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PubMed | Silesian University of Technology and Automotive Industry Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta of bioengineering and biomechanics | Year: 2017

The aim of the study was to develop and verify a model of rally driver with a safety system HANS (head supporting device), which will enable biomechanical analysis of injuries in rally accident.Simulations were carried out in Madymo software, the results of which were verified based on sled test performed in the Automotive Industry Institute (PIMOT) in Warsaw. The model being verified allowed us to perform a multivariate simulation of rally accident in terms of assessing effectiveness of protection and usefulness of HANS system.Acceleration waveforms of the head and chest were obtained from numerical experiment and also forces and moments occurring in the upper cervical spine. The results obtained allowed driver injuries to be analyzed based on injury criteria of the head and neck: HIC15, NTE, NTF, NCE and NCF.The analysis enabled assessment of the driver safety while using 4 and 5 point harness with HANS system. In further studies the model developed was used to identify factors affecting the safety of a rally driver.

Lasocki J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Kolodziejczyk K.,POLMAX S.A. S.K.A | Matuszewska A.,Automotive Industry Institute
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2015

The use of organic residues and waste for production of biogas as an energy source is a viable option for waste management and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, before any eventual utilization of biogas, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) must be removed since those contaminants are highly undesirable in combustion systems. This work deals with the construction and examination of a laboratoryscale, low-cost test stand for quick evaluation of the existing and new methods for H2S and CO2 removal from biogas. The test stand consists of two sections: one based on absorption in liquid phase (barbotage process) and the other adsorption in a bed of solid reagent. Seven different reagents of various concentrations were used in the experiment: sodium hydroxide (NaOH), ethylene glycol (EG), ethanoloamine (EA), diethanoloamine (DEA), and distilled water (H2O) in the barbotage section of the test stand, and bog iron ore (BIO) and activated carbon (AC) in the adsorption column. In the absorption tests, treating biogas with 1M NaOH solution and 100% EA resulted in complete removal of H2S and CO2. For 100% DEA, high H2S and moderate CO2 absorption efficiency were achieved. EG and H2O allowed the removal of H2S only to a very limited extent. Both reagents used in the tests with adsorption in a bed, BIO and AC, were able to eliminate H2S from biogas, but practically did not change the concentration of CO2. © 2015, Pol. J. Environ. Stud. All Rights Reserved.

Girtler J.,Technical University of Gdansk | Slezak M.,Automotive Industry Institute
Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc | Year: 2013

The properties of semi-Markov processes have been generally characterized and the applicability of the theory of such processes to the determining of the reliability of motor cars and other road vehicles has been explained. A formal description of the process of changes in the motor vehicle technical states considered as reliability states and a model of this process in the form of a one-dimensional stochastic process have been presented. The values of this process are the technical states of the motor vehicle in question that have significant practical importance. A four-state set of states interpreted as follows has been adopted: full (complete) serviceability, partial (incomplete) serviceability,task-limiting serviceability,and complete (total) unserviceability. Based on the initial distribution adopted and the functional matrix worked out, the boundary distribution of the process of changes in the technical (reliability) states of the motor vehicle has been defined. The probability of the vehicle being fully serviceable has been considered a measure of the vehicle reliability for a long period of vehicle operation. A possibility of defining the vehicle reliability in the form of a probability that a task would also be fulfilled by the vehicle being partially serviceable has also been indicated.

The paper provides some information regarding comprehensive evaluation of the environmental hazard caused by the operation of automotive vehicles with internal combustion (IC) engines powered by bioethanol fuel. It presents the assumptions made for the life cycle assessment (LCA) of the environmental impact of fuel, carried out according to the Well-to-Wheel (WtW) method, where the fuel preparation stage, including the acquisition of raw materials as well as the production, transport, and distribution processes, and the vehicle operation stage are taken into account. The technologies and raw materials used to make bioethanol of the first and second generation have been presented and compared with each other. Results of research on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy input in the process of preparation of bioethanol fuels of the first and second generation have been analysed. Nine versions of the production process, differing from each other in the process methods used and the types of the biomass processed, have been examined.

Kotra-Konicka K.,Warsaw University of Technology | Kalbarczyk J.,Automotive Industry Institute | Gac J.M.,Warsaw University of Technology
Chemical and Process Engineering - Inzynieria Chemiczna i Procesowa | Year: 2016

The influence of ion implantation on the structure and properties of polymers is a very complex issue. Many physical and chemical processes taking place during ion bombardment must be taken into consideration. The complexity of the process may exert both positive and negative influence on the structure of the material. The goal of this paper is to investigate the influence of H+, He+ and Ar+ ion implantation on the properties of polypropylene membranes used in filtration processes and in consequence on fouling phenomena. It has appeared that the ion bombardment caused the chemical modification of membranes which has led to decrease of hydrophobicity. The increase of protein adsorption on membrane surface has also been observed.

Rostek E.,Polish Motor Transport Institute | Biernat K.,Automotive Industry Institute
Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems | Year: 2013

The paper describes the basic problems regarding the possibility of using waste plastics and tire rubber waste as raw materials for the preparation of liquid energy carriers for transport (WtL processes) or directly to energy use in a WtE. Simultaneous measurements were performed at Thermal Analyzer STA 449 F3 Jupiter’s (Netzsch). The study was conducted for waste samples of different density polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate and rubber from waste tires. Gasification process of subjecting the sample was recorded TG and DSC curve, observing changes in mass, temperature and enthalpy. These studies were carried out in order to pre-determine the kinetics of thermal decomposition. The study, conducted in an atmosphere of argon/nitrogen (non-oxidizing atmosphere), both in terms of the changes of enthalpy and mass are summarized in the respective charts. © 2013, International Centre for Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems SDEWES. All rights reserved.

Rostek E.,Polish Motor Transport Institute | Biernat K.,Automotive Industry Institute
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

The article presented the processes of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass leading to the preparation of liquid hydrocarbon fractions in the synthesis of Fischer-Tropsch and processes HTU. Preliminary thermogravimetric testing of biomass samples was conducted on the STA 449 F3 Jupiter® coupled with the gases analyzer-spectrometer QMS 403 Aëolos. These studies were carried out for samples of cereal straw, crushed to a state of dry dust. The temperature regime provided that the samples were heated to the temperature of 750°C at the heating rate of 10 K/min. Gases (nitrogen, argon or carbon dioxide) were used with flow rates of 60 ml/min. The results, along with discussion, are presented in graphs-TG curves and mass spectrum. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 SIAT, India.

Krasuska E.,Automotive Industry Institute | Rosenqvist H.,Lund University
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

Perennial energy crop development is just starting in Poland and there are great expectations on this sector to make a substantial contribution to the achievement of renewable energy targets defined in the European Union (EU) directive 28/2009/EC. Insights into the economics of energy crop production may lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of developments in the field.This work addresses current and future economics of willow, Miscanthus and triticale (a whole crop) production for energy use in Poland. The economics of energy crops is set next to that of common cereal production for grain. Potential cost reductions of energy crops in the future are investigated with regard to the hypothetical impact of scale effect, as well as the combined effect of scale and technology developments.Results indicate that for the assumed biomass prices applied, willow is profitable while Miscanthus and triticale generate loss. The volatility of cereal market prices is found to significantly affect the competitiveness of energy crops compared to grain production. Willow and Miscanthus are produced with lower costs compared to triticale. Furthermore, the economics of perennials are less susceptible to changes in agricultural inputs prices compared to annual crops. For the first farmers to cultivate energy crops, the costs are high, however, there are large opportunities for cost reduction due to the economics of scale and technology developments. With the expected increase in biomass market demand and biomass prices, energy crops should be profitably produced in the future. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

This paper presents an original method of synthesizing driving cycles treated as sets of realizations of a stochastic process of car velocity. The proposed method is based on the criterion of similarity of amplitude-frequency characteristics of test and on-road cycles. Because a driving cycle is treated here as a set of realizations of a random process, the method allows not only to determine the values of zero-dimensional characteristics defining the properties of a car, but also to perform probabilistic evaluation of these properties. In the present study, example realizations of the stochastic velocity process were obtained and analyzed using a test based on the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the Federal Test Procedure cycle - FTP-75. © 2016, Polish Academy of Sciences Branch Lublin. All rights reserved.

Malinowski A.,Automotive Industry Institute | Wardzinska D.,Automotive Industry Institute
Chemik | Year: 2012

This article presents a review of some furan compounds, derived from biomass, having a high potential for the synthesis of valuable biochemicals. In this paper we mainly focused on the catalytic preparation methods and properties of furfural derivatives which can be used as fuel bio-components or biofuel itself.

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