electric dipolar moment of 43 small Nitrogen PAHs (NPAHs). We have obtained the atomic spin densities of several large (5,000 atoms) molecular Nitrogen Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs), which have the Nitrogen atoms in the same zig-zag edge. According to our computational results, this kind of molecular Nitrogen GNRs should have significant ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Carette T.,Albanova University Center | Dahlstrom J.M.,Albanova University Center | Argenti L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lindroth E.,Albanova University Center
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We present a robust, ab initio method for addressing atom-light interactions and apply it to photoionization of argon. We use a close-coupling ansatz constructed on a multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock description of localized states and B-spline expansions of the electron radial wave functions. In this implementation, the general many-electron problem can be tackled thanks to the use of the atsp2k libraries. In the present contribution, we combine this method with exterior complex scaling, thereby allowing for the computation of the complex partial amplitudes that encode the whole dynamics of the photoionization process. The method is validated on the 3s3p6np series of resonances converging to the 3s extraction. Then, it is used for computing the energy dependent differential atomic delay between 3p and 3s photoemission, and agreement is found with the measurements of Guénot. The effect of the presence of resonances in the one-photon spectrum on photoionization delay measurements is studied. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Hernandez-Moro J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martinez-Duart J.M.,Applied Materials
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

An analytical method has been developed for the calculation of the future (2013-2050) reduction of CO2 emissions by the deployment of photovoltaic (PV) systems according to three Scenarios from the International Energy Agency (2DS, Roadmap and New Policies). Next, we have also evaluated the financial extra-costs incurred in the implementation of the PV systems which would replace the current traditional power generation systems, taking as reference four geographical areas: European Union, United States, China, and the world's average. The established method also allows the comparison of the influence on the extra-costs of the actual electricity mix, as well as the current electricity prices, corresponding to the above regional areas. In these calculations, we have taken into account several frequently ignored factors like solar-cell degradation, emissions attributed to the PV systems life-cycle, and the repowering due to the substitution of the systems after their life-time is reached. Finally, the results of this work can be of interest in energy planning policies related to the contribution of PV technologies for the decarbonization of the power generation system. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Planas E.,University of Barcelona | Fernandez-Montraveta C.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ribera C.,University of Barcelona
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

In this study, we present the first molecular phylogeny of the wolf spider genus Lycosa Latreille, 1804 in the Western Mediterranean Basin. With a wide geographic sampling comprising 90 localities and including more than 180 individuals, we conducted species delimitation analyses with a Maximum Likelihood approach that uses a mixed Yule-coalescent model to detect species boundaries. We estimated molecular phylogenetic relationships employing Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. We conducted divergence time analyses using a relaxed clock model implemented in BEAST. Our results recovered 12 species that form four groups: Lycosa tarantula group comprising L. tarantula the type species of the genus, L. hispanica and L. bedeli; Lycosa oculata group composed of L. oculata, L. suboculata and three putative new species; Lycosa baulnyi group formed by the maghrebian L. baulnyi and L. vachoni and Lycosa fasciiventris group that includes two widespread species, L. fasciiventris and L. munieri. We found that each group of species shows a characteristic burrowing behavior and molecular and morphological diagnostic characters. Molecular clock analyses support the hypothesis of a relatively recent evolutionary origin of diversification of the group (4.96. Mya (3.53-6.45. Mya)). The establishment of the Mediterranean-like climate and the Pleistocenic glacial cycles seem to have been the main factors that promoted the diversification within the group. Finally, the results obtained in this study together with the revision of museum specimens, descriptions, redescriptions and illustrations, lead us to propose 18 nomenclatural changes (synonymies, generic transfers and nomina dubia) concerning the genera Lycosa, Allocosa and Hogna in the Western Mediterranean. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Carmona L.,University of Cadiz | Pola M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gosliner T.M.,California Academy of Sciences | Cervera J.L.,University of Cadiz
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Aeolidida is one of the largest clades of nudibranchs with at least 560 known species. However, its systematics has not been studied in a comprehensive manner. Phylogenetic analyses of larger clades such as Nudibranchia or Cladobranchia have usually included a poor sample of aeolids. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies at the family or generic level in Aeolidida are a few and far between. The first molecular phylogeny of the aeolid family Aeolidiidae is presented here. This study, the most comprehensive for Aeolidida to date, uses new sequences of two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) genes and one nuclear gene (H3). 251 specimens from members of seven families of Aeolidida, including 39 species of Aeolidiidae were studied. Excluding Pleurolidia juliae, Aeolidiidae is monophyletic. Our results resolve the systematic relationships within the Aeolidiidae at a generic level, requiring changes in the systematics of this family. Spurilla, Anteaeolidiella, Limenandra and Aeolidia are well-supported and monophyletic clades. Aeolidiella stephanieae is transferred to Berghia and Aeolidiopsis ransoni and Spurilla salaamica to Baeolidia, to maintain the monophyletic lineages reflected in this study. The systematics of Cerberilla remains unclear. Some species earlier attributed to Aeolidiella are now grouped in a previously unnamed clade that we designate as Bulbaeolidia gen. nov. © 2013 Carmona et al.

Protein expression studies based on the two major intra-abdominal human fat depots, the subcutaneous and the omental fat, can shed light into the mechanisms involved in obesity and its co-morbidities. Here we address, for the first time, the identification and validation of reference proteins for data standardization, which are essential for accurate comparison of protein levels in expression studies based on fat from obese and non-obese individuals. To uncover adipose tissue proteins equally expressed either in omental and subcutaneous fat depots (study 1) or in omental fat from non-obese and obese individuals (study 2), we have reanalyzed our previously published data based on two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four proteins (12 in study 1 and 12 in study 2) with similar expression levels in all conditions tested were selected and identified by mass spectrometry. Immunoblotting analysis was used to confirm in adipose tissue the expression pattern of the potential reference proteins and three proteins were validated: PARK7, ENOA and FAA. Western Blot analysis was also used to test customary loading control proteins. ENOA, PARK7 and the customary loading control protein Beta-actin showed steady expression profiles in fat from non-obese and obese individuals, whilst FAA maintained steady expression levels across paired omental and subcutaneous fat samples. ENOA, PARK7 and Beta-actin are proper reference standards in obesity studies based on omental fat, whilst FAA is the best loading control for the comparative analysis of omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues either in obese and non-obese subjects. Neither customary loading control proteins GAPDH and TBB5 nor CALX are adequate standards in differential expression studies on adipose tissue. The use of the proposed reference proteins will facilitate the adequate analysis of proteins differentially expressed in the context of obesity, an aim difficult to achieve before this study.

Shkir M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Shkir M.,University of Delhi
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

l-asparagine l-tartaric acid single crystals of size 14 mm × 12 mm × 5 mm were grown. The morphology was recorded during its live growth process using inverted microscope. Structural confirmation of grown crystals was done by powder X-ray diffraction. The grown crystals are optically transparent. The Highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy gap was obtained using the RHF/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theoretical calculations. The dipole moment calculated by RHF is 5.1716 D and by B3LYP is 2.8302 D. The calculated gas phase polarizability is 16.63791 Å3. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ardura J.A.,Instituto Of Investigacion Sanitaria Iis Fundacion Jimenez Diaz | Sanz A.B.,Nefrologia | Ortiz A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Esbrit P.,Instituto Of Investigacion Sanitaria Iis Fundacion Jimenez Diaz
Kidney International | Year: 2013

Runx2 is a key transcription factor in bone development regulating several processes, including osteoblast apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in osteoblasts depend on Runx2-mediated transcription of prosurvival genes. In the kidney, PTH-related protein (PTHrP) promotes tubulointerstitial cell survival by activating the PTH/PTHrP type 1 receptor. We found that Runx2 is expressed in renal tubuloepithelial MCT and HK2 cell lines in vitro and in the mouse kidney tubuloepithelium in vivo. The 1-36 amino-acid fragment of PTHrP was found to increase the expression and nuclear translocation of Runx2 in both cell lines in a dose-and time-dependent manner. PTHrP(1-36) protected renal tubuloepithelial cells from folic acid toxicity and serum deprivation, an effect inhibited by a dominant-negative Runx2 construct or a Runx2 siRNA. Furthermore, PTHrP(1-36) upregulated the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and osteopontin, and these effects were abolished by Runx2 siRNA. Runx2, osteopontin, and Bcl-2 were increased in tubuloepithelial cells from transgenic mice with PTHrP overexpression and in wild-type mice with acute or chronic renal failure. Thus, PTHrP regulates renal tubuloepithelial cell survival via Runx2 in the mammalian kidney. © 2013 International Society of Nephrology.

Vara M.-J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Aging and Social Policy | Year: 2014

In Spain, elder women are the largest group in need of long-term care. Significant improvements in this issue took place between 2007 and 2011, thanks to the Dependency Law (2006). But severe limitations showed the difficulty of overcoming the historical backwardness of Spanish social policy. This article describes the situation of Spanish people with dependency in activities of daily living. It analyzes changes driven by this law, especially in their impacts on elder women. It assesses the extent to which those changes can alter the traditional model of care. There are three major findings: First, measures promoted by the law have improved the previous situation but are incapable of developing a new model. Care for elders still relies on family, with lack of professionalism, little socialization, and expanding commodification. Second, the current care model is fundamentally detrimental to older women and women caregivers. Third, this kind of model hinders the overcoming of gender inequalities in intrafamily, generational, and social relations. ©, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Jimenez J.S.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

A number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, tauopathies, Parkinson's disease, and synucleinopathies, polyglutamine diseases, including Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, are characterized by the existence of a protein or peptide prone to aggregation specific to the disease: amyloid-β, tau protein, α-synuclein, atrophin 1, androgen receptor, prion protein, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, α 1A subunit of CaV2.1, TATA-box binding protein, huntingtin, and ataxins 1, 2, 3, and 7. Beside this common molecular feature, we have found three additional main properties related to the disease-connected protein or peptide, which are shared by all those neurological disorders: first, proneness to aggregation, which, in many cases, seems to be bound to the lack of a clearly defined secondary structure; second, reported presence of the disease-related protein inside the nucleus; and finally, an apparently unspecific interaction with DNA. These findings, together with the lack of clear details to explain the molecular origin of these neurodegenerative diseases, invite a hypothesis that, together with other plausible molecular explanations, may contribute to find the molecular basis of these diseases: I propose here the hypothesis that many neurological disorders may be the consequence, at least in part, of an aberrant interaction of the disease-related protein with nucleic acids, therefore affecting the normal DNA expression and giving place to a genetic stress which, in turn, alters the expression of proteins needed for the normal cellular function and regulation. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Chemissanya W.,Stanford University | Papadimitriou I.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We present a general algorithm for constructing the holographic dictionary for Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating Lifshitz backgrounds for any value of the dynamical exponent zand any value of the hyperscaling violation parameter θ compatible with the null energy condition. The objective of the algorithm is the construction of the general asymptotic solution of the radial Hamilton-Jacobi equation subject to the desired boundary conditions, from which the full dictionary can be subsequently derived. Contrary to the relativistic case, we find that a fully covariant construction of the asymptotic solution for running non-relativistic theories necessitates an expansion in the eigenfunctions of two commuting operators instead of one. This provides a covariant but non-relativistic grading of the expansion, according to the number of time derivatives. © 2014 The Authors.

Macias J.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Education | Year: 2012

Project-based learning is one of the main successful student-centered pedagogies broadly used in computing science courses. However, this approach can be insufficient when dealing with practical subjects that implicitly require many deliverables and a great deal of feedback and organizational resources. In this paper, a worked e-portfolio is presented as an approach to improve the teaching/learning and evaluation processes in project-based learning environments needing considerable resources. To validate this approach, a practical project-based software engineering course supported by a Moodle-based e-portfolio was designed and taught. The results obtained corroborated the effectiveness of the e-portfolio in practical software engineering teaching; this approach can be extended to similar subjects in other studies and/or curricula. © 2012 IEEE.

Gladkova A.,University of New England of Australia | Romero-Trillo J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2014

This study addresses the question of the ethnopragmatic conceptualization of 'beautiful' in three European languages - English, Russian and Spanish. Specifically, it investigates the polysemy and the spheres of application of the following words: English beautiful, Russian krasivyj, Spanish bonito/a, as the words that better represent aesthetic positive appraisal in these languages.The data for the study comes from three online corpora: Russian National Corpus (Russian), Cobuild Wordbanks Online (English) and Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual (Spanish). Through corpus analysis methodology we investigate the most common collocations and the pragmatic and contextual uses of these terms.On the basis of this analysis our study proposes semantic explications of the words beautiful, krasivyj, and bonito/a in universal human concepts within the theoretical framework of the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM). In particular, we investigate the presence of the perception universals identified by NSM: SEE, HEAR, and FEEL, which in our data are central to the analysis of the aesthetics vocabulary along with the primitives GOOD, SOMEONE, SOMETHING and THINK.To sum up, the article elaborates, describes and reveals similarities and differences in their perceptions of 'beautiful' across the three languages in relation to the nouns modified by this concept. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Diaz-Nido J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs | Year: 2010

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Dopamine depletion in the striatum leads to functional changes in several deep brain nuclei, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), which becomes disinhibited and perturbs the control of body movement. Although there is no cure for PD, some pharmacological and surgical treatments can significantly improve the functional ability of patients, particularly in the early stages of the disease. Among neurodegenerative diseases, PD is a particularly suitable target for gene therapy because the neuropathology is largely confined to a relatively small region of the brain. Neurologix Inc is developing NLX-P101 (AAV2-GAD), an adeno-associated viral vector encoding glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), for the potential therapy of PD. As GAD potentiates inhibitory neurotransmission from the STN, sustained expression of GAD in the STN by direct delivery of NLX-P101 decreases STN overactivation. This procedure was demonstrated to be a safe and efficient method of reducing motor deficits in animal models of PD. A phase I clinical trial has demonstrated that NLX-P101 was safe and indicated the efficacy of this approach in patients with PD. Results from an ongoing phase II clinical trial of NLX-P101 are awaited to establish the clinical efficacy of this gene therapy. © Thomson Reuters (Scientific) Ltd.

Allen P.B.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Berlijn T.,University of Florida | Casavant D.A.,University of Maryland University College | Soler J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

For a quantum state, or classical harmonic normal mode, of a system of spatial periodicity "R," Bloch character is encoded in a wave vector "K." One can ask whether this state has partial Bloch character "k" corresponding to a finer scale of periodicity "r." Answering this is called "unfolding." A theorem is proven that yields a mathematically clear prescription for unfolding, by examining translational properties of the state, requiring no "reference states" or basis functions with the finer periodicity (r,k). A question then arises: How should one assign partial Bloch character to a state of a finite system? A slab, finite in one direction, is used as the example. Perpendicular components k z of the wave vector are not explicitly defined, but may be hidden in the state (and eigenvector). A prescription for extracting kz is offered and tested. An idealized silicon (111) surface is used as the example. Slab unfolding reveals surface-localized states and resonances which were not evident from dispersion curves alone. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Marchetti F.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Parish M.M.,London Center for Nanotechnology
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate the phase diagram of dipolar fermions with aligned dipole moments in a two-dimensional (2D) bilayer. Using a version of the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjölander scheme recently adapted to dipolar fermions in a single layer, we determine the density-wave instabilities of the bilayer system within linear response theory. We find that the bilayer geometry can stabilize the collapse of the 2D dipolar Fermi gas with intralayer attraction to form a new density wave phase that has an orientation perpendicular to the density wave expected for strong intralayer repulsion. We thus obtain a quantum phase transition between stripe phases that is driven by the interplay between strong correlations and the architecture of the low-dimensional system. ©2013 American Physical Society.

Rodriguez T.R.,Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research | Egido J.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2011

We study the structure of the neutron-rich 44S isotope with modern configuration mixing methods based on the Gogny interaction, including beyond-mean-field effects. Restoration of particle number and rotational symmetries are taken into account as well as shape mixing in the whole triaxial (β2,γ) plane. We obtain a qualitative agreement between the calculated spectrum and the experimental data reported recently. Very extended collective wave functions in the (β2,γ) plane are found for the lowest states, corresponding to very flat potentials, which indicate wide configuration mixing and support the weakening of the N=28 magic number. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Salvio A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Strumia A.,University of Pisa | Strumia A.,Estonian National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We explore the possibility that the fundamental theory of nature does not contain any scale. This implies a renormalizable quantum gravity theory where the graviton kinetic term has 4 derivatives, and can be reinterpreted as gravity minus an anti-graviton. We compute the super-Planckian RGE of adimensional gravity coupled to a generic matter sector. The Planck scale and a flat space can arise dynamically at quantum level provided that a quartic scalar coupling and its β function vanish at the Planck scale. This is how the Higgs boson behaves for M h ≈ 125 GeV and M t ≈ 171 GeV. Within agravity, inflation is a generic phenomenon: the slow-roll parameters are given by the β-functions of the theory, and are small if couplings are perturbative. The predictions n s ≈ 0.967 and r ≈ 0.13 arise if the inflaton is identified with the Higgs of gravity. Furthermore, quadratically divergent corrections to the Higgs mass vanish: a small weak scale is natural and can be generated by agravity quantum corrections. © 2014 The Author(s).

San-Jose P.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Prada E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

A twisted graphene bilayer exhibits a triangular Moir pattern in the local stacking, that smoothly alternates between the three basic types AA ′, AB′, and BA′. Under an interlayer bias U, the latter two types develop a spectral gap, characterizsed by opposite valley Chern numbers. We show that for large enough Moir periods and bias, these regions become depleted electronically, and topologically protected helical modes appear at their boundaries. This gives rise to a delocalized topological network of the Chalker-Coddington type, composed of valley current vortices. This network can be tailored by controlled deposition of valley-mixing adsorbates, which block transmission in selected links, thus opening the possibility of custom topological nanoelectronics. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Alcami A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lira S.A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2010

Viruses encode a variety of mechanisms to evade host immune pathways. Large DNA viruses (herpesviruses and poxviruses) encode proteins that mimic chemokines and chemokine receptors. Also, some viruses encode secreted proteins that bind chemokines and have structure unrelated to host proteins. Recent research in this area has led to the identification of new viral proteins that modulate the chemokine system, has provided information on the molecular mechanisms leading to interference of chemokine signaling, and has shed light into the function of these proteins in the context of infection. The therapeutic value of these viral proteins to inhibit immune responses that cause pathology has been explored further. Finally, a new family of chemokine binding proteins identified in ticks expands this strategy of immune modulation beyond the virus world. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Dogariu A.,University of Central Florida | Sukhov S.,University of Central Florida | Saenz J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Saenz J.,Donostia International Physics Center
Nature Photonics | Year: 2013

The idea of using optical beams to attract objects has long been a dream of scientists and the public alike. Over the years, a number of proposals have attempted to bring this concept to life. Here we review the most recent progress in this emerging field, including new concepts for manipulating small objects using optically induced 'negative forces', achieved by tailoring the properties of the electromagnetic field, the environment or the particles themselves. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Merino J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gunnarsson O.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2013

We analyze the origin of the pseudogap present in cuprate superconductors. We elucidate the mechanism of pseudogap formation close to the Mott localization within the dynamical cluster approach (DCA) to the Hubbard model. As the Coulomb interaction is increased, cluster-bath Kondo states are destroyed and a nondegenerate bound cluster state is formed, leading to a pseudogap. This occurs first at the antinodal point due to its weaker coupling to the bath, explaining the momentum dependence of the pseudogap. We find that the character of the pseudogap is related to breaking d-wave pairs. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK & the USA.

Barbon J.L.F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2016

We give a subjective view of recent trends and challenges at the forefront of high-energy theoretical research. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Masliah E.,University of California at San Diego | Diez-Tejedor E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Drugs of Today | Year: 2012

Neurotrophic factors are considered as part of the therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders like dementia, stroke and traumatic brain injury. Cerebrolysin is a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair. In dementia models, Cerebrolysin decreases β-amyloid deposition and microtubule-associated protein tau phosphorylation by regulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity, increases synaptic density and restores neuronal cytoarchitecture. These effects protect integrity of the neuronal circuits and thus result in improved cognitive and behavioral performance. Furthermore, Cerebrolysin enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, the basis for neuronal replacement therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental studies in stroke animal models have shown that Cerebrolysin stabilizes the structural integrity of cells by inhibition of calpain and reduces the number of apoptotic cells after ischemic lesion. Cerebrolysin induces restorative processes, decreases infarct volume and edema formation and promotes functional recovery. Stroke-induced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone was also promoted by Cerebrolysin, thus supporting the brain's self-repair after stroke. Both, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury conditions stimulate the expression of natural neurotrophic factors to promote repair and regeneration processes-axonal regeneration, neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis-that is considered to be crucial for the future recovery. Neuroprotective effects of Cerebrolysin on experimentally induced traumatic spinal cord injury have shown that Cerebrolysin prevents apoptosis of lesioned motoneurons and promotes functional recovery. This section summarizes the most relevant data on the pharmacology of Cerebrolysin obtained from in vitro assays (biochemical and cell cultures) and in vivo animal models of acute and chronic neurological disorders. Copyright © 2012 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

Vallejo M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Islets | Year: 2011

Inactivation of the gene encoding the aristaless-related homeodomain transcription factor Alx3 results in islet cell apoptosis and impaired glucose homeostasis that worsens with age due to the appearance of insulin resistance. Alx3-deficient mice also show extrapancreatic developmental defects with variable penetrance. These include polydactyly, craniofacial midline defects and neural tube closure defects. In humans, related congenital defects associated with mutations in ALX3 and other aristaless-related genes are being identified. Emerging evidence suggests that normal pancreatic function in humans may require the integrity of aristaless-related genes. Here, the proposal that ALX3 could be considered as a candidate gene for the etiopathogenesis of diabetes or its complications during embryonic or fetal development is discussed. ©2011 Landes Bioscience.

Ruiz-Labourdette D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Nogues-Bravo D.,Copenhagen University | Ollero H.S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Schmitz M.F.,Complutense University of Madrid | Pineda F.D.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim Species distribution models have been used frequently to assess the effects of climate change on mountain biodiversity. However, the value and accuracy of these assessments have been hampered by the use of low-resolution data for species distributions and climatic conditions. Herein we assess potential changes in the distribution and community composition of tree species in two mountainous regions of Spain under specific scenarios of climate change using data with a high spatial resolution. We also describe potential changes in species distributions and tree communities along the entire elevational gradient. Location Two mountain ranges in southern Europe: the Central Mountain Range (central west of the Iberian Peninsula), and the Iberian Mountain Range (central east). Methods We modelled current and future distributions of 15 tree species (Eurosiberian, sub-Mediterranean and Mediterranean species) as functions of climate, lithology and availability of soil water using generalized linear models (logistic regression) and machine learning models (gradient boosting). Using multivariate ordination of a matrix of presence/absence of tree species obtained under two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (A2 and B2) for two different periods in the future (2041-70 and 2071-2100), we assessed the predicted changes in the composition of tree communities. Results The models predicted an upward migration of communities of Mediterranean trees to higher elevations and an associated decline in communities of temperate or cold-adapted trees during the 21st century. It was predicted that 80-99% of the area that shows a climate suitable for cold-wet-optimum Eurosiberian coniferous and broad-leaved species will be lost. The largest overall changes were predicted for Mediterranean species found currently at low elevations, such as Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Quercus ilex ssp. ballota and Juniperus oxycedrus, with sharp increases in their range of 350%. Main conclusions It is likely that areas with climatic conditions suitable for cold-adapted species will decrease significantly under climate warming. Large changes in species ranges and forest communities might occur, not only at high elevations within Mediterranean mountains but also along the entire elevational gradient throughout this region, particularly at low and mid-elevations. Mediterranean mountains might lose their key role as refugia for cold-adapted species and thus an important part of their genetic heritage. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

De Lara J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Vangheluwe H.,McGill University
Formal Aspects of Computing | Year: 2010

We present a novel approach for the automatic generation of model-to-model transformations given a description of the operational semantics of the source language in the form of graph transformation rules. The approach is geared to the generation of transformations from Domain-Specific Visual Languages (DSVLs) into semantic domains with an explicit notion of transition, like for example Petri nets. The generated transformation is expressed in the form of operational triple graph grammar rules that transform the static information (initial model) and the dynamics (source rules and their execution control structure).We illustrate these techniques with a DSVL in the domain of production systems, for which we generate a transformation into Petri nets. We also tackle the description of timing aspects in graph transformation rules, and its analysis through their automatic translation into Time Petri nets. BCS © 2009.

Sastre J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sastre J.,CIBER ISCIII | Mosges R.,University of Cologne
Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

The safety and efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids (INCs) are well established for the management of allergic rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyps. As seen in numerous studies, INCs demonstrate markedly reduced systemic bioavailability compared with oral and even inhaled corticosteroids and have shown an excellent safety profile over 3 decades of use. Nonetheless, concerns remain among some prescribers and patients that these agents may reach the systemic circulation in sufficient concentration to produce adverse effects (AEs). Available evidence does not support these concerns. A review of the published literature indicates that the side effect profiles of INCs consist primarily of a low incidence of mostly mild and often transient local AEs, such as nasal irritation and epistaxis. The second-generation INC agents currently in use (mometasone furoate nasal spray, fluticasone propionate, ciclesonide, and fluticasone furoate) have favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics that further minimize systemic bioavailability (<1%) compared with older INCs and compared with oral agents, thereby limiting the risk for systemic adverse events. © 2012 Esmon Publicidad.

Scholz A.,University of Regensburg | Stauber T.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Schliemann J.,University of Regensburg
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate the dynamical dielectric function of a monolayer of molybdenum disulfide within the random phase approximation. While in graphene damping of plasmons is caused by interband transitions, due to the large direct band gap in monolayer MoS2 collective charge excitations enter the intraband electron hole continuum similarly to the situation in two-dimensional electron and hole gases. Since there is no electron-hole symmetry in MoS 2, the plasmon energies in p- and n-doped samples clearly differ. The breaking of spin degeneracy caused by the large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to a beating of Friedel oscillations for sufficiently large carrier concentrations, for holes as well as for electrons. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Lopez Asamar E.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2016

The Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) experiment aims to detecting nuclear recoils from weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs) by measuring phonon and ionization energy in crystalline Ge. It has been operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota (USA) since March 2012 with improved background rejection capabilities with respect to CDMS II. A low-threshold analysis of the SuperCDMS data has been performed, allowing to explore WIMP masses below 30 GeV/c2. This is the first analysis using the full background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. In particular both phonon and ionization signals are used for defining a fiducial volume excluding events near any of the surfaces of the detectors. In addition, the background discrimination includes multivariate techniques optimized for several WIMP masses. The results are competitive with other low-threshold WIMP searches, and probe new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses between 4 and 6 GeV/c2. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Fernandez P.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2016

The GADZOOKS! project pursues the upgrade of the Super-Kamiokande detector as a way to efficiently detect thermal neutrons. Inverse beta decay reactions, as well as charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering of low energy anti-neutrinos (up to a few hundreds of MeV) in SK, produce one positron and one neutron in the final state. Being able to observe the final state neutron in coincidence with the prompt positron would mean that SK could identify these reactions as genuine with very high confidence.GADZOOKS! will open to Super-Kamiokande - and water Cherenkov detectors in general - a wealth of physics currently inaccessible due to background limitations. The most important is observing for the first time the diffuse supernova neutrino background: Super-Kamiokande enriched with gadolinium will discover it after few years of running.The main R&D program towards GADZOOKS! is EGADS: a 200 ton fully instrumented tank built in a new cavern in the Kamioka mine. EGADS incorporates all the necessary subsystems to make GADZOOKS! a reality. In this contribution we will describe EGADS, we will present its current status and discuss the main results and conclusions arrived at so far. In addition, we will analyze other issues specific to the running of GADZOOKS!. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Salvio A.,CERN | Salvio A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Mazumdar A.,Lancaster University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

We study the implications of a possible unstable particle with mass MX

Rojas-Rios P.,Pablo De Olavide University | Guerrero I.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gonzalez-Reyes A.,Pablo De Olavide University
PLoS Biology | Year: 2012

Stem cells reside in specialised microenvironments, or niches, which often contain support cells that control stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Hedgehog (Hh) proteins mediate homeostasis in several adult niches, but a detailed understanding of Hh signalling in stem cell regulation is lacking. Studying the Drosophila female germline stem cell (GSC) niche, we show that Hh acts as a critical juxtacrine signal to maintain the normal GSC population of the ovary. Hh production in cap cells, a type of niche support cells, is regulated by the Engrailed transcription factor. Hh is then secreted to a second, adjacent population of niche cells, the escort cells, where it activates transcription of the GSC essential factors Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Glass bottom boat (Gbb). In wild-type niches, Hh protein decorates short filopodia that originate in the support cap cells and that are functionally relevant, as they are required to transduce the Hh pathway in the escort cells and to maintain a normal population of GSCs. These filopodia, reminiscent of wing disc cytonemes, grow several fold in length if Hh signalling is impaired within the niche. Because these long cytonemes project directionally towards the signalling-deficient region, cap cells sense and react to the strength of Hh pathway transduction in the niche. Thus, the GSC niche responds to insufficient Hh signalling by increasing the range of Hh spreading. Although the signal(s) perceived by the cap cells and the receptor(s) involved are still unknown, our results emphasise the integration of signals necessary to maintain a functional niche and the plasticity of cellular niches to respond to challenging physiological conditions. © 2012 Rojas-Ríos et al.

Berenguer J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Environment and Behavior | Year: 2010

Based on Batson's Model of Altruism, in the present work it is argued that moral reasoning about the environment (number of moral reasons given for pro-environmental behaviors) can be improved by manipulating the emotion of empathy. It is also argued that the argument of moral reasoning will be different depending on whether the object of empathy is a natural object (vulture) or a human being (young man). The present work reports a study using a factorial design (2x2) with control group on the relationship between empathy level (high or low), empathy object (vulture or young man) and moral reasoning about ecological dilemmas. The reasoning was evaluated using four different ecological moral dilemmas, with responses coded in three categories (anthropocentric, ecocentric and nonvenvironmental). The results of the study indicate that participants who showed a high empathy level provided more arguments of moral reasoning than those in the low empathy group. When the object of empathy was a vulture the number of moral arguments of an ecocentric nature increased; when it was a young man the number of moral arguments of an anthropocentric nature increased. © 2010 SAGE Publications.

Chu X.,Free University of Colombia | Hambye T.,Free University of Colombia | Hambye T.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Scarna T.,Free University of Colombia | Tytgat M.H.G.,Free University of Colombia
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

In dark matter (DM) models, the production of a γ line (or of a "box-shaped" γ-ray spectrum) from DM annihilation proceeds in general from a loop diagram involving a heavy charged particle. If the charged particle in the loop carries also a color charge, this leads inevitably to DM annihilation to gluons, with a naturally larger rate. We consider a scenario in which DM candidates annihilate dominantly into gluon pairs, and determine (as far as possible, model-independent) constraints from a variety of observables: (a) the dark matter relic density, (b) the production of antiprotons, (c) DM direct detection and (d) gluon-gluon fusion processes at LHC. Among other things, we show that this scenario together with the recent claim for a possible γ line from the Galactic center in the Fermi-LAT data, leads to a relic abundance of DM that may be naturally close to the cosmological observations. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Geographical imaginations of Sierra Nevada have not been investigated yet from a hermeneutic perspective within the frame of Cultural Geography. This article examines one of those imaginations, namely that created by the Anglo-Saxon travelers of the Romantic period. Through the analysis and the cultural contextualization of diverse images and narratives of Sierra Nevada, appeared in the nineteenth-century British travel accounts, the article examines the metaphors that carved out such a landscape imaginary, the global discourses from which they arose, and the interconnections between them. In so doing, the paper aims to place the meanings of the visions of Sierra Nevada within the global context of the knowledge of European high mountain. Thus, the article shows how the aesthetic patterns and conventional narratives of mountain landscapes, previously employed in the symbolic acquaintance of the Alps, travelled across time and space through different cultural media, and were reinterpreted in the descriptions of Sierra Nevada. The paper thus suggests a hermeneutic analysis of the representations of the massif in relation to recent debates on «geographies of reception» of landscape.

Figueroa D.G.,Autonomous University of Madrid
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

We discuss Preheating after an inflationary stage driven by the Standard Model (SM) Higgs field non-minimally coupled to gravity. We find that Preheating is driven by a complex process in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects occur simultaneously. The Higgs field, initially an oscillating coherent condensate, produces non-perturbatively W and Z gauge fields. These decay very rapidly into fermions, thus preventing gauge bosons to accumulate and, consequently, blocking the usual parametric resonance. The energy transferred into the fermionic species is, nevertheless, not enough to reheat the Universe, and resonant effects are eventually developed. Soon after resonance becomes effective, also backreaction from the gauge bosons into the Higgs condensate becomes relevant. We have determined the time evolution of the energy distribution among the remnant Higgs condensate and the non-thermal distribution of the SM fermions and gauge fields, until the moment in which backreaction becomes important. Beyond backreaction our approximations break down and numerical simulations and theoretical considerations beyond this work are required, in order to study the evolution of the system until thermalization. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Poyato-Ariza F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Comptes Rendus - Palevol | Year: 2013

Sylvienodus nov. gen. is erected as replacement for " . Pycnodus" laveirensis, from the marine Cenomanian, Late Cretaceous, of Laveiras, Portugal. Significant differences between Sylvienodus and Pycnodus include: absence of dermocranial fenestra, a single premaxillary tooth, simple contact of arcocentra, extremely falcate dorsal and anal fins, lesser enlargement of hypochordal elements on caudal endoskeleton, simpler dorsal ridge scales, oval notch between 1st and 2nd dorsal ridge scales, and a single post-cloacal ventral keel scale. After the removal of the species laveirensis, the genus Pycnodus is considered restricted to the Eocene; its type species, P. . apodus, is the only one known from complete specimens. Sylvienodus laveirensis is provisionally assigned to the Pycnodontinae, pending revision of this subfamily.© 2013 Académie des sciences.

Nikitin A.Y.,University of Zaragoza | Garcia-Vidal F.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Martin-Moreno L.,University of Zaragoza
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2013

An analytical general analysis of the electromagnetic dyadic Green's function for 2-D sheet (or a very thin film) is presented, with an emphasis on the case of graphene. A modified steepest descent treatment of the fields from a point dipole given in the form of Sommerfeld integrals is performed. We sequentially derive the expressions for both out-of-plane and in-plane fields of both polarizations. It is shown that the analytical approximation provided is very precise in a wide range of distances from a point source down to a deep subwavelength region (1/100 of wavelength). We separate the contribution from the pole, the branch point, and discuss their interference. The asymptotic expressions for the fields are composed of the plasmon, Norton wave, and the components corresponding to free space. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

Castellanos-Gomez A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
European Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

A simple strobe setup with the potential to study higher-order eigenmodes and multifrequency oscillations in micromechanical resonators is described. It requires standard equipment, commonly found in many laboratories, and it can thus be employed for public demonstrations of mechanical resonances. Moreover, the work presented here can be used by undergraduate students and/or teachers to prepare practical work in laboratory courses at physics or engineering universities. The dynamics of a micromachined cantilever is analysed as an example. In fact, using our stroboscopic setup, the first and second flexural eigenmodes, as well as a multifrequency oscillation composed by a superposition of both modes, have been successfully filmed with a conventional optical microscope equipped with a digital camera. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Dvali G.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Dvali G.,Max Planck Institute for Physics | Dvali G.,CERN | Dvali G.,New York University | And 2 more authors.
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/. N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Palacios J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

It is a fact that the minimal conductivity σ0 of most graphene samples is larger than the well-established universal value for ideal graphene 4 e2 /πh; in particular, larger by a factor π. Despite intense theoretical activity, this fundamental issue has eluded an explanation so far. Here we present fully atomistic quantum mechanical estimates of the graphene minimal conductivity where electron-electron interactions are considered in the framework of density-functional theory. We show the conclusive evidence of the dominant role on the minimal conductivity of charged impurities over ripples, which have no visible effect. Furthermore, in combination with the logarithmic scaling law for diffusive metallic graphene, we elucidate the origin of the ubiquitously observed minimal conductivity in the range 8 e2 /h> σ0 4 e2 /h. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Carmina Monreal R.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Antosiewicz T.J.,Chalmers University of Technology | Apell S.P.,Chalmers University of Technology
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

We present a theoretical model for analyzing the size dependence of the surface plasmon resonance of metallic nanospheres in a range of sizes down to a single nanometer. Within this model, we explicitly show how different microscopic mechanisms, namely quantization due to size (quantum size effect (QSE)) and dynamical surface screening, affect the energy of the surface plasmon. We demonstrate that the latter mechanism, which can move the surface plasma energy both toward the red or the blue, can be comparable to or even stronger than QSE. Thus, depending on material parameters, QSE may only be observed for ultra-small metal nanoparticles much closer to 1 nm in size than to 10 nm. Results presented herein are in quantitative agreement with recent published experimental results for Ag and Au. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

San-Jose P.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Cayao J.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Prada E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Aguado R.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

We study transport in a voltage-biased superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) junction made of semiconducting nanowires with strong spin-orbit coupling, as it transitions into a topological superconducting phase for increasing Zeeman field. Despite the absence of a fractional steady-state ac Josephson current in the topological phase, the dissipative multiple Andreev reflection current Idc at different junction transparencies is particularly revealing. It exhibits unique features related to topology, such as gap inversion, the formation of Majorana bound states and fermion-parity conservation. Moreover, the critical current Ic, which remarkably does not vanish at the critical point where the system becomes gapless, provides direct evidence of the topological transition. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Stauber T.,Autonomous University of Madrid | San-Jose P.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Brey L.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2013

We numerically calculate the optical conductivity of twisted graphene bilayers within the continuum model. To obtain the imaginary part, we employ the regularized Kramers-Kronig relation, allowing us to discuss arbitrary twist angles, chemical potential and temperature. We find that the Drude weight D as a function of the chemical potential μ closely follows the shell structure of a twisted bilayer displayed by the density of states. For certain angles, this results in a transport gap D = 0 at finite μ. We also discuss the loss function which, for low doping, is characterized by acoustic interband 'plasmons' and transitions close to the van Hove singularities. For larger doping, the plasmon mode of a decoupled graphene bilayer is recovered that is damped especially for small wave numbers. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Salvio A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We obtain the bound on the Higgs and top masses to have Higgs inflation (where the Higgs field is non-minimally coupled to gravity) at full next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Comparing the result obtained with the experimental values of the relevant parameters we find some tension, which we quantify. Higgs inflation, however, is not excluded at the moment as the measured values of the Higgs and top masses are close enough to the bound once experimental and theoretical uncertainties are taken into account. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rodriguez-Guzman R.,Rice University | Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sarriguren P.,CSIC - Institute for the Structure of Matter
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

The interplay between the collective dynamics of the quadrupole and octupole deformation degree of freedom is discussed in a series of Sm and Gd isotopes both at the mean-field level and beyond, including parity symmetry restoration and configuration mixing. Physical properties such as negative-parity excitation energies and E1 and E3 transition probabilities are discussed and compared to experimental data. Other relevant intrinsic quantities such as dipole moments, ground-state quadrupole moments or correlation energies associated with symmetry restoration and configuration mixing are discussed. For the considered isotopes, the quadrupole-octupole coupling is found to be weak and most of the properties of negative-parity states can be described in terms of the octupole degree of freedom alone. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Warda M.,University Marii Curie Sklodowskiej | Egido J.L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

A systematic study of 160 heavy and superheavy nuclei is performed in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approach with the finite-range and density-dependent Gogny force with the D1S parameter set. We show calculations in several approximations: with axially symmetric and reflection-symmetric wave functions, with axially symmetric and non-reflection-symmetric wave functions, and finally with some representative triaxial wave functions. Relevant properties of the ground state and along the fission path are thoroughly analyzed. Fission barriers, Q α factors, and lifetimes with respect to fission and α decay as well as other observables are discussed. Larger configuration spaces and more general HFB wave functions as compared to previous studies provide a very good agreement with the experimental data. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Martinez-Ruiz A.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Cadenas S.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Cadenas S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Lamas S.,Laboratorio Mixto Csic Instituto Reina Sofia Of Investigaciones Nefrologicas
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Although nitric oxide (NO) was identified more than 150 years ago and its effects were clinically tested in the form of nitroglycerine, it was not until the decades of 1970-1990 that it was described as a gaseous signal transducer. Since then, a canonical pathway linked to cyclic GMP (cGMP) as its quintessential effector has been established, but other modes of action have emerged and are now part of the common body of knowledge within the field. Classical (or canonical) signaling involves the selective activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, the generation of cGMP, and the activation of specific kinases (cGMP-dependent protein kinases) by this cyclic nucleotide. Nonclassical signaling alludes to the formation of NO-induced posttranslational modifications (PTMs), especially S-nitrosylation, S-glutathionylation, and tyrosine nitration. These PTMs are governed by specific biochemical mechanisms as well as by enzymatic systems. In addition, a less classical but equally important pathway is related to the interaction between NO and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, which might have important implications for cell respiration and intermediary metabolism. Cross talk trespassing these necessarily artificial conceptual boundaries is progressively being identified and hence an integrated systems biology approach to the comprehension of NO function will probably emerge in the near future. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Latorre R.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Empirical Software Engineering | Year: 2014

Unit Test-Driven Development (UTDD) and Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD) are software development techniques to incrementally develop software where the test cases, unit or acceptance tests respectively, are specified before the functional code. There are little empirical evidences supporting or refuting the utility of these techniques in an industrial context. Just a few case studies can be found in literature within the industrial environment and they show conflicting results (positive, negative and neutral). In this report, we present a successful application of UTDD in combination with ATDD in a commercial project. By successful we mean that the project goals are reached without an extra economic cost. All the UTDD and ATDD implementations are based on the same basic concepts, but they may differ in specific adaptations to each project or team. In the implementation presented here, the business requirements are specified by means of executable acceptance tests, which then are the input of a development process where the functional code is written in response to specific unit tests. Our goal is to share our successful experience in a specific project from an empirical point of view. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of adopting UTDD and ATDD and identify some conditions that facilitate success. The main conclusions we draw from this project are that ATDD contributes to clearly capture and validate the business requirements, but it requires an extensive cooperation from the customer; and that UTDD has not a significant impact neither on productivity nor on software quality. These results cannot be generalized, but they point out that under some circumstances a test-driven development strategy can be a possible option to take into account by software professionals. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Landsteiner K.,Autonomous University of Madrid
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

The AdS/CFT correspondence has developed over the last years into a very useful and powerful tool for studying strongly coupled field theories at finite temperature and density. Of particular interest is the regime of near equilibrium real time evolution that can be captured via linear response theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence allows the calculation of retarded two point functions of gauge invariant operators by studying fluctuations around asymptotically AdS black holes. A major role is played by the poles of these holographic response functions: the quasinormal frequencies. I will review the applications of these ideas to the hydrodynamics of the strongly coupled quark gluon plasma and the holographic realization of strongly coupled superfluids. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Munoz-Bonilla A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Fernandez-Garcia M.,CSIC - Institute of Polymer Science and Technology
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2015

Antimicrobial strategies combining polymer science and nanotechnology have attracted tremendous interest in the last decade because of their great potential in many applications. This feature article presents our vision for the continuous progress in this area. Then, its first part has been focused on the different methodologies used to obtain antimicrobial nanomaterials, such as self-assembly, nanoprecipitation, and electrospinning, among others. The surface nanostructuring of polymeric films and its effects on the antimicrobial behavior are briefly described in the second half. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Carretie L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience | Year: 2014

Current knowledge on the architecture of exogenous attention (also called automatic, bottom-up, or stimulus-driven attention, among other terms) has been mainly obtained from studies employing neutral, anodyne stimuli. Since, from an evolutionary perspective, exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool for rapidly detecting salient events, reorienting processing resources to them, and enhancing processing mechanisms, emotional events (which are, by definition, salient for the individual) would seem crucial to a comprehensive understanding of this process. This review, focusing on the visual modality, describes 55 experiments in which both emotional and neutral irrelevant distractors are presented at the same time as ongoing task targets. Qualitative and, when possible, meta-analytic descriptions of results are provided. The most conspicuous result is that, as confirmed by behavioral and/or neural indices, emotional distractors capture exogenous attention to a significantly greater extent than do neutral distractors. The modulatory effects of the nature of distractors capturing attention, of the ongoing task characteristics, and of individual differences, previously proposed as mediating factors, are also described. Additionally, studies reviewed here provide temporal and spatial information-partially absent in traditional cognitive models-on the neural basis of preattention/evaluation, reorienting, and sensory amplification, the main subprocesses involved in exogenous attention. A model integrating these different levels of information is proposed. The present review, which reveals that there are several key issues for which experimental data are surprisingly scarce, confirms the relevance of including emotional distractors in studies on exogenous attention.

Arranz A.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Thin Solid Films | Year: 2012

Hf- and Ta-aluminates have been grown by 3 keV O 2 + reactive ion beam mixing (IBM) of X/Al interfaces (X = Hf or Ta). The kinetics of growth, composition and electronic structure of the films formed have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and factor analysis. A reactive IBM kinetics of two stages has been found by means of factor analysis. In a first stage, HfO 2 or a mixture of Ta suboxides and Ta 2O 5 species are formed for the Hf/Al or Ta/Al interface, respectively. Ta suboxide species are subsequently transformed into Ta 2O 5 species at the beginning of the second stage. In a second stage, HfO 2 or Ta 2O 5 species are transformed progressively into Hf-O-Al or Ta-O-Al species, respectively, leading to the synthesis of custom designed Hf- and Ta-aluminates. The evolution of the Auger parameters and UPS valence band spectra shows that this transformation is accompanied by changes in the electronic structure of the oxide films formed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Merino J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | McKenzie R.H.,University of Queensland
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

The title material has a quasi-one-dimensional electronic structure and is of considerable interest because it has a metallic phase with properties different from a simple Fermi liquid, a poorly understood "insulating" phase, and a superconducting phase which may involve spin triplet Cooper pairs. Using the Slater-Koster approach and comparison with published band-structure calculations we present the simplest possible tight-binding model for the electronic band structure near the Fermi energy. This describes a set of ladders with weak (and frustrated) interladder hopping. In the corresponding lattice model the system is actually close to one-quarter filling (i.e., one electron per pair of sites) rather than half-filling, as has often been claimed. We consider the simplest possible effective Hamiltonian that may capture the subtle competition between unconventional superconducting, charge ordered, and non-Fermi liquid metal phases. We argue that this is an extended Hubbard model with long-range Coulomb interactions. Estimates of the relevant values of the parameters in the Hamiltonian are given. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation rate experiments should be performed to clarify the role of charge fluctuations in Li 0.9Mo 6O 17 associated with the proximity to a Coulomb driven charge ordering transition. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Pola M.,California Academy of Sciences | Pola M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gosliner T.M.,California Academy of Sciences
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The first molecular phylogeny is presented for the highly diverse, opisthobranch molluscan Cladobranchia. This study, the most comprehensive for Cladobranchia to date, used new sequences of two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes for 95 specimens from 22 families and 38 genera with a species of Pleurobranchoidea as outgroup. Although our results do not resolve all the relationships within the Cladobranchia, there are significant findings that have implications for the systematics of the Cladobranchia. Cladobranchia represents a monophyletic group within the Nudibranchia with the exception of a clade containing species of Melibe. These species share a deletion of four codons in the COI gene that may account for their strong divergence from the remainder of the Cladobranchia. Bornellidae is the sister group to the rest of Cladobranchia, but this relationship is weakly supported. A series of well-supported clades within Cladobranchia show little structure as to their relationships to each other in the current analysis. The relationships of Tethys and Hancockidae to other Cladobranchia remain unresolved. Pseudobornella orientalis is here transferred to Dendronotus as D. orientalis. With this systematic change Bornellidae and Dendronotidae are now monophyletic. Lomanotus appears as the sister group to a monophyletic Aeolidida, but this relationship is not strongly supported. Scyllaeidae is monophyletic in this study with Scyllaea being sister taxon to Notobryon. The Proctonotidae are monophyletic and are clearly nested in the Cladobranchia. Dotoidae is monophyletic when Pinufius is included in this clade. Doriodomorpha is sister taxon to the Arminidae. Within Arminidae, Dermatobranchus and Armina, as they are presently constructed, are not monophyletic. There is an interesting potential sister group relationship between Dirona albolineata and Lemina millecra that requires additional exploration with expanded taxon sampling. In this study, Marianina rosea is nested within Tritoniidae, thus we consider Aranucidae, and its synonym Marianinidae, as a junior synonym of Tritoniidae to preserve the monophyly of Tritoniidae. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

De Celis J.F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Science Signaling | Year: 2013

The Notch signaling pathway involves ligand-activated cleavage of the receptor Notch and the interaction of the intracellular fragment with the transcriptional regulators CSL and Mastermind. Additional complexity in the system arises through the differential interaction of Notch with its ligands of the Delta and Serrate families. Glycosylation of the extracellular portion of Notch by Fringe proteins contributes to receptor selectivity toward its ligands. Recent research suggests that a glycosylation-independent function of the Notch epidermal growth factor repeats also plays an important role in specifying activation of Notch by Ser.

The taxonomy of Okenia zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910) has been extremely problematic, affected by vague original description, complementary descriptions with confusing information, and re-descriptions of species using material collected across a wide geographic range without reference to type material. A recent study based on morphological and molecular data showed that specimens initially identified as O. zoobotryon from Australia belonged to a recently described species, Okenia harastii Pola, Roldán and Padilla, 2014. The collection of several specimens from the type locality, Bermuda, facilitated a complete re-description of O. zoobotryon, with color photographs of the living animal and scanning electron microscopy pictures. In order to preserve the current use of the name Okenia zoobotryon (Smallwood, 1910), a neotype is proposed for this species.

Ascasibar Y.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2010

The Field Estimator for Arbitrary Spaces (FiEstAS) computes the continuous probability density field underlying a given discrete data sample in multiple, non-commensurate dimensions. The algorithm works by constructing a metric-independent tessellation of the data space based on a recursive binary splitting. Individual, data-driven bandwidths are assigned to each point, scaled so that a constant "mass" M0 is enclosed. Kernel density estimation may then be performed for different kernel shapes, and a combination of balloon and sample point estimators is proposed as a compromise between resolution and variance. A bias correction is evaluated for the particular (yet common) case where the density is computed exactly at the locations of the data points rather than at an uncorrelated set of locations. By default, the algorithm combines a top-hat kernel with M0 = 2.0 with the balloon estimator and applies the corresponding bias correction. These settings are shown to yield reasonable results for a simple test case, a two-dimensional ring, that illustrates the performance for oblique distributions, as well as for a six-dimensional Hernquist sphere, a fairly realistic model of the dynamical structure of stellar bulges in galaxies and dark matter haloes in cosmological N-body simulations. Results for different parameter settings are discussed in order to provide a guideline to select an optimal configuration in other cases. Source code is available upon request. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nomura K.,University of Cologne | Rodriguez-Guzman R.,Rice University | Robledo L.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

The interacting boson model with configuration mixing, with parameters derived from the self-consistent mean-field calculation employing the microscopic Gogny energy density functional, is applied to the systematic analysis of the low-lying structure in Hg isotopes. Excitation energies, electromagnetic transition rates, deformation properties, and ground-state properties of the 172-204Hg nuclei are obtained by mapping the microscopic deformation energy surface onto the equivalent interacting boson model Hamiltonian in the boson condensate. These results point to the overall systematic trend of the transition from the near-spherical vibrational state in lower-mass Hg nuclei close to 172Hg, the onset of the intruder prolate configuration as well as the manifest prolate-oblate shape coexistence around the midshell nucleus 184Hg, and a weakly oblate deformed structure beyond 190Hg up to the spherical vibrational structure toward the near-semimagic nucleus 204Hg, as observed experimentally. The quality of the present method in the description of the complex shape dynamics in Hg isotopes is examined. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Nielsen A.E.B.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics | Sierra G.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Cirac J.I.,Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

The fractional quantum Hall effect is one of the most striking phenomena in condensed matter physics. It is described by a simple Laughlin wavefunction and has been thoroughly studied both theoretically and experimentally. In lattice systems, however, much less is currently known, and only few models and mechanisms leading to it have been identified. Here we propose a new way of constructing lattice Hamiltonians with local interactions and fractional quantum Hall like ground states. In particular, we obtain a spin 1/2 model with a bosonic Laughlin-like ground state, displaying a variety of topological features. We also demonstrate how such a model naturally emerges out of a Fermi-Hubbard-like model at half filling, in which the kinetic energy part possesses bands with non-zero Chern number, and we show how this model can be implemented in an optical lattice setup with present or planned technologies. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Pifarre M.,University of Lleida | Cobos R.,Autonomous University of Madrid
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning | Year: 2010

This paper aims to better understand the development of students' metacognitive learning processes when participating actively in a CSCL system called KnowCat. To this end, a longitudinal case study was designed, in which 18 university students took part in a 12-month (two semesters) learning project. The students followed an instructional process, using specific features of the KnowCat design to support and improve their interaction processes, especially peer-learning processes. Our research involved both supervising the students' collaborative learning processes throughout the learning project and focusing our analysis on the qualitative evolution of their interaction processes and of their metacognitive learning processes. The results of the current research suggest that the pedagogical use of the KnowCat system may favour and improve the development of the students' metacognitive learning processes. In addition, the implications of the design of CSCL networks and related pedagogical issues are discussed. © 2010 International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc.; Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Marinchio H.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris | Saenz J.J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Carminati R.,Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We develop a perturbative formalism for the interaction of a magneto-optical nanoparticle with a flat surface made of a dielectric or metallic material. The formalism leads to a simple interpretation of the interplay between the purely dielectric and the magneto-optical responses, in terms of excitation of (and radiation by) two orthogonal electric dipoles. We analyze two different routes for the enhancement of the magneto-optical response with respect to the purely dielectric contribution, both based on the nanoparticle-surface interaction. The enhancement is discussed in terms of relevant magneto-optical signals, such as changes in reflectivity, polarization (Kerr) rotation, and ellipticity. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Clesse S.,University of Namur | Garcia-Bellido J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

In this paper we present a new scenario where massive primordial black holes (PBHs) are produced from the collapse of large curvature perturbations generated during a mild-waterfall phase of hybrid inflation. We determine the values of the inflaton potential parameters leading to a PBH mass spectrum peaking on planetarylike masses at matter-radiation equality and producing abundances comparable to those of dark matter today, while the matter power spectrum on scales probed by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies agrees with Planck data. These PBHs could have acquired large stellar masses today, via merging, and the model passes both the constraints from CMB distortions and microlensing. This scenario is supported by Chandra observations of numerous BH candidates in the central region of Andromeda. Moreover, the tail of the PBH mass distribution could be responsible for the seeds of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies, as well as for ultraluminous x-ray sources. We find that our effective hybrid potential can originate e.g. from D-term inflation with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term of the order of the Planck scale but sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field. Finally, we discuss the implications of quantum diffusion at the instability point of the potential, able to generate a Swiss-cheese-like structure of the Universe, eventually leading to apparent accelerated cosmic expansion. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Aldaz J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics | Year: 2011

We complement a recent result of S. Furuichi, by showing that the differences Pn i=1?i xi ?Qn i=1 x?i i associated to distinct sequences of weights are comparable, with constants that depend on the smallest and largest quotients of the weights.

Pena-Rodriguez O.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Pena-Rodriguez O.,CSIC - Institute of Optics | Pal U.,Autonomous University of Puebla
Nanoscale | Year: 2011

Fano resonances (FR) in strongly coupled systems like a metallic dimer arise due to the coupling between the spectrally localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of a noble metal nanoparticle and the continuum of interband transitions of the other. Since its discovery in Au-Ag dimers, several plasmonic structures have been proposed as candidates for obtaining Fano resonances. However, most of them either are difficult to synthesize or do not generate FR signal of adequate intensity. In this paper we demonstrate that simple Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles with typical shell thickness below 5.0 nm, which can be synthesized through a common citrate reduction method, have a Fano resonance easily detectable in the far-field. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Majerotto E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Sapone D.,University of Chile | Schafer B.M.,University of Heidelberg
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2016

Cosmological fluids are commonly assumed to be distributed in a spatially homogeneous way, while their internal properties are described by a perfect fluid. As such, they influence the Hubble expansion through their respective densities and equation-of-state parameters. The subject of this paper is an investigation of the fluid-mechanical properties of a dark energy fluid, which is characterized by its sound speed and its viscosity apart from its equation of state. In particular, we compute the predicted spectra for the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect for our generalized fluid, and compare them with the corresponding predictions for weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering, which had been computed in previous work. We perform statistical forecasts and show that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal obtained by cross-correlating Euclid galaxies with Planck temperatures, when joined to galaxy clustering and weak lensing observations, yields a percent sensitivity on the dark energy sound speed and viscosity. We prove that the iSW effect provides strong degeneracy breaking for low sound speeds and large differences between the sound speed and viscosity parameters. © 2015 The Authors.

Scholz A.,University of Regensburg | Stauber T.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Schliemann J.,University of Regensburg
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

We study the dielectric properties of graphene in the presence of Rashba and intrinsic spin-orbit interactions in their most general form, i.e., for arbitrary frequency, wave vector, doping, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) parameters. The main result consists in the derivation of closed analytical expressions for the imaginary as well as for the real part of the polarization function. Several limiting cases, e.g., the case of purely Rashba or purely intrinsic SOC, and the case of equally large Rashba and intrinsic coupling parameters are discussed. In the static limit the asymptotic behavior of the screened potential due to charged impurities is derived. In the opposite limit (q=0, ω→0), an analytical expression for the plasmon dispersion is obtained and afterwards compared to the numerical result. Our result can also be applied to related systems such as bilayer graphene or topological insulators. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Galbally J.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Marcel S.,Idiap Research Institute | Fierrez J.,Autonomous University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2014

To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. In this paper, we present a novel software-based fake detection method that can be used in multiple biometric systems to detect different types of fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the security of biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast, user-friendly, and non-intrusive manner, through the use of image quality assessment. The proposed approach presents a very low degree of complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications, using 25 general image quality features extracted from one image (i.e., the same acquired for authentication purposes) to distinguish between legitimate and impostor samples. The experimental results, obtained on publicly available data sets of fingerprint, iris, and 2D face, show that the proposed method is highly competitive compared with other state-of-the-art approaches and that the analysis of the general image quality of real biometric samples reveals highly valuable information that may be very efficiently used to discriminate them from fake traits. © 1992-2012 IEEE.

Kelley R.,Harvard University | Schwartz M.D.,Harvard University | Schabinger R.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Zhu H.X.,Beijing University of Technology
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

The hemisphere soft function is calculated to order αs2. This is the first multiscale soft function calculated to two loops. The renormalization scale dependence of the result agrees exactly with the prediction from effective field theory. This fixes the unknown coefficients of the singular parts of the two-loop thrust and heavy-jet mass distributions. There are four such coefficients, for 2 event shapes and 2 color structures, which are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous numerical extraction. The asymptotic behavior of the soft function has double logs in the CFCA color structure, which agree with nonglobal log calculations, but also has subleading single logs for both the CFCA and C FTFnf color structures. The general form of the soft function is complicated, does not factorize in a simple way, and disagrees with the Hoang-Kluth ansatz. The exact hemisphere soft function will remove one source of uncertainty on the αs fits from e+e - event shapes. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Corcoles J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Gonzalez M.A.,Technical University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2012

A novel procedure to thin an antenna array which synthesizes a desired pattern with the minimum number of active elements is introduced. The proposed method yields both the active elements and their corresponding excitations of a thinned array having the minimum number of active elements needed to meet several prescribed design specifications of the radiated farfield pattern. Specifications such as achieving a minimum gain, obtaining a pattern with a maximum allowable sidelobe level or synthesizing a shaped beam pattern confined into a mask are considered. Null field directions can also be added. In order to carry out the thinning, a genetic algorithm is used, while computing the excitations is carried out through linear or quadratic programming. The procedure incorporates the generalized scattering matrix analysis of an array made up of elements whose radiated field can be expressed as a spherical mode expansion, thus taking all electromagnetic effects inherently into account. Therefore, since the presence of an element can substantially alter the array features because of mutual coupling, two types of thinning are considered: removing elements or turning them off. Numerical results of arrays made up of isotropic sources, dielectric resonator antennas and microstrip patch antennas are presented. © 2012 IEEE.

Marco-Martinez J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Marcos V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Reboredo S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Filippone S.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Organocatalysis and fullerenes merge: The first asymmetric organocatalytic synthesis by phosphine-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of allenoates onto [60]fullerene that occurs under mild conditions giving rise to enantiomerically pure carbocyclic fullerene derivatives is reported. X-ray analysis of a cyclopenteno[60]fullerene has allowed the assignment of the absolute configuration of the new stereocenter. Furthermore, the sector rule previously used to assign the chirality in [60]fullerenes has been corrected in the light of these new experimental findings. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Latorre R.,Autonomous University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering | Year: 2014

Unit test-driven development (UTDD) is a software development practice where unit test cases are specified iteratively and incrementally before production code. In the last years, researchers have conducted several studies within academia and industry on the effectiveness of this software development practice. They have investigated its utility as compared to other development techniques, focusing mainly on code quality and productivity. This quasi-experiment analyzes the influence of the developers' experience level on the ability to learn and apply UTDD. The ability to apply UTDD is measured in terms of process conformance and development time. From the research point of view, our goal is to evaluate how difficult is learning UTDD by professionals without any prior experience in this technique. From the industrial point of view, the goal is to evaluate the possibility of using this software development practice as an effective solution to take into account in real projects. Our results suggest that skilled developers are able to quickly learn the UTDD concepts and, after practicing them for a short while, become as effective in performing small programming tasks as compared to more traditional test-last development techniques. Junior programmers differ only in their ability to discover the best design, and this translates into a performance penalty since they need to revise their design choices more frequently than senior programmers. © 1976-2012 IEEE.

Pendolino F.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2012

The hydrogen release rate of thermal decomposition, after the melting, for the borohydride of lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and calcium (Ca) and their boron mixtures, at selected molar ratios, is investigated under 1 bar hydrogen pressure and nonisothermal conditions. The reaction is studied by means of manometric measurements. The maximum hydrogen release rate for all pure borohydrides is ∼8 × 10 -3 bar/min. By adding boron to the borohydride systems, the hydrogen release rate is affected and, generally, is lowered. For the decomposition process of LiBH 4+B, maximum rate is ∼2 × 10 -3 bar/min. On the opposite, hydrogen rate is suppressed in boron mixtures of NaBH 4. The addition of boron changed slightly the maximum rate of hydrogen release for Ca(BH 4) 2+B for first and second decomposition. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Kim J.S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Ray T.S.,University of Melbourne
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2015

We consider light higgsinos and singlinos in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model at the large hadron collider. We assume that the singlino is the lightest supersymmetric particle and that the higgsino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle with the remaining supersymmetric particles in the multi-TeV range. This scenario, which is motivated by the flavor and CP issues, provides a phenomenologically viable dark matter candidate and improved electroweak fit consistent with the measured Higgs mass. Here, the higgsinos decay into on (off)-shell gauge boson and the singlino. We consider the leptonic decay modes and the resulting signature is three isolated leptons and missing transverse energy which is known as the trilepton signal. We simulate the signal and the Standard Model backgrounds and present the exclusion region in the higgsino–singlino mass plane at the large hadron collider at (Formula presented.) = 14 TeV for an integrated luminosity of 300 fb-1. © 2015, The Author(s).

Sutter G.D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Deschamps J.-P.,Rovira i Virgili University | Imana J.L.,Complutense University of Madrid
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

This paper details the design of a new high-speed point multiplier for elliptic curve cryptography using either field-programmable gate array or application-specified integrated circuit technology. Different levels of digit-serial computation were applied to the data path of Galois field (GF) multiplication and division to explore the resulting performances and find out an optimal digit size. We provide results for the five National Institute of Standards and Technology recommended curves, outperforming the previous published results. In GF(2 163), we achieve a point multiplication in 19.38 μs in Xilinx Virtex-E. Using the modern Xilinx Virtex-5, the point multiplication times in GF(2 m) for m = 163, 233, 283, 409, and 571 are 5.5, 17.8, 33.6, 102.6, and 384μs, respectively, which are the fastest figures reported to date. © 2012 IEEE.

Rodriguez-Merchan E.C.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2012