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Dragomir C.L.,Tissue Engineering | Scott J.L.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Adler R.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Fealy S.,Hospital for Special Surgery | Goldring M.B.,Tissue Engineering
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2012

Objective: The purpose of this case report was to investigate local immune mechanisms present during an acute inflammatory flare initiated by viscosupplementation with hylan G-F 20 in a patient with osteoarthritis (OA) and past meniscectomy. Experimental design: A patient with a history of bilateral OA and partial left knee meniscectomy, who had received three injections of hylan G-F 20, was diagnosed with an acute flare reaction in the left knee. Her chart was evaluated for clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings and for clinical follow-up. Histopathological synovial examination and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for genes with major roles in local inflammation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for markers of complement activation and cytokines were performed. To study the impact of the inflammatory and immune features we compared the case patient with groups of three representative OA and three rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Results: The patient exhibited evidence of highly increased acute phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood. The pathological examination of the synovial membrane identified abundant fibrinous exudate with numerous particles of hyaluronan surrounded by a dense infiltrate of neutrophils and eosinophils. The synovium had moderate hypertrophy and sclerosis as well as an inflammatory infiltrate predominantly composed of T lymphocytes and macrophages with scattered perivascular eosinophils and neutrophils. Immunoperoxidase staining identified numerous deposits of C5b-9 in the fibrinous exudates and the synovial membrane of the patient. Similar findings were observed in the RA patients, whereas deposits were rare in OA synovial samples. In addition, both anaphylatoxin C5a and the terminal complement complex C5b-9 were present at high levels, comparable to those in RA patients. The levels of mRNA for interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and the neutrophil marker myeloperoxidase (MPO) were markedly increased compared to those in the RA and OA patients. Conclusions: This present study is indicative of a pseudo-septic acute inflammatory reaction in response to local accumulation of hylan G-F 20 with the activation of complement and local invasion of pro-inflammatory cells. © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Source

Barrat F.J.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Elkon K.B.,University of Washington | Fitzgerald K.A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School
Annual Review of Medicine | Year: 2016

An important concept in immunology is the classification of immune responses as either innate or adaptive, based on whether the antigen receptors are encoded in the germline or generated somatically by gene rearrangement. The innate immune system is an ancient mode of immunity, and by being a first layer in our defense against infectious agents, it is essential for our ability to develop rapid and sustained responses to pathogens. We discuss the importance of nucleic acid recognition by the innate immune system to mounting an appropriate immune response to pathogens and also how inflammation driven by uncontrolled recognition of self-nucleic acids can lead to autoimmune diseases. We also summarize current efforts to either harness the immune system using agonists of nucleic acid-specific innate sensors or, on the contrary, by using inhibitors in autoimmune situations. © 2016 by Annual Reviews. Source

Li X.,Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program | Li X.,The New School | Maretzky T.,Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program | Weskamp G.,Arthritis and Tissue Degeneration Program | And 11 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

The metalloproteinase ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) controls EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling by liberating EGFR ligands from their membrane anchor. Consequently, a patient lacking ADAM17 has skin and intestinal barrier defects that are likely caused by lack of EGFR signaling, and Adam17-/- mice die perinatally with open eyes, like Egfr-/- mice. A hallmark feature of ADAM17-dependent EGFR ligand shedding is that it can be rapidly and posttranslationally activated in a manner that requires its transmembrane domain but not its cytoplasmic domain. This suggests that ADAM17 is regulated by other integral membrane proteins, although much remains to be learned about the underlying mechanism. Recently, inactive Rhomboid 2 (iRhom2), which has seven transmembrane domains, emerged as a molecule that controls the maturation and function of ADAM17 in myeloid cells. However, iRhom2-/- mice appear normal, raising questions about how ADAM17 is regulated in other tissues. Here we report that iRhom1/2-/- double knockout mice resemble Adam17-/- and Egfr-/- mice in that they die perinatally with open eyes, misshapen heart valves, and growth plate defects. Mechanistically, we show lack of mature ADAM17 and strongly reduced EGFR phosphorylation in iRhom1/2-/- tissues. Finally, we demonstrate that iRhom1 is not essential for mouse development but regulates ADAM17 maturation in the brain, except in microglia, where ADAM17 is controlled by iRhom2. These results provide genetic, cell biological, and biochemical evidence that a principal function of iRhoms1/2 during mouse development is to regulate ADAM17-dependent EGFR signaling, suggesting that iRhoms1/2 could emerge as novel targets for treatment of ADAM17/EGFR-dependent pathologies. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

Kumar V.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Dasoveanu D.C.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Chyou S.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Tzeng T.-C.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | And 8 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2015

Within secondary lymphoid tissues, stromal reticular cells support lymphocyte function, and targeting reticular cells is a potential strategy for controlling pathogenic lymphocytes in disease. However, the mechanisms that regulate reticular cell function are not well understood. Here we found that during an immune response in lymph nodes, dendritic cells (DCs) maintain reticular cell survival in multiple compartments. DC-derived lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) ligands were critical mediators, and LTβR signaling on reticular cells mediated cell survival by modulating podoplanin (PDPN). PDPN modulated integrin-mediated cell adhesion, which maintained cell survival. This DC-stromal axis maintained lymphocyte survival and the ongoing immune response. Our findings provide insight into the functions of DCs, LTβR, and PDPN and delineate a DC-stromal axis that can potentially be targeted in autoimmune or lymphoproliferative diseases. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Chyou S.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Tian S.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Ekland E.H.,Autoimmunity and Inflammation Program | Ekland E.H.,Columbia University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The vascular-stromal elements of lymph nodes can play important roles in regulating the activities of the lymphocytes within. During model immune responses, the vascular-stromal compartment has been shown to undergo proliferative expansion and functional alterations. The state of the vascular-stromal compartment and the potential importance of this compartment in a spontaneous, chronic model of autoimmunity have not been well studied. Here, we characterize the vascular expansion in MRL-lpr/lpr lymph nodes and attempt to ask whether inhibiting this expansion can interfere with autoantibody generation. We show that characteristics of vascular expansion in enlarging MRL-lpr/lpr lymph nodes resemble that of the VEGF-dependent expansion that occurs in wild-type mice after model immunization. Surprisingly, treatment with SU5416, an inhibitor of VEGF and other receptor tyrosine kinases, did not have sustained effects in inhibiting vascular growth, but attenuated the anti-dsDNA response and altered the phenotype of the double negative T cells that are expanded in these mice. In examining for anatomic correlates of these immunologic changes, we found that the double negative T cells are localized within ectopic follicles around a central B cell patch and that these T cell-rich areas lack the T zone stromal protein ER-TR7 as well as other elements of a normal T zone microenvironment. SU5416 treatment disrupted these follicles and normalized the association between T zone microenvironmental elements and T cell-rich areas. Recent studies have shown a regulatory role for T zone stromal elements. Thus, our findings of the association of anti-dsDNA responses, double negative T cell phenotype, and altered lymphocyte microenvironment suggest the possibility that lymphocyte localization in ectopic follicles protects them from regulation by T zone stromal elements and functions to maintain autoimmune responses. Potentially, altering the lymphocyte microenvironment that is set up by the vascular-stromal compartment can be a means by which to control undesired autoimmune responses. © 2012 Chyou et al. Source

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