Autonomous University of Chile
Santiago, Chile

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Mundaca L.,Lund University | Roman R.,University of Seville | Roman R.,Autonomous University of Chile | Cansino J.M.,University of Seville | Cansino J.M.,Autonomous University of Chile
Applied Energy | Year: 2015

This paper provides a production and consumption-based empirical macroeconomic-climate assessment of Sweden's CO2 emissions. The core methodology is based on three complementary quantitative methods, namely energy-economy-environment indicators, econometric analyses, and a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) sectoral model. Based on the latest available data (1971-2011), indicators show a sharp decarbonisation of Sweden's energy supply mix pre-1990, and reductions or reversals in energy intensity, CO2 intensity and energy use post-1990. Reductions in energy intensity are mostly attributed to substantial increases in economic activity rather than reductions in energy use. Econometric results show that variability of CO2 emissions is best explained by CO2 intensity than any other tested variable. The MRIO model shows that the Swedish emissions trading balance is negative with both the European Union and the rest of the world (i.e. embodied CO2 emissions in imports are higher than embodied emissions in exports). Sweden's low-carbon intensity is a critical and horizontal explanatory factor in our results. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Castro-Santos P.,Autonomous University of Chile | Laborde C.M.,Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory | Diaz-Pena R.,Autonomous University of Chile | Diaz-Pena R.,Hospital Universitario Central Of Asturias
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease which affects several organs and tissues, predominantly the synovial joints. Despite major advances, the aetiology of this disease is not completely understood. Although several biomarkers are routinely used in RA management and some of them can be detected even prior to the onset of the clinical disease, there is a high demand for novel biomarkers to further improve the early diagnosis of RA. The '-omics' techniques that have emerged and have been developed in recent years have allowed researchers to improve their knowledge of the aetiopathology of RA. At the same time, advances in screening technologies offer an excellent opportunity to find new biomarkers potentially useful for early diagnosis, stratification of patients, and even prediction of a better response to a specific therapy. This review describes what is known about the methodologies used in the discovery of novel biomarkers in RA, along with the findings of these methodologies, with specific attention to recent advances in the fields of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2015.

Munoz-Castro A.,Andrés Bello University | Munoz-Castro A.,Autonomous University of Chile
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

Application of the planar superatom model to describe the electronic structure, and to gain insights into the stabilization of metal macrocycles supporting closed-shell d10-d10 interactions, is studied through analysis of the membered ring composed by Hg(ii) atoms, namely, [Hg(C(CF3)2)]5. Its electronic structure resembles the level sequence given for a planar jellium model, revealing an electronic configuration given by 1s2 1p4x,y 1d4xy,x2-y2. The analysis of the population of each level of the Hg5core, denotes a slight net bonding into the [Hg(C(CF3)2)]5 ring. However, stabilization is mainly supported by the balance given by a similar population of the jellium levels, which is suggested to be a different scheme for stabilizing d 10 macrocyclic clusters with metallophilic interactions, in the category of long d10-d10 contacts. The extension of the planar jellium model to the relativistic case, including spin-orbit coupling considering the D5h* point group, denotes the consequent splitting for levels with ≠ 0, namely, 1px,y and 1dxy,x 2-y2. In this framework, the electronic configuration is given by 1s1/22 1p3/22 1p 1/22 1d5/22 1d3/2 2, which contribute to the analysis of the electronic structure of planar clusters in terms of spin-orbit coupling, involving molecular spinors (j = ± s) instead of molecular orbitals (pure). This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Munoz-Castro A.,Autonomous University of Chile
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

The electronic and structural properties of [Au6{Ni3(CO)6}4]2- pave the way to describe a superatom analogue of the most simple and archetypical hydrocarbon, CH4. In this sense, our interest relies on the plausibility of finding superatomic clusters as analogues for archetypical molecules in organic chemistry, preserving relevant concepts of chemical significance, such as the hybridization of atomic orbitals. In [Au6{Ni3(CO)6}4]2-, a central Au6 core exhibits the formation of superatomic SP3 hybridized orbitals in order to account for the molecular shape and bonding. Inspired by this finding, several clusters were proposed exploring the capabilities of the metallic core to exhibit SP2 and SP superatomic hybrid orbitals. In addition, we include the evaluation of superatomic bonding involving SP3SP3, SP2SP2 and SPSP hybridized cores, which denote single, double and triple superatomic bonds. Our results describe the extension of the localized Lewis structure model to the understanding of clusters according to the superatom model, contributing to the tremendous opportunities for the design of functional clusters and nanoparticles. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Munoz-Castro A.,Autonomous University of Chile
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2016

The fused-to-single-ring transition is studied through a 10πe series given the series from naphthalene to [10]annulene. Our results suggest that change occurs at certain structure instead of a gradual transition. In the transition point, given by bicyclo[7.1.0]decapentaene, similar magnetic behavior in comparison to the single ring counterpart is found. The systems can be considered to behave as a whole single aromatic structure where the fused counterparts can be treated as a modification in the aromatic path of a single ring aromatic motif, which can viewed as a useful approach to evaluate the formation of defects or larger-rings in graphene motifs. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Recently, it has been shown that the superatom concept is intimately connected to relevant tools of great chemical significance, such as the Lewis structure model and the VSEPR theory, which has been employed to understand hybridized and dimeric-like molecules. This suggests a potential rational construction of superatomic clusters mimicking more complex structures. Here, we extend another well-employed concept to the superatomic clusters, to construct a novel Au42 isomer with resemblance to cyclic aromatic molecules. It is shown that the Hückel (4n+2)π rule is ready to be applied, predicting aromatic behavior latterly supported by the favorable evaluation of the induced shielding cone formation. The D6h isomer of Au42 described here exhibits inherent characteristics mimicking aromatic hydrocarbon rings, displaying π-superatomic orbitals and related properties. This new cluster is the first member of the superatomic clusters family to exhibit an aromatic π-electron system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gomez C.V.G.,Autonomous University of Chile
Universal Access in the Information Society | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a theoretical framework to define the concept of information society and knowledge (SIC): (For its abbreviation in Spanish; Sociedad de la Información y Conocimiento: SIC.). At the same time, it examines how strategies and international indicators progress in integrating the so-called information society to a knowledge society in the USA, Europe and Latin America, particularly in Chile, according to the characteristics of Information and Communication Technologies. The new approach has been implemented in the field of economic and is creating significant changes in the development of economies worldwide as countries generate and acquire these changes. The specific case of Chile is examined through the perspective of several theoretical approaches so as to complete a practical analysis of the current situation and progress toward the pursuit of inclusion and integration in Latin America. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Munoz-Castro A.,Autonomous University of Chile
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

The magnetic response of C60 has been studied and compared to its spherical aromatic counterpart C6010+, focusing on the overall and local shielding tensors. A high axis dependence behavior at the outside region of the structure is characterized, unravelling a characteristic pattern of the local chemical shift anisotropy as a consequence of the spherical aromatic behavior. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Torres-Soriano M.R.,Autonomous University of Chile
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism | Year: 2016

This article offers a descriptive analysis of the propaganda activities of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb on Internet social media. It examines the group's propaganda actions from its creation in 1998 until the end of 2015 and argues that the use of social media, Twitter in particular, has failed to offer any real remedy to its mediocre propaganda actions. During the period in which its Twitter profiles were active, the organization continued to manifest the same problems, including a shortage of qualified human resources and poor internal coordination, which had prevented it from engaging in efficient propaganda activity previously. The study of the social media experience of the group offers further evidence of the vulnerabilities of this Maghrebi jihadist organization. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Iturriaga R.,University of Santiago de Chile | Andrade D.C.,University of Santiago de Chile | Del Rio R.,Autonomous University of Chile
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2014

The carotid body (CB) plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation. © 2014 Iturriaga, Andrade and Del_rio.

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