Autonomous University of Guadalajara
Mexico City, Mexico

The Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara A.C. is a private university in Mexico, the first of its kind.The campuses are located in Zapopan, Jalisco. The university has become one of the most important educational institutions in Latin America, attracting students from Mexico, Europe, South America, Puerto Rico, Korea, Japan, the United States and Canada. Wikipedia.

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Martin L.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Torres G.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Lopez-Tolsa G.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED)
Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 15th International Conference on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing, ICCI*CC 2016 | Year: 2016

Sustained attention is an important cognitive function for living organisms. This function allows them to stay focused on a task with a stable performance. This is the main reason that makes this function required by virtual creatures with realistic behaviours. This document presents a bio-inspired cognitive model for sustained attention which takes into account its impairment and performance enhancement factors. The impairment factors are given by the time on task, the circadian rhythm of sleep and by sleep deprivation. Furthermore, it makes use of the motivation as an enhancement factor to deal with the impairments. This model was designed using neuroscientific evidence about the brain structures related with sustained attention tasks and the processes around them. In order to validate the model, a simple psychological task was used to test the virtual agent behaviour. The presented model was designed to be a compatible sub-functionality of a more complex cognitive architecture. © 2016 IEEE.

Arauz A.,National Institute of Neurology | Ruiz A.,National Institute of Neurology | Pacheco G.,National Institute of Neurology | Rojas P.,National Institute of Neurology | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2013

Background and purpose: To evaluate the incidence and predictors of ischaemic recurrent stroke and the adverse events of antithrombotic therapy in patients with first intra- or extracranial vertebral artery dissection (VAD) who were treated with aspirin or oral anticoagulation (OA). Methods: A 21-year database of consecutive patients with confirmed diagnoses of VAD (n = 110, 63% men; mean age 37.9 ± 8.5 years) without intracerebral hemorrhage and who were treated with aspirin or OA were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases, the admission diagnosis was ischaemic stroke. Three groups were defined according to the site of the dissection: (i) extracranial, (ii) intracranial, and (iii) intra-/extracranial. Clinical follow-up was obtained by neurologic examination. Outcome measures were (i) recurrent ischaemic events (ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack) and (ii) intra- and extracranial major bleeding. Results: No difference in age, smoking, or hypertension was found between patients treated with OA (n = 49) and those treated with aspirin (n = 50). Extracranial artery dissection (49%) had preponderance over intracranial (27%) or intra-/extracranial (23%) location. During the follow-up, recurrent ischaemic events were rare (one case). There were no bleeding complications. The treatment that was used did not influence the functional outcome or recanalization. A good functional outcome (modified Rankin score ≤ 2) was observed in 82 patients. Conclusions: Although this was a non-randomized study, our data suggest that the frequency of recurrent ischaemic stroke in patients with intra- or extracranial VAD is low and most likely independent of the type of antithrombotic treatment. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

Chiquete E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Ruiz-Sandoval J.L.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde | Murillo-Bonilla L.M.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Arauz A.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia | And 7 more authors.
Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Current evidence shows that uric acid is a potent antioxidant whose serum concentration increases rapidly after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Nevertheless, the re-lationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and AIS outcome remains debatable. We aimed to describe the prognostic significance of SUA in AIS. Methods: We studied 463 patients (52% men, mean age 68 years, 13% with glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min at hospital arrival) with AIS pertaining to the multicenter registry PREMIER, who had SUA measurements at hospital presentation. Multivariate models were constructed to analyze the association of SUA with functional outcome as assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 30-day, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. A mRS 0-1 was regarded as a very good outcome. Results: Mean SUA concentration at hospital arrival was 6.1 ± 3.7 mg/dl (362.8 ± 220.0 μmol/l). Compared with cases with higher SUA levels at hospital admission, patients with ≤4.5 mg/dl (≤267.7 μmol/l; the lowest tertile of the sample) had more cases of a very good 30-day outcome (30.5 vs. 18.9%, respectively; p = 0.004). SUA was not associated with mortality or functional dependence (mRS >2) at 30 days, or with any outcome measure at 3, 6 or 12 months poststroke. After adjustment for age, gender, stroke type and severity (NIHSS <9), time since event onset, serum creatinine, hypertension, diabetes and smoking, a SUA ≤4.5 mg/dl (≤267.7 μmol/l) was positively associated with a very good short-term outcome (odds ratio: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.95; negative predictive value: 81.1%), but not at 3, 6 or 12 months of follow-up. When NIHSS was entered in the multivariate model as a continuous variable, the independent association of SUA with outcome was lost. Compared with cases with higher levels, patients with SUA ≤4.5 mg/dl (≤267.7 μmol/l) were more frequently younger than 55 years, women, with mild strokes, with normal serum creatinine and fewer had hypertension. The time since event onset to hospital arrival was not significantly associated with AIS severity or SUA levels; nevertheless, a nonsignificant tendency was observed for patients with severe strokes and high SUA levels arriving in <24 h. Conclusions: A low SUA concentration is modestly associated with a very good short-term outcome. Our findings support the hypothesis that SUA is more a marker of the magnitude of the cerebral infarction than an independent predictor of stroke outcome. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Bedolla-Barajas M.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Dr Juan I Menchaca | Morales-Romero J.,University of Veracruz | Robles-Figueroa M.,Hospital Civil Of Guadalajara Dr Juan I Menchaca | Fregoso-Fregoso M.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara
Archivos de Bronconeumologia | Year: 2013

Introduction: Given the number of changes that occur during late adolescence, it is possible that the behavior of asthma may also be different. The aim of our paper is to determine the prevalence of asthma in a population of late adolescents and its possible association with obesity, tobacco smoke exposure and family history of allergic disease. Methods and subjects: In a cross-sectional, population-based analytical study design, we selected a stratified random sample of subjects aged 15 to 18. By modeling risk through logistic regression, we assessed the relationship between asthma and the following covariables: gender, obesity, excess weight, family history of allergic disease and tobacco smoke exposure. Results: 1,600 subjects were included, and the following prevalences were identified: asthma 7.8%, obesity 9.6%, active smoking in the father 2 9.8%, active smoking in the mother 18.6% and active smoking habit in the study subjects 15.1%. In the final model, a significant association was found between asthma and the following variables: 1) asthma in the mother (adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.95, 95% CI, 1.55 to 5.6); 2) history of allergic rhinitis (aOR = 4.66, 95% CI, 2.63 to 8.25); and 3) male sex (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.15). No association was seen with obesity or tobacco smoking of the parents. Conclusion: Our results suggest that maternal history of asthma, personal history of allergic rhinitis and male sex are related with asthma late adolescence, while smoking and being overweight are not. © 2012 SEPAR.

Aguilar-Garnica E.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Garcia-Sandoval J.P.,University of Guadalajara | Dochain D.,ICTEAM
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2016

This paper is concerned with the monitoring of a biodiesel production process, more specifically with the monitoring of the esterification of grease trap wastes, a low quality feedstock for biodiesel production typically characterized by its high content of Free Fatty Acids (FFAs). The esterification takes place in a jacketed Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). A reset observer is designed and applied in order to provide on-line estimation of the concentration of FFAs from temperature measurements within the CSTR. In addition, the proposed reset observer is compared to two other observers (classical fuzzy observer and extended Kalman filter). According to a multiple range test conducted for analyzing the estimation error, the monitoring task for the process under study has been better fulfilled by the reset observer which is able to update the estimation results every instant when the measurements were available. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hernandez-Montelongo R.,University of Guadalajara | Garcia-Sandoval J.P.,University of Guadalajara | Aguilar-Garnica E.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara
Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis | Year: 2015

In this paper, we propose a kinetic model that considers the non-ideal behavior of an homogeneous acid catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) and that has been derived regarding the well-known Fischer-Speier esterification mechanism. This kinetic expression differs from those used in other studies because it is based on activity coefficients instead of concentrations. This fact allows the kinetic model to remain free of ad hoc functions or arbitrary parameters and it also allows to include explicitly the catalyst activity as a part of the model. The proposed model has been tested through experimental data derived from the esterification of oleic acid and also through experimental data taken from available literature. The results show that the inclusion of the catalyst activity within the kinetic model makes it possible to satisfactorily describe a couple of phenomena: the fast drop of the FFA's concentration at the beginning of the reaction and the decrease of the reaction rate in the case when water is initially present or when it is produced along the reaction. © Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015.

Derosa G.,University of Pavia | Limas C.P.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Macias P.C.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Estrella A.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Maffioli P.,University of Pavia
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Nutritional medical treatment is the first step to achieve adequate glycemic control and prevent diabetic complications. Lifestyle changes include moderate weight loss (7%) and regular physical activity (150 min/week). The appropriate diet composition is < 30% total fat, < 10% saturated fats, > 15 g/1000 kcal fiber, half soluble, 45-60% of carbohydrates with a moderate intake of sugar (50 g/day) and protein intake of 15-20% of the total calories a day. Patients need to limit the intake of saturated fats to < 7% of the daily calorie intake. Monounsaturated fatty acids such as olive oil and other vegetable oils are recommended. L-carnitine, α-lipoic acid, berberine and ω-3 fatty acids can be useful supplements. Copyright © 2014 Termedia & Banach.

Micronucleus are fragments or whole chromosomes that are outside the nucleus during mitosis. Through this study we can evaluate the environmental and occupational the genotoxic effects. This test is widely used because it is a very effective alternative, it is a simple, fast and inexpensive way to detect the loss of genetic material. Meanwhile a healthy oral cavity is evidenced because in the overlying mucosa changes indicative of local or systemic disease, toxic exposure and side effects of treatments can be observed. This favors their use in tests to assess the presence of genotoxins or cytotoxins. Although protective barrier from the rest of the body is the point of contact of potentially dangerous agents thus becoming susceptible to damage. Coating and oral epithelium (60%) are formed by stratified non-keratinized cells with abundant cytoplasm, allowing the absorption of dyes and facilitating microscopic observation and identification of nucleus and membrane morphological characteristics. It has a particularly proliferative capacity, and even though this particularity maintains constant cell population, on the other hand, becomes more vulnerable to DNA damage. This information is relevant as 90% of all cancers are of epithelial origin. Therefore, the oral mucosa is used to monitor early events caused by inhaled or ingested genotoxic carcinogens. Epithelium is easily accessible and minimally invasive, thereby generating less stress when samples are obtained from study participants. In view of the above, oral epithelium tissue is ideal for implementing micronucleus assay and for the detection of nuclear abnormalities without the need for cell cultures, which presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies in high-risk populations.

Torres-Bugarin O.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Zavala-Cerna M.G.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Nava A.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Nava A.,Hospital General Of Occidente Ssj | And 2 more authors.
Disease Markers | Year: 2014

The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. © 2014 Olivia Torres-Bugarín et al.

Aguilar-Garnica E.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara | Garcia-Sandoval J.P.,University of Guadalajara | Gonzalez-Figueredo C.,Autonomous University of Guadalajara
Computers and Chemical Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the design of an interval observer for plug flow reactors that are modeled by first-order hyperbolic partial differential equations. This model is considered to obtain the dynamics of an auxiliary variable that are further represented by a set of ordinary differential equations by means of the method of characteristics. Regarding these equations, the structure of the interval observer is deduced. This proposed estimation scheme is valid at a certain fixed specific axial point, is robust in the face of both uncertain parameters and load disturbances and is successfully implemented through simulations on an isothermal plug flow reactor within which a consecutive reaction is taking place and on a nonisothermal plug flow reactor with lateral feed where an irreversible reaction is carried out. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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