Pipalatkar P.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute |
Khaparde V.V.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute |
Gajghate D.G.,Indian National Environmental Engineering Research Institute |
Bawase M.A.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2014
Samples of PM2.5 were collected sequentially for 24 hours during the last week of September to mid February 2009-10 at three locations representing residential (R), commercial (C) and industrial (I) sites in Nagpur city to determine their chemical composition and estimations of the sources contributing to them. Two receptor models were used for the source apportionment viz. enrichment factors (EF) to differentiate crustal and non-crustal sources, whereas chemical mass balance (CMB 8.2) was used to identify and quantify the major sources contributing to PM2.5. The ambient mass concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5 with respect to ionic species (Na+, NH4 +, K+, Ca2 +, F-, Cl-, NO3 -and SO4 2-); carbonaceous species (organic and elemental carbon) and trace metals (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si and Zn) were determined. The most abundant chemical species were OC, EC, SO4 2-, NO3 -, NH4 +, K+ and trace metals (Al, Fe, Si, Mg, and Cu) at all the sites. Findings of EF showed the anthropogenic origin of Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Fe and Zn, whereas Ba, Cr, Mg, Mn, and Si were contributed from crustal sources. On the other hand, results of CMB using source profiles developed in India for nonvehicular and vehicular sources revealed that vehicular emissions were major contributing sources 57, 62 and 65%; followed by secondary inorganic aerosol 16, 12, 16%; biomass burning 15, 11, 9% and then by re-suspended dust 6,10, 7% at R, C and I sites, respectively. This study showed that while the sources at all three sites were mostly consistent, the percent contributions of these varied among the sites as per the intensity of ongoing activities at the receptor sites.
Walke N.H.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI |
Nandgaonkar M.R.,College of Engineering, Pune |
Marathe N.V.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
International Review of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2014
Due to stricter emission norms, diesel engine is facing challenges of in-cylinder emissions reduction especially in transient operating conditions. Low complexity emission prediction models are desired, with an objective to extend it to emissions prediction during transient operations. This paper is focused on the formulation and investigation of simplified model for prediction of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, engine-out NOx and Soot emissions. Being a predictive model, this model does not require cylinder pressure as an input to predict heat release. To have better computational efficiency, single-zone model is used for the combustion prediction. Fuel burning rate is predicted with Watson model. Watson model is modified to improve its predictability over complete bmep range for the selected high bmep engine. Two-zone model has been formulated to predict NOx and Soot emissions. Flame temperatures are predicted by enthalpy balance. Thermal NO concentration is predicted by using Zeldovich mechanism. Soot prediction is based on approach proposed by Hiroyasu. Prediction model is calibrated using a Turbocharged DI Common rail Diesel engine, at various speed-load conditions. Using this calibrated model, NOx and Soot emissions are predicted on a part of ETC cycle. It is observed that the model predicts NOx emissions and soot emission trends with reasonable accuracy and this model can be used for emissions prediction on a transient cycle. © 2014 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.
Patil K.R.,Symbiosis International University |
Thipse S.S.,The Automotive Research Association of India ARAI
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014
Diethyl Ether (DEE) is a promising oxygenated renewable bio-base resource fuel for CI engines owing to its high ignition quality. DEE has several favourable properties, including exceptional cetane number, very low self ignition temperature, high oxygen content, broad flammability limits and reasonable energy density for on-board storage. It is a liquid at ambient conditions, which makes it attractive for fuel handling and fuel infrastructure requirements and hence, it is a compatible fuel for use in CI engine. Diethyl ether is the simplest ether expressed by its chemical formula CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3, consisting of two ethyl groups bonded to a central oxygen atom. It can be mixed in any proportion in diesel fuel as it is completely miscible with diesel fuel. It was observed that density, kinematic viscosity and calorific value of the blends decreases while the oxygen content and cetane number of the blends increases with the concentration of DEE addition. The presence of DEE increases the front end volatility of the blends and decreases boiling point in comparison to baseline diesel fuel. No significant difference was observed in the tail-end volatility of the blends. The blended fuel retains the desirable physical properties of diesel fuel but includes the cleaner burning capability of DEE. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.