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Patil K.R.,Symbiosis International University | Patil K.R.,College of Engineering, Pune | Thipse S.S.,Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2015

An experimental investigation had been carried out to evaluate the effects of oxygenated cetane improver diethyl ether (DEE) blends with kerosene and diesel on the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine. Initially, 2%, 5%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% DEE (by volume) were blended into diesel. The DEE-diesel blends have reduced the trade-off between PM and NOx of diesel engine and the optimum performance blend has been found as DE15D. Similarly, 5%, 10% and 15% kerosene (by volume) were blended into diesel to investigate the adulteration effect. In addition, a study was carried out to evaluate the effects of kerosene adulteration on DE15D by blending with 5%, 10% and 15% kerosene (by volume). The engine tests were carried out at 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of full load for all test fuels. Laboratory fuel tests showed that the DEE is completely miscible with diesel and kerosene in any proportion. It was observed that the density, kinematic viscosity and calorific value of the blends decreases, while the oxygen content and cetane number of the blends increases with the concentration of DEE addition. The experimental test results showed that the DEE-kerosene-diesel blends have low brake thermal efficiency, high brake specific fuel consumption, high smoke at full load, low smoke at part load, overall low NO, almost similar CO, high HC at full load and low HC at part load as compared to DE15D blend. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Yadav S.D.,Rajarambapu Institute of Technology | Thipse S.S.,Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

Biogas is one of the most promising alternatives fuel for the future. Biogas, when used in automotive field, will help to bring down harmful emissions. However, some technical improvements are still needed, especially in the Indian automotive sector. In this research work 100% biogas operated two wheeler four stroke SI engine has been tested for exhaust gas emissions. The result shows the lower emissions than the existing petrol engine limits without exhaust gas after treatment. The current work clearly indicates the breakdown of compression ratio barrier and it is shown that the engine runs smoothly at compression ratio of 11:1 without any tendency of auto-ignition. Experiments were conducted by varying compression ratios from 9:1 to 11:1 and retaining the combustion chamber design. This study shows that using biogas in SI engines, it is particularly beneficial to reach interesting conversion efficiencies with low emissions. It allows a significant boost in energy conversion from biogas compared to existing systems. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 SIAT, India. Source


Yadav S.D.,Rajarambapu Institute of Technology | Thipse S.S.,Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

The physical and chemical properties of biogas affect the choice of technology used for biogas scrubbing and combustion; therefore, knowledge of these properties is useful for optimizing biogas utilization. Since biogas contains primarily as bulk components methane and carbon dioxide. Other trace components (nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and trace organics) are present in relatively small quantity, the magnitude of which varies greatly and depends on the composition of the material digested. Although the small concentration of these traced gases have little effect on the physical properties of the gas, which influence the choice of technologies. In the present work, the analysis of the biogas composition related to its effects on the physical properties of the gas and which influence the choice of technologies used for spark ignition engines is presented. This analysis data obtained will be useful for optimizing biogas utilization with required suitable modifications for best optimum performance in the spark ignition engine. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 SIAT, India. Source


Vasudevan A.M.,Renault S.A. | Vora K.C.,Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

A global shift towards a greener and low carbon footprint will require noteworthy improvements in the manner in which energy is being produced and utilized. With the boom in passenger vehicle market in automotive industry, the transformation into systems which are more cost effective and fuel efficient, are apparently the need of the hour. Among the Clean technologies, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are on the top of the list of options. The paper presents in detail the survey of relevant prospects of HEV in the Indian market and how the Indian OEMs have responded to this opportunity. Series, parallel, parallel electric assist and combined hybrid electric systems are evaluated and the viable solutions are proposed. A broad study has been conducted on the various strategies and methodologies for implementation through the HEV. It also elucidates the design criteria and optimization techniques with reference to the relevant driving cycles. The various configurations are simulated in ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR), which is based on MATLAB /SIMULINK program with relevant driving cycles. Fuel economy and emission levels have been emphasized in result interpretation. The cost effective and time saving simulation results can be used to select the best hybrid configuration for Indian conditions and can be used to carry out experimental investigation. The role of legislation is also discussed for future roadmap to gear up for the Hybrid Technology in the national perspective. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 SIAT, India. Source


Nakhawa H.A.,Symbiosis International University | Thipse S.S.,Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa | Year: 2016

Today, in the automotive emissions ultrafine and nano particles emissions are of very high importance because of their vulnerable effects to environment and human health causing respiratory problems like bronchitis, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and various types of cancers spreading in all age groups in the society leading to premature death [1]. Therefore, characterization of ultrafine and nano particles in terms of their size distribution and number concentration for the automobiles operating on various fuels and traffic conditions is of great importance in understanding the phenomenon and the adverse effects. Various research studies carried out at international level show the adverse health effects due to ultrafine particles from C.I. and S.I. engines and hence, there is definite need to examine for the particulate mass, size and number concentration considering social needs [2].Even after very stringent emission norms which were tightened over the years and today down to more than 97% from it's baseline norms couldn't show proportionate improvement in the ambient air quality. Climate effects inevitably lead to health effects leading to premature death due to ultrafine particles from the automotive exhaust [1]. Recent WHO report confirmed the vulnerable effect of diesel particles in terms of carcinogenicity and severe health effects of diesel fuel used in automotive sector [3]. European regulation has taken the steps to address this concern by introducing new norms for particle number and PM2.5 as 6 x 1011 and 4.5 mg/km respectively [4]. Investigations carried out on GDI vehicles show substantial ultrafine and nano size particle emissions and by number, nearly all of the particles emitted by a diesel engine are nanoparticles which are also true for gasoline engines [5]. Like gasoline engines other S.I. engines, even though they look very clean as there is no visible smoke and large particles emitted in their exhaust, it is necessary to investigate them. Very limited research work has been carried out particularly, on CNG engines/ vehicles for their PM and PN levels at national and international level. Characterization of ultrafine and nano particles in terms of their size distribution and number concentration for the automobiles operating on various fuels and traffic conditions is of great importance in understanding the phenomenon and their significance. In this context and understanding the social need this research work was carried out to investigate experimentally the significance of CNG and diesel passenger car for it's contribution to particle number (PN) and PM2.5. This work includes comparative investigation of CNG and diesel passenger cars to characterize the ultrafine and nano particle emissions on modified Indian driving cycle and to identify the significance of operating phases. CNG passenger car show large peak of PN emissions during cold starting phase at the beginning of the test cycle which is almost twice that of diesel vehicle but it settles down to lower level as the vehicle gets warmed up. During acceleration and cruising operation on extra urban cycle under heavy load the PN emissions from CNG car are higher in magnitude. For diesel car, urban part of cycle contributes approximately 53% compared to 25% for CNG vehicle and rest 47% and 75% is contributed by extra urban part towards PN emissions. © (2016) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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