Autism Genetic Resource Exchange

Los Angeles, CA, United States

Autism Genetic Resource Exchange

Los Angeles, CA, United States
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Froehlich-Santino W.,Stanford University | Londono Tobon A.,Stanford University | Cleveland S.,Stanford University | Torres A.,Stanford University | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2014

Introduction: Multiple studies associate prenatal and perinatal complications with increased risks for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The objectives of this study were to utilize a twin study design to 1) Investigate whether shared gestational and perinatal factors increase concordance for ASDs in twins, 2) Determine whether individual neonatal factors are associated with the presence of ASDs in twins, and 3) Explore whether associated factors may influence males and females differently. Methods: Data from medical records and parent response questionnaires from 194 twin pairs, in which at least one twin had an ASD, were analyzed. Results: Shared factors including parental age, prenatal use of medications, uterine bleeding, and prematurity did not increase concordance risks for ASDs in twins. Among the individual factors, respiratory distress demonstrated the strongest association with increased risk for ASDs in the group as a whole (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.27-3.51). Furthermore, respiratory distress (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.12-4.67) and other markers of hypoxia (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.04-3.80) were associated with increased risks for ASDs in males, while jaundice was associated with an increased risk for ASDs in females (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.28-6.74). Conclusions: Perinatal factors associated with respiratory distress and other markers of hypoxia appear to increase risk for autism in a subgroup of twins. Future studies examining potential gender differences and additional prenatal, perinatal and postnatal environmental factors are required for elucidating the etiology of ASDs and suggesting new methods for treatment and prevention. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Pinto D.,Applied Genomics | Pagnamenta A.T.,University of Oxford | Klei L.,University of Pittsburgh | Anney R.,Trinity College Dublin | And 178 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2010

The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours 1. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability2. Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable ( ∼90%)3, the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown.Hereweanalysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (<1%frequency) copy number variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P=0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASDand/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P=3.4×310-4). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Hallmayer J.,Stanford University | Cleveland S.,Stanford University | Torres A.,Stanford University | Phillips J.,Stanford University | And 13 more authors.
Archives of General Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Context: Autism is considered the most heritable of neurodevelopmental disorders, mainly because of the large difference in concordance rates between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Objective: To provide rigorous quantitative estimates of genetic heritability of autism and the effects of shared environment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twin pairs with at least 1 twin with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) born between 1987 and 2004were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services. Main Outcome Measures: Structured diagnostic assessments (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were completed on 192 twin pairs. Concordance rates were calculated and parametric models were fitted for 2 definitions, 1 narrow (strict autism) and 1 broad (ASD). Results: For strict autism, probandwise concordance for male twins was 0.58 for 40 monozygotic pairs (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.74) and 0.21 for 31 dizygotic pairs (95% CI, 0.09-0.43); for female twins, the concordance was 0.60 for 7 monozygotic pairs (95% CI, 0.28-0.90) and 0.27 for 10 dizygotic pairs (95% CI, 0.09-0.69). For ASD, the probandwise concordance for male twins was 0.77 for 45 monozygotic pairs (95% CI, 0.65-0.86) and 0.31 for 45 dizygotic pairs (95% CI, 0.16-0.46); for female twins, the concordance was 0.50 for 9 monozygotic pairs (95% CI, 0.16-0.84) and 0.36 for 13 dizygotic pairs (95% CI, 0.11-0.60). A large proportion of the variance in liability can be explained by shared environmental factors (55%; 95% CI, 9%-81% for autism and 58%; 95% CI, 30%-80% for ASD) in addition to moderate genetic heritability (37%; 95% CI, 8%-84% for autism and 38%; 95% CI, 14%-67% for ASD). Conclusion: Susceptibility to ASD has moderate genetic heritability and a substantial shared twin environmental component. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Lewis-Fernandez R.,Hispanic University | Rotheram-Borus M.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Betts V.T.,HealthFutures Inc. | Greenman L.,Attorney at Law | And 16 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2016

Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio. ©The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.


Anney R.,Trinity College Dublin | Klei L.,University of Pittsburgh | Pinto D.,University of Toronto | Pinto D.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 144 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the contribution of common variation to the risk of developing ASD is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD families and bringing the total to 2705 families analysed (Stages 1 and 2). In addition to evaluating the association of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we also sought evidence that common variants, en masse, might affect the risk. Despite genotyping over a million SNPs covering the genome, no single SNP shows significant association with ASD or selected phenotypes at a genome-wide level. The SNP that achieves the smallest P-value from secondary analyses is rs1718101. It falls in CNTNAP2, a gene previously implicated in susceptibility for ASD. This SNP also shows modest association with age of word/phrase acquisition in ASD subjects, of interest because features of language development are also associated with other variation in CNTNAP2. In contrast, allele scores derived from the transmission of common alleles to Stage 1 cases significantly predict case status in the independent Stage 2 sample. Despite being significant, the variance explained by these allele scores was small (Vm< 1%). Based on results from individual SNPs and their en masse effect on risk, as inferred from the allele score results, it is reasonable to conclude that common variants affect the risk for ASD but their individual effects are modest. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.


Anney R.,Trinity College Dublin | Klei L.,University of Pittsburgh | Pinto D.,University of Toronto | Regan R.,University College Dublin | And 166 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 3 10-28. When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10-28 threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Loading Autism Genetic Resource Exchange collaborators
Loading Autism Genetic Resource Exchange collaborators