Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Santiago, Chile

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Fuentes-Castillo T.,University of Chile | Miranda A.,University of the Frontier | Rivera-Hutinel A.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism | Smith-Ramirez C.,Austral University of Chile | Holmgren M.,Wageningen University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Natural regeneration of mediterranean plant communities has proved difficult in all continents. In this paper we assess whether regeneration of sclerophyllous forests shows nucleated patterns indicative of a positive effect of vegetation remnants at the landscape level and compare the regeneration patterns between sites with distinctive climate conditions. We studied the spatial patterns of vegetation change during 52. years in central Chile using remotely-sensed images to test the predictions that (1) regeneration of sclerophyllous vegetation expands from patches of remnant vegetation; and (2) regeneration is more dependent on remnant vegetation in drier sites. Our results show that the regeneration of the sclerophyllous vegetation in central Chile is a slow process that may be possible under certain conditions. We found that the fraction of regenerated vegetation increases with the proximity to remnant sclerophyllous forest in an aggregated pattern. Especially in drier sites, vegetation remnants have a facilitative role on the regeneration of mediterranean-type ecosystems. These results have important implications for the management and conservation of these ecosystems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Seelenfreund D.,University of Chile | Pina R.,University of Chile | Ho K.-Y.,National Chiayi University | Lobos S.,University of Chile | Seelenfreund A.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
New Zealand Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. (Magnoliophyta: Urticales), or paper mulberry, is a species of Asian origin dispersed by humans throughout the Pacific. Our aim is to evaluate the genetic variability of this plant in order to determine its potential as a commensal species for studying the mobility and/or migratory movements of the people that carried it. For this study, we analysed the non-coding transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) of ribosomal nuclear DNA found in samples of B. papyrifera collected in Remote Oceania and Taiwan. Our results show three genotypes: the Pacific samples form a distinct and homogenous subgroup, while the Taiwanese accessions present two genotypes. We discuss the relevance of these results in the context of the dispersal of B. papyrifera in the Pacific and its association with Austronesian migration history. © 2011 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Payacan C.,University of Chile | Arriaza F.,University of Chile | Lobos S.,University of Chile | Seelenfreund D.,University of Chile | Seelenfreund A.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology: We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions: Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. © 2013 Moncada et al.

Penailillo J.,University of Chile | Olivares G.,University of Chile | Payacan C.,University of Chile | Chang C.-S.,National Museum of Prehistory | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent) is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: The tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia. Methodology We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS) in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity. Results In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant. Conclusions Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania. © 2016 Adel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed | National Taiwan University, University of Chile, National Dong Hwa University and Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

The peopling of Remote Oceanic islands by Austronesian speakers is a fascinating and yet contentious part of human prehistory. Linguistic, archaeological, and genetic studies have shown the complex nature of the process in which different components that helped to shape Lapita culture in Near Oceania each have their own unique history. Important evidence points to Taiwan as an Austronesian ancestral homeland with a more distant origin in South China, whereas alternative models favor South China to North Vietnam or a Southeast Asian origin. We test these propositions by studying phylogeography of paper mulberry, a common East Asian tree species introduced and clonally propagated since prehistoric times across the Pacific for making barkcloth, a practical and symbolic component of Austronesian cultures. Using the hypervariable chloroplast ndhF-rpl32 sequences of 604 samples collected from East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceanic islands (including 19 historical herbarium specimens from Near and Remote Oceania), 48 haplotypes are detected and haplotype cp-17 is predominant in both Near and Remote Oceania. Because cp-17 has an unambiguous Taiwanese origin and cp-17-carrying Oceanic paper mulberries are clonally propagated, our data concur with expectations of Taiwan as the Austronesian homeland, providing circumstantial support for the out of Taiwan hypothesis. Our data also provide insights into the dispersal of paper mulberry from South China into North Taiwan, the out of South China-Indochina expansion to New Guinea, and the geographic origins of post-European introductions of paper mulberry into Oceania.

PubMed | Viña del Mar University, University of Otago, University of Potsdam, University of California at Berkeley and Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called chilihueque played a major role in the islands society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that chilihueque was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals.

Saunders F.P.,Sudan University of Science and Technology | Gallardo-Fernandez G.L.,Uppsala University | Van Tuyen T.,Hue University | Raemaekers S.,University of Cape Town | And 2 more authors.
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2016

One way to confront the global marginalisation of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is to support a sustainable transformation of these coastal communities. In 2014/15, a network of researchers and SSF communities from four countries cooperated in a transdisciplinary research approach to examine governance shifts, fish stock collapses, power structures, future visions and transformation strategies. We combined a political ecology approach with transformation theory to: (i) consider how local context is affected by structural changes and (ii) identify place-based transformational strategies for each case. The global emergence of large-scale fisheries and associated free markets appeared as key factors negatively affecting SSF and coastal sustainability. Through envisioning exercises and context dependent analysis, SSF communities articulated possible and actual strategies towards sustainability that will require ongoing support. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Electra Gonzalez A.,University of Chile | Temistocles Molina G.,University of Chile | Jimena San Martin V.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecologia | Year: 2016

Background: Adolescents and young lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) present additional challenges in their development compared to their heterosexual peers which exposes them to high levels of stress and distress that can lead to sexual risk behaviors. Aim: To analyze the sexual behavior, personal characteristics and sexual orientation in adolescents that attended in a center of sexual and reproductive health. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study conducted in an adolescent population. Data were collected in 2000-2012. Multiple logistic regression was used to quantify comparisons of sexual behaviors and personal variables between LGB and heterosexual adolescents. Results: In total, 5,143 adolescents (median age 16 years, 91.5% women and 97.5% students) were studied, 127 were LGB teenagers. LGB adolescents reported risk having more sexual partners and sexual debut earlier than their heterosexual peers. This risk increased by catholic teenagers. Using contraception methods showed no risk in catholic teenagers but adolescents assigned to another religion or no religion which was a risk factor. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the LGB and heterosexual adolescents are not identical in terms of sexual risk. LGB engages in riskier sexual behaviors than heterosexual counterparts. Healthcare providers and the education sector need to be sensitive to these differences and their implications for health and counseling of adolescents.

Talca was one of the cities with the greatest housing damage after the F-27 earthquake. Its historical center and 15 surrounding old neighborhoods had most of their housing damaged or destroyed. Two years after the earthquake, most of the destruction remains visible in downtown Talca; however, there is not enough data to illustrate this situation. This paper is focused on analyzing reconstruction policies in view of the current state of reconstruction in the downtown neighborhoods of Talca. Preliminary findings suggest an inadequate reconstruction process, both because a large percentage of urban areas have not yet been intervened and because a considerable number of families are still living in precarious conditions, in emergency housing, in semi-destroyed housing or in self-help built shacks. Likewise, there is a marginal number of solid housing built with subsidy in the downtown area. Lastly, such a reconstruction has been mostly financed by the families themselves, who have decided not to use a State financing system that is regarded as insufficient.

Gallardo M.C.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Environmental Justice | Year: 2016

This article analyzes the case of the Likan Antai/Atacama communities, located in the Alto Loa region in northern Chile. It presents recent data on the relation between the scenario of the water crisis, the liberal legal architecture on water rights/mining and poverty among these indigenous peoples, with particular emphasis on how these phenomena have been changing the articulation of their identities, strengthening their demands and strategies based on an increase in the importance of ethnic components in the last decades. For this, the notions of "socio-ecological inequality" and "environmental suffering" are used, the latter focused on the point of view of indigenous peoples in this conflict. © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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