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Grugni G.,San Giuseppe Hospital | Grugni G.,Experimental Laboratory for Auxo endocrinological Research | Sartorio A.,San Giuseppe Hospital | Sartorio A.,Experimental Laboratory for Auxo endocrinological Research | Crino A.,Autoimmune Endocrine Diseases Unit
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management | Year: 2016

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by a dysregulation of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I axis, as the consequence of a complex hypothalamic involvement. PWS’ clinical picture seems to resemble the classic non-PWS GH deficiency (GHD), including short stature, excessive body fat, decreased muscle mass, and impaired quality of life. GH therapy is able to ameliorate the phenotypic appearance of the syndrome, as well as to improve body composition, physical strength, and cognitive level. In this regard, however, some pathophysiologic and clinical questions still remain, representing a challenge to give the most appropriate care to PWS patients. Data about the prevalence of GHD in PWS children are not unequivocal, ranging from 40% to 100%. In this context, to establish whether the presence (or not) of GHD may have a different effect on clinical course during GH therapy may be helpful. In addition, the comparison of GH effects in PWS children diagnosed as small for gestational age with those obtained in subjects born appropriate for gestational age is of potential interest for future trials. Emerging information seems to demonstrate the maintenance of beneficial effects of GH therapy in PWS subjects after adolescent years. Thus, GH retesting after achievement of final height should be taken into consideration for all PWS patients. However, it is noteworthy that GH administration exerts positive effects both in PWS adults with and without GHD. Another critical issue is to clarify whether the genotype–phenotype correlations may be relevant to specific outcome measures related to GH therapy. Moreover, progress of our understanding of the role of GH replacement and concomitant therapies on bone characteristics of PWS is required. Finally, a long-term surveillance of benefits and risks of GH therapy is strongly recommended for PWS population, since most of the current studies are uncontrolled and of short duration. © 2016 Grugni et al.


Di Giorgio G.,Autoimmune Endocrine Diseases Unit | Grugni G.,Italian Auxological Institute Foundation | Fintini D.,Autoimmune Endocrine Diseases Unit | Bocchini S.,Autoimmune Endocrine Diseases Unit | And 2 more authors.
Hormone Research in Paediatrics | Year: 2014

Background: In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) a reduced growth hormone (GH) response to several stimulators has been documented in many studies, but none have focused on very young children. We evaluated the pattern of GH secretion in very young PWS patients. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven genetically confirmed PWS children (10 females, aged 0.4-5 years, mean: 2.2 ± 1.4 years) were included. All subjects underwent standard provocative tests (clonidine, CLO; and arginine, ARG) and one combined test [growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plus pyridostigmine (13 patients) or GHRH plus arginine (14 patients)]. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were also measured. Results: While standard tests (CLO and ARG) showed low GH peak in 85.2 and 70.4% of the patients, respectively, the combined test was found to be normal in 85.2%. IGF-1 was low in 66.7% of patients. Out of 27 patients, 3 (11%) showed a normal GH peak with both standard tests (group A), 6 (22%) to one of the standard tests (group B) and 18 (67%) presented a low response to both standard tests (group C). Four subjects showed low response to both the combined and standard tests and reduced IGF-1. Conclusion: Our data suggest that very young PWS children seem to have impaired hypothalamic GHRH secretion with a normal GH pituitary reserve. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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