Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Santiago, Chile
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This article explores the transformations suffered by the notion of utopia with the passage from an industrial to a post-industrial society. This involves posing the question regarding the historical specificity of the notion of utopia. This does not mean, however, to simply develop a historic account of a specific concept. The aim is to explore the internal relationship between the transformations of the capitalist mode of production and the changes experienced by the idea of utopia. To do so, this article explores the shift from a modern idea of a utopian city towards the city as a non-place as presented by Harun Farocki in his video installation Counter- Music. The main hypothesis is twofold: firstly, I argue that the modern idea of a utopian city conceives the city from the perspective of the rational organization of the use value of labour; secondly, I suggest that the rise of post-industrial capitalism challenges this idea of the utopian city and the use value of labour is replaced by what Negri and Hardt called the nonplace of exploitation. In this new social context, the eternal present of capital's self-valorisation makes it impossible to imagine a utopian future based on the use value of labour. This twofold hypothesis will be illustrated through the analysis of Harun Farocki's video installation Counter-Music.

Bueno C.C.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
TripleC | Year: 2017

With the recent publication of Signs and Machines by Maurizio Lazzarato and Critical Semiotics by Gary Genosko, the concept of asignifying semiotics introduced by Félix Guattari in the late 1960s is regaining attention. This revived interest responds largely to the rise and consolidation of new technologies of power based on algorithmic control and Big Data analysis. In the new context of informational capitalism, Guattari’s asignifying semiotics appears a powerful conceptual tool for exploring the role of information technologies in the reproduction of capitalist power relations. This article contributes to this discussion by introducing the notion of asignifyng images to explore the role that images acquire in this new age of algorithmic control. To achieve doing so, this article focuses on Harun Farocki’s concept of operational images and reads some of his audiovisual work through the prism of Guattari’s asignifying semiotics. More specifically, this article compares the representational account of labour in the film Workers Leaving the Factory (1995) with the nonrepresentational perspective deployed by the video installation Counter-Music (2004). The distinction between a representational and a non-representational framework responds to the distinction between signifying and asignifying semiotics. By comparing these two perspectives, this article attempts to delineate some key elements for a broader reflection upon the transformation of the role of images in the reproduction of contemporary capitalism. © 2017, Unified Theory of Information Research Group. All rights reserved.

Alarcon Ferrari C.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism | Chartier C.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2016

This paper offers a combined theoretical and empirical assessment of energy democracy and degrowth in relation to the case study of a city's municipally-owned energy company in Sweden. Energy democracy is a fairly new concept and is a normative proposal that aims at articulating prospects for reduction of consumption, resource efficiency, use of renewable sources of energy and community empowerment. Though degrowth and energy democracy have similar goals and orientation, a combined analysis of both normative proposals remains underdeveloped. The focus on energy democracy serves us to articulate a deeper discussion on how technology, energy use and sustainability challenges interplay with definitions and meanings of degrowth vis-à-vis processes of capital accumulation. Empirically, we use the case of a municipality-based project of energy extraction and distribution in Sweden to discuss degrowth and energy democracy perspectives in this context. Theoretically, we develop insights from critical theories of technology. A main conclusion of the paper is that prospects for energy democracy and degrowth are limited in the energy project approached in the paper as it is based on the use of forest resources-a contested resource in the area - and also because this project assumes the development of economic processes oriented towards economic growth within the framework of capital accumulation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Fuentes-Castillo T.,University of Chile | Miranda A.,University of the Frontier | Rivera-Hutinel A.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism | Smith-Ramirez C.,Austral University of Chile | Holmgren M.,Wageningen University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Natural regeneration of mediterranean plant communities has proved difficult in all continents. In this paper we assess whether regeneration of sclerophyllous forests shows nucleated patterns indicative of a positive effect of vegetation remnants at the landscape level and compare the regeneration patterns between sites with distinctive climate conditions. We studied the spatial patterns of vegetation change during 52. years in central Chile using remotely-sensed images to test the predictions that (1) regeneration of sclerophyllous vegetation expands from patches of remnant vegetation; and (2) regeneration is more dependent on remnant vegetation in drier sites. Our results show that the regeneration of the sclerophyllous vegetation in central Chile is a slow process that may be possible under certain conditions. We found that the fraction of regenerated vegetation increases with the proximity to remnant sclerophyllous forest in an aggregated pattern. Especially in drier sites, vegetation remnants have a facilitative role on the regeneration of mediterranean-type ecosystems. These results have important implications for the management and conservation of these ecosystems. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

Seelenfreund D.,University of Chile | Pina R.,University of Chile | Ho K.-Y.,National Chiayi University | Lobos S.,University of Chile | Seelenfreund A.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
New Zealand Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. (Magnoliophyta: Urticales), or paper mulberry, is a species of Asian origin dispersed by humans throughout the Pacific. Our aim is to evaluate the genetic variability of this plant in order to determine its potential as a commensal species for studying the mobility and/or migratory movements of the people that carried it. For this study, we analysed the non-coding transcribed spacer sequences (ITS) of ribosomal nuclear DNA found in samples of B. papyrifera collected in Remote Oceania and Taiwan. Our results show three genotypes: the Pacific samples form a distinct and homogenous subgroup, while the Taiwanese accessions present two genotypes. We discuss the relevance of these results in the context of the dispersal of B. papyrifera in the Pacific and its association with Austronesian migration history. © 2011 The Royal Society of New Zealand.

Payacan C.,University of Chile | Arriaza F.,University of Chile | Lobos S.,University of Chile | Seelenfreund D.,University of Chile | Seelenfreund A.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology: We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions: Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. © 2013 Moncada et al.

PubMed | Viña del Mar University, University of Otago, University of Potsdam, University of California at Berkeley and Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called chilihueque played a major role in the islands society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that chilihueque was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals.

Electra Gonzalez A.,University of Chile | Temistocles Molina G.,University of Chile | Jimena San Martin V.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecologia | Year: 2016

Background: Adolescents and young lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) present additional challenges in their development compared to their heterosexual peers which exposes them to high levels of stress and distress that can lead to sexual risk behaviors. Aim: To analyze the sexual behavior, personal characteristics and sexual orientation in adolescents that attended in a center of sexual and reproductive health. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study conducted in an adolescent population. Data were collected in 2000-2012. Multiple logistic regression was used to quantify comparisons of sexual behaviors and personal variables between LGB and heterosexual adolescents. Results: In total, 5,143 adolescents (median age 16 years, 91.5% women and 97.5% students) were studied, 127 were LGB teenagers. LGB adolescents reported risk having more sexual partners and sexual debut earlier than their heterosexual peers. This risk increased by catholic teenagers. Using contraception methods showed no risk in catholic teenagers but adolescents assigned to another religion or no religion which was a risk factor. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the LGB and heterosexual adolescents are not identical in terms of sexual risk. LGB engages in riskier sexual behaviors than heterosexual counterparts. Healthcare providers and the education sector need to be sensitive to these differences and their implications for health and counseling of adolescents.

Talca was one of the cities with the greatest housing damage after the F-27 earthquake. Its historical center and 15 surrounding old neighborhoods had most of their housing damaged or destroyed. Two years after the earthquake, most of the destruction remains visible in downtown Talca; however, there is not enough data to illustrate this situation. This paper is focused on analyzing reconstruction policies in view of the current state of reconstruction in the downtown neighborhoods of Talca. Preliminary findings suggest an inadequate reconstruction process, both because a large percentage of urban areas have not yet been intervened and because a considerable number of families are still living in precarious conditions, in emergency housing, in semi-destroyed housing or in self-help built shacks. Likewise, there is a marginal number of solid housing built with subsidy in the downtown area. Lastly, such a reconstruction has been mostly financed by the families themselves, who have decided not to use a State financing system that is regarded as insufficient.

Gallardo M.C.,Autonomous University Academy of Christian Humanism
Environmental Justice | Year: 2016

This article analyzes the case of the Likan Antai/Atacama communities, located in the Alto Loa region in northern Chile. It presents recent data on the relation between the scenario of the water crisis, the liberal legal architecture on water rights/mining and poverty among these indigenous peoples, with particular emphasis on how these phenomena have been changing the articulation of their identities, strengthening their demands and strategies based on an increase in the importance of ethnic components in the last decades. For this, the notions of "socio-ecological inequality" and "environmental suffering" are used, the latter focused on the point of view of indigenous peoples in this conflict. © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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