The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI

Pune, India

The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI

Pune, India
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Nakhawa H.A.,Symbiosis International University | Nakhawa H.A.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI | Thipse S.S.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology | Year: 2017

This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN) on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively. © School of Engineering, Taylor’s University.


Nakhawa H.A.,Symbiosis International University | Thipse S.S.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
International Journal of Energy, Environment and Economics | Year: 2016

The new emission regulations are more stringent and applicable for newly manufactured vehicles, but the more population of old in-use vehicles running on the road contribute substantial to the vehicular pollution because of which significant effectiveness to urban air quality has not been seen. This is an unique comparative study carried out in this context specifically for the in use vehicles from Bharat Stage-2 to Bharat stage-4 technology and operating on diesel, gasoline and CNG fuels, in order to get the vital information on particulate matter (PM2.5) and particle number (PN) and their various metrics in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics. This research work focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel, gasoline and CNG vehicles to investigate for their physical characterization in terms of number, size, surface area and volume. Investigations also carried out for their chemical characterization in terms of chemical speciation like SOF, IOF, PAH, aldehydes-ketones, 1-3 butadiene and benzene content as they found responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Test methodology used to measure PM and PN is based on GRPE- PMP incorporated in European Regulations No.R83 since Euro V+. Engine exhausts particle sizer (EEPS) having fast response was used to measure particle size between 5.6 and 560 nm. Chemical characterization was carried out subjecting particulate extract to GC-HPLC and HRGC analyzers. Study reveals that urban part of the cycle is the most significant contributor to total PN approximately, 66%, 53% and 74% for gasoline, diesel and CNG vehicles, respectively. More than 90% of the total particles emitted are of ultrafine nature and contribution by nanoparticles (≤ 50 nm) alone is approximately 50%, 94% and 72% for diesel, gasoline and CNG vehicles respectively. Contribution of SOF to PM for gasoline, CNG and diesel vehicles are 73%, 75% and 40% respectively. Investigation provides vital information to ensure effective measures and to address social health concerns raised by WHO. © 2016 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.


Patil K.R.,College of Engineering, Pune | Thipse S.S.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2016

In diesel engine, fuel injection timing is a major parameter that affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Variation in injection timing has a strong effect on BTE, BSFC, BSEC, smoke and NOx emissions because of the change in maximum pressure and temperature in engine cylinder. In this experimental investigation, the optimum performance DEE-diesel blend ratio DE15D (15% DEE and 85% diesel by volume) was tested for variable injection timings to evaluate its effect and determine the optimum fuel injection timing, as the addition of DEE to diesel fuel causes retardation in dynamic injection timing. The engine tests were carried out at 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of full load with 3° and 6° advancement, base and 3° and 7° retarded injection timings. The test results show that BSFC and BSEC provide the best result for the base injection timing at full load condition. The 6° advancement in injection timing at full load condition reduced smoke by 12.5% and HC by 15.38%. The retarded injection timing by 7° at full load showed improvement in BTE by 7.96% and in NOx by 3.66%. © Universiti Malaysia Pahang Publishing.


Pipalatkar P.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute | Khaparde V.V.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute | Gajghate D.G.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute | Bawase M.A.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2014

Samples of PM2.5 were collected sequentially for 24 hours during the last week of September to mid February 2009-10 at three locations representing residential (R), commercial (C) and industrial (I) sites in Nagpur city to determine their chemical composition and estimations of the sources contributing to them. Two receptor models were used for the source apportionment viz. enrichment factors (EF) to differentiate crustal and non-crustal sources, whereas chemical mass balance (CMB 8.2) was used to identify and quantify the major sources contributing to PM2.5. The ambient mass concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5 with respect to ionic species (Na+, NH4 +, K+, Ca2 +, F-, Cl-, NO3 -and SO4 2-); carbonaceous species (organic and elemental carbon) and trace metals (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si and Zn) were determined. The most abundant chemical species were OC, EC, SO4 2-, NO3 -, NH4 +, K+ and trace metals (Al, Fe, Si, Mg, and Cu) at all the sites. Findings of EF showed the anthropogenic origin of Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn, whereas Ba, Cr, Mg, Mn, and Si were contributed from crustal sources. On the other hand, results of CMB using source profiles developed in India for nonvehicular and vehicular sources revealed that vehicular emissions were major contributing sources 57, 62 and 65%; followed by secondary inorganic aerosol 16, 12, 16%; biomass burning 15, 11, 9% and then by re-suspended dust 6,10, 7% at R, C and I sites, respectively. This study showed that while the sources at all three sites were mostly consistent, the percent contributions of these varied among the sites as per the intensity of ongoing activities at the receptor sites.


Walke N.H.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI | Nandgaonkar M.R.,College of Engineering, Pune | Marathe N.V.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
International Review of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014

Due to stricter emission norms, diesel engine is facing challenges of in-cylinder emissions reduction especially in transient operating conditions. Low complexity emission prediction models are desired, with an objective to extend it to emissions prediction during transient operations. This paper is focused on the formulation and investigation of simplified model for prediction of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, engine-out NOx and Soot emissions. Being a predictive model, this model does not require cylinder pressure as an input to predict heat release. To have better computational efficiency, single-zone model is used for the combustion prediction. Fuel burning rate is predicted with Watson model. Watson model is modified to improve its predictability over complete bmep range for the selected high bmep engine. Two-zone model has been formulated to predict NOx and Soot emissions. Flame temperatures are predicted by enthalpy balance. Thermal NO concentration is predicted by using Zeldovich mechanism. Soot prediction is based on approach proposed by Hiroyasu. Prediction model is calibrated using a Turbocharged DI Common rail Diesel engine, at various speed-load conditions. Using this calibrated model, NOx and Soot emissions are predicted on a part of ETC cycle. It is observed that the model predicts NOx emissions and soot emission trends with reasonable accuracy and this model can be used for emissions prediction on a transient cycle. © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.


Patil K.R.,Symbiosis International University | Thipse S.S.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel for CI engines owing to its high ignition quality. DEE has several favourable properties, including exceptional cetane number, very low self ignition temperature, high oxygen content, broad flammability limits and reasonable energy density for on-board storage. It is a liquid at ambient conditions, which makes it attractive for fuel handling and fuel infrastructure requirements and hence, it is a compatible fuel for use in CI engine. Diethyl ether is the simplest ether expressed by its chemical formula CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3, consisting of two ethyl groups bonded to a central oxygen atom. It can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel as it is completely miscible with diesel fuel. It was observed that density, kinematic viscosity and calorific value of the blends decreases while the oxygen content and cetane number of the blends increases with the concentration of DEE addition. The presence of DEE increases the front end volatility of the blends and decreases boiling point in comparison to baseline diesel fuel. No significant difference was observed in the tail-end volatility of the blends. The blended fuel retains the desirable physical properties of diesel fuel but includes the cleaner burning capability of DEE. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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