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Bosman C.A.,University of Amsterdam | Bosman C.A.,Autonomous University of Chile | Aboitiz F.,University of Santiago de Chile
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Regardless of major anatomical and neurodevelopmental differences, the vertebrate isocortex shows a remarkably well-conserved organization. In the isocortex, reciprocal connections between excitatory and inhibitory neurons are distributed across multiple layers, encompassing modular, dynamical and recurrent functional networks during information processing. These dynamical brain networks are often organized in neuronal assemblies interacting through rhythmic phase relationships. Accordingly, these oscillatory interactions are observed across multiple brain scale levels, and they are associated with several sensory, motor, and cognitive processes. Most notably, oscillatory interactions are also found in the complete spectrum of vertebrates. Yet, it is unknown why this functional organization is so well conserved in evolution. In this perspective, we propose some ideas about how functional requirements of the isocortex can account for the evolutionary stability observed in microcircuits across vertebrates. We argue that isocortex architectures represent canonical microcircuits resulting from: (i) the early selection of neuronal architectures based on the oscillatory excitatory-inhibitory balance, which lead to the implementation of compartmentalized oscillations and (ii) the subsequent emergence of inferential coding strategies (predictive coding), which are able to expand computational capacities. We also argue that these functional constraints may be the result of several advantages that oscillatory activity contributes to brain network processes, such as information transmission and code reliability. In this manner, similarities in mesoscale brain circuitry and input-output organization between different vertebrate groups may reflect evolutionary constraints imposed by these functional requirements, which may or may not be traceable to a common ancestor. © 2015 Bosman and Aboitiz.


Escobedo N.,Autonomous University of Chile | Oliver G.,Northwestern University
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2017

Obesity is a key risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and although we understand the mechanisms regulating weight and energy balance, the causes of some forms of obesity remain enigmatic. Despite the well-established connections between lymphatics and lipids, and the fact that intestinal lacteals play key roles in dietary fat absorption, the function of the lymphatic vasculature in adipose metabolism has only recently been recognized. It is well established that angiogenesis is tightly associated with the outgrowth of adipose tissue, as expanding adipose tissue requires increased nutrient supply from blood vessels. Results supporting a crosstalk between lymphatic vessels and adipose tissue, and linking lymphatic function with metabolic diseases, obesity, and adipose tissue, also started to accumulate in the last years. Here we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms by which defective lymphatics contribute to obesity and fat accumulation in mouse models, as well as our understanding of the lymphatic-adipose tissue relationship. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of death and disability. In this Review, Oliver and Escobedo expose the relationships between lymphatics, metabolism, and obesity and discuss how this knowledge will provide us with better tools to diagnose and treat some of these pathological conditions. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Acaz-Fonseca E.,Instituto Cajal | Avila-Rodriguez M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Garcia-Segura L.M.,Instituto Cajal | Barreto G.E.,Pontifical Xavierian University | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2016

In the last years there has been a considerable advance in the knowledge on the regulation of astrocytes by sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions. By the activation of a variety of nuclear and membrane receptors, sex steroid hormones regulate the functions of astrocytes and their communication with other cell types in the central nervous system. Under physiological conditions astrocytes participate in the neuroendocrine and behavioral actions of gonadal steroids, as well as in the hormonal control of brain tissue homeostasis. Under pathological conditions astrocytes mediate, at least partially, the neuroprotective effects of gonadal steroid hormones; given that sex steroids modulate reactive astrogliosis and reduce the release of pro-inflammatory molecules by these cells. Given the side effects that sex steroids may have when administered systemically, a number of synthetic agonists of the receptors for gonadal steroid hormones in the nervous system have been developed, and may be considered for clinical use after brain injury as potential enhancers of the neuroprotective astrocytic functions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Niklander S.,Autonomous University of Chile
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2017

During the last years, emotional computing has emerged as a field of Human Computer Interaction, where algorithms are able to recognize emotions in order to take better decisions in a given context. However correctly recognizing emotions is known to be a difficult task, specially in social networks which is plenty of stereotypes, metaphors, ironies and multi-word expressions that make the process hard to succeed. In this paper, we propose to pre-process the data by using emotional computing algorithms to then employ discourse analysis for the study of the information viralyzed through social networks. We provide interesting results using as case study the Brexit. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


Munoz L.C.,Autonomous University of Chile
Revista Cubana de Enfermeria | Year: 2011

The act of breast feeding is a right of every woman, essential for the up bringing of their sons/ daughters. The socio cultural changes observed in the Chilean population associated with health in some cases are related to diet and nutrition; factors such as fetal growth, birth weight, postnatal growth, maternal nutrition during pregnancy and duration of the maternal breast feeding, could impact on health in adulthood. The preparation of the fathers and mothers as care takers of their sons/daughters could affect the care that a family could offer and facilitate in the adaptation of the child in his/her home life, especially if they have difficulties in the process of breast feeding, suck-swallow problems, milk flow rate, pre-maturity, maternal host, personal decision of the mother to breast feed etc. Breast feeding is instinctive and learnt by the mother and the child. The nursing care and self care of the child should be learnt and managed by the mother during the first days after delivery may help in solving difficulties and problems of the mother and the baby in relation to breast feeding. The application of the different stages of the process of nursing care by the professional in charge of the mother _son could facilitate the installation of the breast feeding. The steady increase of the maternal breast feeding could be obtained by promoting through different educational, re-creative, informative, activities with the participation of the students, professionals, voluntary organizations, pro-breast feeding and the community. For a proper care management and promotion of breast feeding the participation /involvement of the mother and the father is essential right from the moment of birth, support net works and the family environment, together with the health team.


Munoz-Castro A.,Andrés Bello University | Munoz-Castro A.,Autonomous University of Chile
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

Application of the planar superatom model to describe the electronic structure, and to gain insights into the stabilization of metal macrocycles supporting closed-shell d10-d10 interactions, is studied through analysis of the membered ring composed by Hg(ii) atoms, namely, [Hg(C(CF3)2)]5. Its electronic structure resembles the level sequence given for a planar jellium model, revealing an electronic configuration given by 1s2 1p4x,y 1d4xy,x2-y2. The analysis of the population of each level of the Hg5core, denotes a slight net bonding into the [Hg(C(CF3)2)]5 ring. However, stabilization is mainly supported by the balance given by a similar population of the jellium levels, which is suggested to be a different scheme for stabilizing d 10 macrocyclic clusters with metallophilic interactions, in the category of long d10-d10 contacts. The extension of the planar jellium model to the relativistic case, including spin-orbit coupling considering the D5h* point group, denotes the consequent splitting for levels with ≠ 0, namely, 1px,y and 1dxy,x 2-y2. In this framework, the electronic configuration is given by 1s1/22 1p3/22 1p 1/22 1d5/22 1d3/2 2, which contribute to the analysis of the electronic structure of planar clusters in terms of spin-orbit coupling, involving molecular spinors (j = ± s) instead of molecular orbitals (pure). This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Munoz-Castro A.,Autonomous University of Chile
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

The electronic and structural properties of [Au6{Ni3(CO)6}4]2- pave the way to describe a superatom analogue of the most simple and archetypical hydrocarbon, CH4. In this sense, our interest relies on the plausibility of finding superatomic clusters as analogues for archetypical molecules in organic chemistry, preserving relevant concepts of chemical significance, such as the hybridization of atomic orbitals. In [Au6{Ni3(CO)6}4]2-, a central Au6 core exhibits the formation of superatomic SP3 hybridized orbitals in order to account for the molecular shape and bonding. Inspired by this finding, several clusters were proposed exploring the capabilities of the metallic core to exhibit SP2 and SP superatomic hybrid orbitals. In addition, we include the evaluation of superatomic bonding involving SP3SP3, SP2SP2 and SPSP hybridized cores, which denote single, double and triple superatomic bonds. Our results describe the extension of the localized Lewis structure model to the understanding of clusters according to the superatom model, contributing to the tremendous opportunities for the design of functional clusters and nanoparticles. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Recently, it has been shown that the superatom concept is intimately connected to relevant tools of great chemical significance, such as the Lewis structure model and the VSEPR theory, which has been employed to understand hybridized and dimeric-like molecules. This suggests a potential rational construction of superatomic clusters mimicking more complex structures. Here, we extend another well-employed concept to the superatomic clusters, to construct a novel Au42 isomer with resemblance to cyclic aromatic molecules. It is shown that the Hückel (4n+2)π rule is ready to be applied, predicting aromatic behavior latterly supported by the favorable evaluation of the induced shielding cone formation. The D6h isomer of Au42 described here exhibits inherent characteristics mimicking aromatic hydrocarbon rings, displaying π-superatomic orbitals and related properties. This new cluster is the first member of the superatomic clusters family to exhibit an aromatic π-electron system. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Gomez C.V.G.,Autonomous University of Chile
Universal Access in the Information Society | Year: 2015

This paper proposes a theoretical framework to define the concept of information society and knowledge (SIC): (For its abbreviation in Spanish; Sociedad de la Información y Conocimiento: SIC.). At the same time, it examines how strategies and international indicators progress in integrating the so-called information society to a knowledge society in the USA, Europe and Latin America, particularly in Chile, according to the characteristics of Information and Communication Technologies. The new approach has been implemented in the field of economic and is creating significant changes in the development of economies worldwide as countries generate and acquire these changes. The specific case of Chile is examined through the perspective of several theoretical approaches so as to complete a practical analysis of the current situation and progress toward the pursuit of inclusion and integration in Latin America. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Munoz-Castro A.,Autonomous University of Chile
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

The magnetic response of C60 has been studied and compared to its spherical aromatic counterpart C6010+, focusing on the overall and local shielding tensors. A high axis dependence behavior at the outside region of the structure is characterized, unravelling a characteristic pattern of the local chemical shift anisotropy as a consequence of the spherical aromatic behavior. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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