Autonomous University of Chihuahua
Chihuahua, Mexico

The Autonomous University of Chihuahua is a Mexican public university based in the city of Chihuahua, Chihuahua, but with several campuses across the state. In December 8, 1954 the State Legislature, with Governor Oscar Soto Maynez, issued the decree 171, which founded the Autonomous University of Chihuahua .UACh was granted its autonomy in 1968, with the freedom to define its own curriculum and manage its own budget without interference from the government. Wikipedia.

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Benitez-Read E.E.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2017

The measurement of fluid velocity by encoding it in the phase of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal could allow the discrimination of the stationary spins signals from those of moving spins. This results in a wide variety of applications i.e. in medicine, in order to obtain more than angiograms, blood velocity images of veins, arteries and other vessels without having static tissue perturbing the signal of fluid in motion. The work presented in this paper is a theoretical analysis of some novel methods for multiple fluid velocity encoding in the phase of an MRI signal. These methods are based on a tripolar gradient (TPG) and can be an alternative to the conventional methods based on a bipolar gradient (BPG) and could be more suitable for multiple velocity encoding in the phase of an MRI signal. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Salmeron I.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2017

The consumption of fermented foods by human kind goes a long way back in history and there are as many types of fermented food as civilizations. Food Science and Technology has progressed from designing nutritional foods towards food with health improvement characteristics such as functional foods. In this sense, the area of food with properties to improve gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has been the most important segment within functional foods. Most of these products are dairy-based so the development of nondairy gut improvement products has been of great interest for the food industry, resulting in the rise of cereal-based probiotic and synbiotic products. Finally, through Nanoscience and the application of Nanotechnology techniques in the food sector, it has been possible to design fermented beverages with synbiotic properties, and the incorporation of nanoparticles with unique and specific bioactivity, which has opened a new horizon in this segment of food created to improve human health and well-being. Significance and Impact of the Study: There is currently a great interest in producing healthy food in particular that which has an impact in improving the gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Most of these functional foods are dairy based and have been greatly accepted worldwide. Nevertheless, there has been a need for the development of nondairy probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic products. This has encouraged food scientists to study the feasibility of applying other fermenting substrates such as cereals for the development of innovative nondairy fermented functional foods. Therefore, in this review we have addressed the significance of applying cereals and their fractions for the development of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic beverages. Furthermore, we have presented the importance of including nanoscience and nanotechnology techniques for the creation of fermented cereal beverages that contain specific bioactive nanoparticles. Thus, this work provides the guidelines to promote the development of novel nano-designed fermented cereal beverages that could significantly have an impact on the health of the consumers. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology

Introducción: la autoeficacia es un importante factor mediador hacia cómo los individuos sienten, piensan, se motivan y se comportan. La expectativa de autoeficacia es un predictor importante de las intenciones y acciones de los individuos frente a diversas situaciones, siendo por tanto necesaria su medición. Objetivos: el presente estudio pretende indagar las propiedades psicométricas para una escala de autoeficacia en el cuidado de la alimentación y salud fisca, comprobando su estructura y su invarianza factorial. Métodos: la muestra se compuso de 1.313 estudiantes universitarios de las licenciaturas de Educación Física y Motricidad Humana que se imparten en la Universidad (omitido por anonimato), con una edad media de 20,46 años (± 1,87). La estructura factorial del cuestionario se analizó a través de análisis factoriales confirmatorios. Resultados: los análisis mostraron la adecuación de una estructura de cinco factores (ejercicio físico, cuidado de la alimentación, afrontamiento de problemas, evitación del consumo de tabaco y evitación del consumo de alcohol), mostrando adecuados índices de ajuste de fiabilidad (valores superiores a 0,85) y validez (GFI = 0,907; RMSEA = 0,053; CFI = 0,960), y explicando más del 70% de la varianza. Además, los resultados de los análisis factoriales llevados a cabo con dos submuestras indicaron fuertes evidencias de estabilidad de la estructura factorial (diferencia de CFI inferiores a 0,01). Conclusiones: la escala de autoeficacia en el cuidado de la alimentación y salud física es adecuada y puede usarse en estudios científicos. Futuras investigaciones deberían corroborar estos hallazgos.

Hemond P.J.,University of Texas at San Antonio | O'Boyle M.P.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Roberts C.B.,Bodkin Design & Engineering, LLC | Delgado-Reyes A.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons integrate the multiple internal and external cues that regulate sexual reproduction. In contrast to other neurons that exhibit extensive dendritic arbors, GnRH neurons usually have a single dendrite with relatively little branching. This largely precludes the integration strategy in which a single dendritic branch serves as a unit of integration. In the present study, we identify a gradient in L-type calcium channels in dendrites of mouse GnRH neurons and its interaction with GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Higher levels of L-type calcium channels are in somata/proximal dendrites (i.e., 0 -26 μm) and distal dendrites (~130 μm dendrite length), but intervening midlengths of dendrite (~27-130 μm) have reduced L-type calcium channels. Using uncaging of GABA, there is a decreasing GABAergic influence along the dendrite and the impact of GABA A receptors is dependent on activation of L-type calcium channels. This results in amplification of proximal GABAergic signals and attenuation of distal dendritic signals. Most interestingly, the intervening dendritic regions create a filter through which only relatively high-amplitude, low-frequency GABAergic signaling to dendrites elicits action potentials. The findings of the present study suggest that GnRH dendrites adopt an integration strategy whereby segments of single nonbranching GnRH dendrites create functional microdomains and thus serve as units of integration. © 2012 the authors.

Aim Micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) is regarded as an aggressive variant of adenocarcinoma in any location. The reported proportion of a micropapillary carcinoma component in an entire tumour ranges from 5 to 95% and only one case of pure MPC has been reported. To date, approximately 130 cases of MPC in the colorectum have been reported, but it is likely that this small number is to some extent due to under-reporting because this pattern is not well recognized by the general pathologist. All previous studies have combined colonic and rectal primary tumours and most have only analysed patients with clinical Stages I or II. Method We analysed 15 cases of MPC of the colon alone, diagnosed in our institution, and compared them with 105 conventional carcinomas of the colon. Results An MPC component was present in 10% of all colonic carcinomas. These tumours presented at a median age of 56years, and all were of American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages III and IV. Subserosal tissue invasion was present in every case, 60% had more than four positive lymph nodes, 60% were accompanied by poorly differentiated conventional carcinoma, 40% had had an incomplete resection and a third demonstrated lymphovascular invasion. Despite these adverse prognostic factors, tumours containing MPC showed the same survival, stage by stage, as conventional adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis, although 3-year survival (81.7%vs 87.3%, P=0.035) was worse on univariate analysis. Conclusion The histopathologist should be aware of the possibility of MPC. Three-year survival is worse than in patients with conventional colonic carcinomas in Stage III. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

Nualkaekul S.,University of Reading | Salmeron I.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Charalampopoulos D.,University of Reading
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The survival of Bifidobacterium longum NCIMB 8809 was studied during refrigerated storage for 6 weeks in model solutions, based on which a mathematical model was constructed describing cell survival as a function of pH, citric acid, protein and dietary fibre. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying the influence of four factors at three levels, i.e.; pH (3.2-4), citric acid (2-15 g/l), protein (0-10 g/l), and dietary fibre (0-8 g/l). In total, 31 experimental runs were carried out. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the regression model demonstrated that the model fitted well the data. From the regression coefficients it was deduced that all four factors had a statistically significant (P < 0.05) negative effect on the log decrease [log10N0 week-log10N6 week], with the pH and citric acid being the most influential ones. Cell survival during storage was also investigated in various types of juices, including orange, grapefruit, blackcurrant, pineapple, pomegranate and strawberry. The highest cell survival (less than 0.4 log decrease) after 6 weeks of storage was observed in orange and pineapple, both of which had a pH of about 3.8. Although the pH of grapefruit and blackcurrant was similar (pH ∼3.2), the log decrease of the former was ∼0.5 log, whereas of the latter was ∼0.7 log. One reason for this could be the fact that grapefruit contained a high amount of citric acid (15.3 g/l). The log decrease in pomegranate and strawberry juices was extremely high (∼8 logs). The mathematical model was able to predict adequately the cell survival in orange, grapefruit, blackcurrant, and pineapple juices. However, the model failed to predict the cell survival in pomegranate and strawberry, most likely due to the very high levels of phenolic compounds in these two juices. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Garcia-Montoya I.A.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Cendon T.S.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Arevalo-Gallegos S.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Rascon-Cruz Q.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2012

Background: Lactoferrin (Lf) is an 80 kDa iron-binding glycoprotein of the transferrin family. It is abundant in milk and in most biological fluids and is a cell-secreted molecule that bridges innate and adaptive immune function in mammals. Its protective effects range from anticancer, anti-inflammatory and immune modulator activities to antimicrobial activities against a large number of microorganisms. This wide range of activities is made possible by mechanisms of action involving not only the capacity of Lf to bind iron but also interactions of Lf with molecular and cellular components of both hosts and pathogens. Scope of review: This review summarizes the activities of Lf, its regulation and potential applications. Major conclusions: The extensive uses of Lf in the treatment of various infectious diseases in animals and humans has been the driving force in Lf research however, a lot of work is required to obtain a better understanding of its activity. General significance: The large potential applications of Lf have led scientists to develop this nutraceutical protein for use in feed, food and pharmaceutical applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Molecular Mechanisms of Iron Transport and Disorders. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rodrigueza S.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The need of producing more food is clear around the world. Climatic change and water scarcity make this duty a hard and expensive task in certain arid places such as the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. In this arid zone there is a huge need for water in order to produce feed for fattening cattle. Cattle need to be fed with a special diet in which proteins must be provided. Proteins can be found in green fodder and it can be made up from different crop sources such as oat, barley or wheat, among others. The average water waste to produce a kilogram of dry matter fodder out of wheat by the traditional method is 505 L, and therefore sustainable production is so crucial. One of the most viable, sustainable and low water consumption ways to produce fodder is using hydroponic techniques. The average water consumption to produce wheat hydroponic green fodder (HGF) is 2 L. The HGF we produced was tested in 10 cattle heads with different weights. The water savings found varied from 690 to 2100 L, which represents a key alternative for agriculture in arid places like Chihuahua. Taking into consideration that the human population is growing worldwide, HGF production represents a great sustainable way to increase meat production in order to meet population increasing demands.

Ortega-Rivas E.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

Pasteurisation of fruit juices is normally carried out by thermal means. Heat treatment is an efficient technology for pasteurisation, but may also cause impairment of nutritive and sensory attributes. High-voltage pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is a promising non-thermal processing method for pasteurisation of liquid foods. Sensory quality of fruit juices is important for consumers. PEF lends itself to be employed as an alternative to produce fruit juices of high quality and safe for consumption, and yet its practical application has been really limited. This paper reviews research carried out recently about the potential use of PEF to different fruit juices, aimed at employing the technology at industrial scale in order to search for wider commercialisation. © 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Ortega-Rivas E.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Salmeron-Ochoa I.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Food drinks are normally processed to increase their shelf-life and facilitate distribution before consumption. Thermal pasteurization is quite efficient in preventing microbial spoilage of many types of beverages, but the applied heat may also cause undesirable biochemical and nutritious changes that may affect sensory attributes of the final product. Alternative methods of pasteurization that do not include direct heat have been investigated in order to obtain products safe for consumption, but with sensory attributes maintained as unchanged as possible. Food scientists interested in nonthermal food preservation technologies have claimed that such methods of preserving foods are equally efficient in microbial inactivation as compared with conventional thermal means of food processing. Researchers in the nonthermal food preservation area also affirm that alternative preservation technologies will not affect, as much as thermal processes, nutritional and sensory attributes of processed foods. This article reviews research in nonthermal food preservation, focusing on effects of processing of food drinks such as fruit juices and dairy products. Analytical techniques used to identify volatile flavor-aroma compounds will be reviewed and comparative effects for both thermal and nonthermal preservation technologies will be discussed. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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