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Campa V.M.,Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria | Capilla A.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Varela M.J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | De La Rocha A.M.A.,Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method -the Q-Endosomes algorithm- that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution. © 2015 Campa et al. Source

Bodelon O.G.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Iglesias C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Garrido J.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Clemente C.,University of Alcala | And 2 more authors.
Biomedical Materials (Bristol) | Year: 2015

AZ31 alloy has been tested as a biodegradable material in the form of endomedullary implants in female Wistar rat femurs. In order to evaluate the accumulation of potentially toxic elements from the biodegradation of the implant, magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and fluorine (F) levels have been measured in different organs such as kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen and brain. Several factors that may influence accumulation have been taken into account: how long the implant has been in place, whether or not the bone is fractured, and the presence of an MgF2 protective coating on the implant. The main conclusions and the clinical relevance of the study have been that AZ31 endomedullary implants have a degradation rate of about 60% after 13 months, which is fully compatible with fracture consolidation. Neither bone fracture nor an MgF2 coating seems to influence the accumulation of trace elements in the studied organs. Aluminium is the only alloying element in this study that requires special attention. The increase in Al recovered from the sampled organs represents 3.95% of the amount contained in the AZ31 implant. Al accumulates in a statistically significant way in all the organs except the brain. All of this suggests that in long-term tests AZ31 may be a suitable material for osteosynthesis. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Bayon C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Cortes A.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Berenguer J.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Hernaiz M.J.,Complutense University of Madrid
Tetrahedron | Year: 2013

Ionic liquids (ILs) have emerged as an alternative to conventional organic media due to their high thermal and chemical stability, negligible vapour pressure, non-flammability and easy recycling. In this context, this work assesses the catalytic activity of a β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382 (β-Gal-3-NTag) in the synthesis of β-(1→3)-galactosides using different ILs. A noticeably increase in activity, retaining total regioselectivity was found in the synthetic behaviour of B. circulans β-galactosidase in ILs as co-solvents and using a 1:5 molar ratio of donor (pNP-β-Gal):acceptor (GlcNAc or GalNac). Yields up to 97% of β-(1→3) with different ILs were found. These reactions take place without noticeable hydrolytic activity and with total regioselectivity, representing a considerable improvement over the use of aqueous buffer or conventional organic solvents. Furthermore, reaction scaling up and IL recovery and recycling are feasible without losing catalytic action. Molecular modelling studies performed predict a three-dimensional interaction at the active centre between the acceptor and the water-IL mixture, which could explain the results obtained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Diaz-Frutos D.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Baca-Garcia E.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Mahillo-Fernandez I.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Garcia-Foncillas J.,Autonoma University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Psychology, Health and Medicine | Year: 2016

Oncologic patients are exposed to a higher risk of suicidal behaviors than the general population. In this study, we aim to examine the severity of suicidal ideation in a sample of oncologic patients considering different psychological and clinical features. We interviewed 202 inpatients receiving curative or palliative treatment in a medical oncology ward of a Spanish hospital during the period 2012-2014. A complete assessment of psychosocial factors, cancer diagnoses (lung, colon rectum, and genitourinary system), and suicidal behaviors were made during admission, including validated questionnaires about depression, anxiety, personality, quality of life, body image, life threatening events, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. The characteristics of inpatients with high and low suicidal ideation were retrospectively compared. A logistic regression model was constructed to examine the relationship between the significant factors retained after the univariate analyses. One of every four patients (n = 51; 25.24%) presented high scores of suicidal ideation. Logistic regression analyses retained depression (OR = 3.55; 95% CI = 1.25-11.68; p =.016), hopelessness (OR = 8.78; 95% CI = 3.44-25.88; p ≤.001), personality (OR =.44; 95% CI =.2-.96; p =.038), and advanced age (OR = 2.60; 95% CI = 1.18-5.98; p =.016) as the main risk factors for high suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was frequent among oncologic patients. These patients should receive closer monitoring, especially, when old, retired, or severely depressed. © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Source

Diaz-Frutos D.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Baca-Garcia E.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Garcia-Foncillas J.,Autonoma University of Madrid | Lopez-Castroman J.,Autonoma University of Madrid
European Journal of Cancer Care | Year: 2016

This work aims to investigate the factors associated with psychological distress in advanced cancer patients under palliative treatment. We comprehensively assessed the demographic, psychosocial and health factors of 158 advanced cancer patients. Patients with high and low distress, according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, were compared. A regression analysis was built to identify the best predictors of distress. Patients with high psychological distress (81%) were more likely to have lung cancer, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, low quality of life and poor body image than those without. In the multivariate model, only poor emotional functioning (OR = .89; 95% CI = .83–.95; p ≤ .001), hopelessness (OR = .86; 95% CI = .78–.94; p ≤ .001) and body image distortions (OR = .77; 95% CI = .68–.85; p = .005) were retained. High levels of hopelessness, impaired emotional functioning and body image distortions are the main factors associated with psychological distress in patients with advanced cancer. Potential interventions to modify these factors in palliative units are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Source

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