Navale S.J.,College of Engineering, Pune |
Kulkarni R.R.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang |
Thipse S.S.,Automotive Research Association of India
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2017
In the present study, a single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine is modified to operate with hydrogen gas with ECU (Electronic Controlled Unit) operated timely manifold injection system. Performance, emission and combustion parameters are studied at MBT (Maximum Brake Torque) spark timing with WOT (Wide Open Throttle) position. All trials are performed in the speed range of 1100 rpm-1800 rpm. Baseline observations are recorded with gasoline for comparison purpose. Results have shown that maximum brake power is reduced by 19.06% and peak brake thermal efficiency is increased by 3.16% in the case of hydrogen operation. Reduction in NOx emission is observed for hydrogen at higher engine speed. The maximum net heat release rate is two times higher and the peak cylinder pressure is 1.36 times higher for hydrogen as compared to gasoline at the engine speed of 1400 rpm. © 2017 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.
News Article | April 2, 2016
The recent emission scandals committed by Volkswagen has caused the company to recall 3,877 units of Vento Sedans in India. In a report, Volkswagen released a statement saying that its India-based branch will be suspending production of the "manual gearbox" variant of the Volkswagen Vento that holds a 1.5L, or .396 gallon, diesel tank. In a recent investigation carried out by the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI), the tests found that Volkswagen Vento Sedans were emitting intermittent carbon monoxide (CO) levels that failed ARAI standards. CO emissions of the vehicle were sometimes exceeding the threshold limits, according to the Conformity of Production (COP) test carried out by ARAI. A Volkswagen executive had previously announced in February that Volkswagen cars were manufactured in compliance with emission laws carried out in India. The results of the tests run by ARAI, however, say otherwise. Volkswagen Passenger Board Member of Sales and Marketing Jurgen Stackmann guaranteed that all Volkswagen-produced cars followed the standards in India, while he apologized for the failed results their cars produced. The company has promised to analyze the issues causing the inconsistent CO emissions and plans to submit succeeding resolutions to the ARAI as soon as possible. These resolutions will be applied to all affected Vento Sedans that have already been bought by customers. They further added that the issue "is not connected to the global NOx emissions topic," wherein several pending investigations and court orders are currently looking into Volkswagen. The Vento 1.5TDI, along with several other DSG automatic transmission variants and diesel Polo models by Volkswagen India are not part of the halted productions. These vehicles have been certified by the company to meet the norms in India and are "technically safe and trustworthy." The said models will continue to be produced and sold in the country.
News Article | March 1, 2017
LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Technavio’s latest market research report on the global CNG compressor aftermarket provides an analysis of the most important trends expected to impact the market outlook from 2017-2021. Technavio defines an emerging trend as a factor that has the potential to significantly impact the market and contribute to its growth or decline. Anju Ajaykumar, a lead analyst from Technavio, specializing in research on engineering tools sector says, “Increasing concern regarding the rising GHG emissions and the need for cleaner energy sources has resulted in growing interest in low-carbon emitting alternate fuels. The growth in the number of refueling stations is expected to propel the demand for CNG compressors aftermarket.” Technavio’s sample reports are free of charge and contain multiple sections of the report including the market size and forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more. The top three emerging market trends driving the global CNG compressor aftermarket according to Technavio heavy industry research analysts are: Natural gas has the potential to contribute toward climate change mitigation. Increasing natural gas infrastructure developments will drive this trend. The development of NGV fueling stations is strongly supported by governments in various countries. For instance, in the US, CNG and LNG are considered as alternate fuels. The government provides 30% tax credit for natural gas fueling equipment that has been installed between January 2015 and December 31, 2016. This support will help in reducing the overall investment. Therefore, the natural gas compressor market and CNG compressor aftermarket will grow during the forecast period. Fossil fuel reserves in the world are limited. This has turned the focus on alternative sustainable sources of fuel. Fuels such as upgraded biogas and biofuels help diversify the energy mix and reduce the dependency on petroleum products. Upgraded biogas is produced locally and has the same chemical properties as that of natural gas. It can be transported through the existing gas grid. The use of biogas will decrease the impact of oil and gas price fluctuations in the future. “Therefore, the production of upgraded biogas and efforts put in by governments in Europe, the US, and Asia to improve the natural gas infrastructure will result in continuous demand and installations for natural gas refueling stations. This, in turn, is expected to drive the CNG compressors and thereby create demand for CNG compressor aftermarket,” says Anju. Major contributors to the demand for two-wheelers are countries in APAC, with China leading the market. China is closely followed by India and Indonesia. India has seen the fastest growth in the two-wheeler segment in the past five years. With a consistent increase in the sales of two-wheelers, there is a demand for alternative fuel options in the two-wheelers segment as CNG is highly economical and safe. In June 2016, the Government of India launched Honda Activa CNG scooter. The CNG kit has been approved by the Automotive Research Association of India for fitting in Honda's Activa scooters. It is the first CNG scooter launched in India. These advantages will determine the future trend for CNG in the two-wheeler market. Initiatives such as the one introduced in India can create good market prospects for CNG use in the two-wheeler segment, thus favoring the growth of the CNG compressor market and the CNG compressor aftermarket. Become a Technavio Insights member and access all three of these reports for a fraction of their original cost. As a Technavio Insights member, you will have immediate access to new reports as they’re published in addition to all 6,000+ existing reports covering segments like test and measurement, tools and components, and unit operations. This subscription nets you thousands in savings, while staying connected to Technavio’s constant transforming research library, helping you make informed business decisions more efficiently. Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. The company develops over 2000 pieces of research every year, covering more than 500 technologies across 80 countries. Technavio has about 300 analysts globally who specialize in customized consulting and business research assignments across the latest leading edge technologies. Technavio analysts employ primary as well as secondary research techniques to ascertain the size and vendor landscape in a range of markets. Analysts obtain information using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches, besides using in-house market modeling tools and proprietary databases. They corroborate this data with the data obtained from various market participants and stakeholders across the value chain, including vendors, service providers, distributors, re-sellers, and end-users. If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thipse Y.S.,Automotive Research Association of India
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014
Hyperelastic material simulations are commonly performed in commercial FE codes due to availability of sophisticated algorithms facilitating virtual characterization of such materials in FEA easily. However, the solution time required is longer in FEA. Especially when excitation frequencies do not interfere with structural modes, flexible multibody simulation offers a lucrative and computationally inexpensive alternative. However, it is difficult to directly characterize hyperelastic materials in commercial MBS simulation codes, so the reduced solution time comes at the cost of decreased simulation accuracy, especially if the designer is provided with crude stress - strain test data. Hence, the need is to overcome the drawbacks in FEA and multibody codes, as well as to leverage best of both these codes simultaneously. A methodology is presented where non-linear stiffness properties of the hyperelastic materials are expressed as an analytical function in terms of constants of hyperelastic constitutive material models. The constants are first determined from best fit done to the test data within commercial FE codes. Subsequently, the governing strain energy density functions of the respective hyperelastic materials are differentiated analytically. Lastly, the constants are substituted into the derived nonlinear force-displacement analytical function, which can be directly input to the commercial MBS simulation code. Such a force-displacement analytical model is scalable and can also be combined with viscoelastic simulation. A case study is presented to demonstrate simple use of such nonlinear force - displacement characteristics that can be applied to uniaxial lumped springs in a multibody simulation. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.
Thipse Y.S.,Automotive Research Association of India
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014
Designers and analysts need to compare and conduct synthesis for selection of materials based on their properties involving simulation, optimization and correlation with test data. An example is that of acoustic material properties such as random and normal incidence sound absorption coefficient and sound transmission loss. The international test standards necessitate having standard operating procedures for characterization of these materials. This procedure is quite involved and addresses steps including test data acquisition, post processing, calculations, classification, report generation and most importantly, storage of such innumerable material properties in a structured manner to facilitate ease of retrieval and updating of properties. It is also highly desirable to have a synergy of the databank directly with simulation tools. Further, all of these steps need to be accurate, non-speculative and quick. In order to address all these diverse requirements, three cases of powerful knowledge based utilities are hereby presented. These have been developed by leveraging simple tools available right within MS Office Applications, thus making them highly scalable and cost effective. They effectively capture and integrate domain, individual and regulatory knowledge into mainstream organizational processes. Thus these tools augment and streamline product development workflows resulting in standardization, accuracy and productivity. Consequently they impart phenomenal benefits from a business perspective both to internal as well as external customers. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.
Kalekar T.,Automotive Research Association of India |
Stechert C.,Automotive Research Association of India
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014
This paper presents the modeling results of an innovative i-cool system for controlling the cabin temperature of a standalone car facing the solar energy from the sun. Project work indentifies the best possible phase change material (PCM) to be used for i-cool system is n-Heneicosane which shows maximum total heat flux is 44189 W/m2. From all the PCMs n-Heneicosane, n-Eicosane and n-Nonadecane that were shortlisted in selection criteria shows 600 sec to achieve inner surface temperature equal to the outer surface for a metropolitan car. While without use of PCM, the metropolitan car takes 320 sec & total maximum heat flux is 32900 W/m2. The final selection of n-Heneicosane shows 34.25% efficiency over conventional car. Copyright © 2014 SAE International.
Talegaonkar S.,ARAI Academy |
Agrewale M.R.B.,Automotive Research Association of India |
Chhaganlal Vora K.,ARAI Academy
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
The Exhaust Noise is one of the major noise pollutants. It is well-known that for higher noise reduction, the engine has to bear high back pressure. For a race car, back-pressure plays a major role in engine's performance characteristics. For a given condition of engine rpm & load, conventional muffler has a fixed value of back-pressure and noise attenuation. Better acceleration requires low back-pressure, but the exhaust noise should also be less than the required (Norm) value (110 dBA). This contradicting condition is achieved here by using a 'Butterfly Valve' in this novel exhaust muffler. The butterfly valve assumes 2 positions i.e. fully open & fully closed. When the valve is fully closed, the noise reduction will be higher, but the back-pressure will also shoot up. When open, noise reduction will be less and so the back-pressure. So, when better performance is required, the valve is opened and back-pressure is reduced. The muffler is designed for a 4 cylinder 600 cc engine. The sound transmission loss (STL), which is the measure of effectiveness of the muffler, is also verified experimentally. The reduction in the back pressure at 11000 engine rpm is around 40% with open valve, as compared closed valve condition. The increase in STL, with closed valve, is around 15∼20 dB higher when compared to open valve condition. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.
Sah S.K.,Automotive Research Association of India
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015
Nickel electroplating is commonly used with substrates including steel, aluminum, plastic and zinc die-cast parts because of its high resistance to temperature, corrosion and wear in harsh conditions. To further enhance its tribological and mechanical properties, research works are going on to produce nano reinforced composites of Ni with various ceramic and rare earth oxides like CeO2, ZrSiO4, SiC, TiO2, etc. The aim of present work is synthesis and characterization of Ni films and Ni based TiO2 nano-composite coating processed by pulse co-electrodeposition technique. Also, to investigate the various properties such as mechanical, wear and corrosion resistance, conductivity & thermal stability of Ni-TiO2 nanocomposites electrodeposited on steel substrate, especially the effects of the amount of nanosized TiO2 particles in Ni-TiO2 nanocomposites. The nanocomposite thin films have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDS). A threshold addition of reinforcements is observed to aid in optimizing the mechanical and tribological properties of the composite. The micro hardness of composites is evaluated and compared with that of pure nickel deposited under same condition. Composite reinforced with 15 wt% nano-sized TiO2 particulates yielded the best overall properties. Also improvement in thermal stability was observed with increase in TiO2. Copyright © 2015 SAE International and Copyright © SAEINDIA.
Thorbole C.,Thorbole Simulation Technologies LLC |
Deshpande S.,Automotive Research Association of India
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2015
Occupant motion in a vehicle rollover accident is a function of many factors. Some important ones are vehicle kinematics, position of the occupant in the vehicle, occupant size, ground topology and restraint usage. The far side belted occupants are more vulnerable than the near side occupants in a rollover accident as they have more energy as a result of their trailing and higher side of the vehicle. This outcome is attributable to the inadequate safety performance of the conventional single loop; B-pillar mounted D-ring restraints. Roof crush tends to displace the vehicle's B-pillar, resulting in D-Ring displacement which causes slack in the lap portion of the restraint. This slack enables centrifugal loads to move the far side occupant further away from the vehicle's instantaneous point of rotation. In this scenario, the presence of any ejection portal can result in an occupant becoming partially or fully ejected. The coupling technique is used between the Finite Element (FE) LS-DYNA and Multibody-MADYMO code to demonstrate the slack generation in the lap belt during vehicle roof to ground contact. The MADYMO FMVSS 208 driver side rollover simulation is conducted to compare and evaluate seat integrated restraints with the B-pillar mounted D-ring restraints. The head excursion is quantified and used as a response to compare the performance of these two types of restraints. The effectiveness of the buckle pretensioner in a rollover accident is also analyzed by comparing the performance of the restraint with and without the pretensioner. This study is performed using occupant anthropometry from a real world accident involving a far side belted female occupant who was fully ejected. This study revealed the inadequate performance and failure of the conventional single loop restraint to prevent the far side occupant's excessive head excursion and ejection. This study also demonstrates the superior performance and added advantages of the seat integrated restraint with and without the buckle pretensioner over the B-pillar mounted D-ring restraint. Copyright © 2015 SAE International and Copyright © SAEINDIA.
Manoharan A.K.,Vellore Institute of Technology |
Ashok B.,Vellore Institute of Technology |
Kumarasamy S.,Automotive Research Association of India
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016
Alternative fuels for both spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines have become very important owing to increased environmental protection concern, the need to reduce dependency on petroleum and even socioeconomic aspects. An appropriate sustainable fuel alternative has turn out to be a main concern and bio-diesel is one of the sustainable fuels. The path of interest in biodiesel has highlighted its advantages which include decrease in hydrocarbon and particulate matter. Meanwhile its shortcoming includes higher emission of oxides of nitrogen. This work is an attempt to develop a mathematical relationship to predict thermal NOx in CI engine fuelled with neat biodiesel. Attention was focused on using in-cylinder pressure based variables to predict NOx. In cylinder pressure measurement is a valuable tool for the analysis of CI engine combustion, which is used for finding the heat release rate, ignition delay, etc. The parameter used for the NOx correlations are ignition delay, maximum temperature and density of the fuel. Mathematical correlation is developed from the experimental values of B-100 (Neat) biodiesel derived from Calophyllum Inophyllum oil. Experiments are conducted using biodiesel derived from non-edible oils to validate the correlated results. NOx emission predicted through correlation is compared with the biodiesel derived from B-100- Calophyllum Inophyllum biodiesel,B-30 elanji biodiesel (EME) and B-20 biodiesel prepared from waste cooking oil(WCME). The correlation developed is almost matching for B-100 Calophyllum Inophyllum.EME-B30 have a maximum error of 18.5%.WCME B20 have a maximum error of 23.5%.There was a significant reduction in error percentage of the developed correlation, as the biodiesel quantity in the blend increases. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.