Austrian Drug Screening Institute

Innsbruck, Austria

Austrian Drug Screening Institute

Innsbruck, Austria
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Schemeth D.,University of Innsbruck | Noel J.-C.,University of Innsbruck | Jakschitz T.,Austrian Drug Screening Institute | Rainer M.,University of Innsbruck | And 4 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2015

In this study we report the novel polymeric resin poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids. The monomer to crosslinker ratio and the porogen composition were optimized for isolating phenolic acids diluted in acetonitrile at normal phase chromatography conditions, first. Acetonitrile serves as polar, aprotic solvent, dissolving phenolic acids but not interrupting interactions with the stationary phase due to the approved Hansen solubility parameters. The optimized resin demonstrated high loading capacities and adsorption abilities particularly for phenolic acids in both, acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior of aqueous standards can be attributed to ion exchange effects due to electrostatic interactions between protonated imidazole residues and deprotonated phenolic acids. Furthermore, adsorption experiments and subsequent curve fittings provide information of maximum loading capacities of single standards according to the Langmuir adsorption model. Recovery studies of the optimized polymer in the normal-phase and ion-exchange mode illustrate the powerful isolation properties for phenolic acids and are comparable or even better than typical, commercially available solid phase extraction materials. In order to prove the applicability, a highly complex extract of rosemary leaves was purified by poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and the isolated compounds were identified using UHPLC-qTOF-MS. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Schemeth D.,University of Innsbruck | Kappacher C.,University of Innsbruck | Rainer M.,University of Innsbruck | Thalinger R.,University of Innsbruck | And 2 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2016

This study reports the comparison of four manufactured imidazole-based copolymers and two commercially available hydrophilic sorbents for the solid phase extraction (SPE) of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Different hydrophilic copolymers were obtained by a suspension polymerization using a styrene-based and a methacrylate-based cross-linker and by single step modifications for enhancing the ion-exchange character. SPE protocols were optimized for both non-modified and modified sorbents and applied for the enrichment of selected NSAID using all six copolymers. Comparison and evaluation were carried out by determining recovery rates of standard mixtures at different concentration levels ranging from 0.5 mg L-1 to 10 mg L-1 and by the enrichment of spiked human urine at two concentration levels. In order to gain insight into the complexity of the biological sample and its reduction after solid phase extraction, UHPLC-MS analysis and following database comparison was performed for the three mixed-mode strong anion-exchange sorbents. In order to prove the applicability of the modified imidazole-based polymers for the enrichment of NSAID in surface water, river water or groundwater, solid phase extraction was performed with 10 ppb of NSAID which resulted into enhanced enrichment by a hundredfold. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Walter J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schiefermeier N.,Innsbruck Medical University | Hobi N.,Innsbruck Medical University | Hobi N.,University of Ulm | And 7 more authors.
BIOIMAGING 2014 - 1st International Conference on Bioimaging, Proceedings; Part of 7th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2014 | Year: 2014

The plasma membrane is the outer limit of the animal cell. As such, it is both a border separating inside from outside and a signaling platform for interactions with the surroundings. Among these interactions are extracellular matrix contacts and adhesion sites. The membrane and its contact sites together with the underlying cytoskeleton undergo constant remodeling, which leads to changes of the cell shape. In addition to spatial information micro-topographical maps provide, information about the z-dimension and describe the position of the plasma membrane with respect to the distance to a given substrate. Here we address how to measure height differences in the plasma membrane and how to create topographical maps of the plasma membrane with nanometer resolution. We address the currently used methodologies along with their advantages and drawbacks. Moreover, we delineate a label-free method to obtain topographic maps of the plasma membrane that are corrected for differences in the refractive index of the membrane utilizing an interferometric approach with multiple wavelengths and a normalization procedure to account for changes in the refractive index in the membrane. Copyright © 2014 SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications. All rights reserved.


Yener S.,Research and Innovation Center | Yener S.,University of Innsbruck | Sanchez-Lopez J.A.,University of Zürich | Sanchez-Lopez J.A.,University of Rostock | And 9 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2016

Volatile profiles of 63 black and 38 green teas from different countries were analysed with Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) both for tea leaves and tea infusion. The headspace volatile fingerprints were collected and the tea classes and geographical origins were tracked with pattern recognition techniques. The high mass resolution achieved by ToF mass analyser provided determination of sum formula and tentative identifications of the mass peaks. The results provided successful separation of the black and green teas based on their headspace volatile emissions both from the dry tea leaves and their infusions. The volatile fingerprints were then used to build different classification models for discrimination of black and green teas according to their geographical origins. Two different cross validation methods were applied and their effectiveness for origin discrimination was discussed. The classification models showed a separation of black and green teas according to geographical origins the errors being mostly between neighbouring countries. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Austrian Drug Screening Institute and University of Innsbruck
Type: | Journal: Analytica chimica acta | Year: 2015

In this study we report the novel polymeric resin poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) for the purification and isolation of phenolic acids. The monomer to crosslinker ratio and the porogen composition were optimized for isolating phenolic acids diluted in acetonitrile at normal phase chromatography conditions, first. Acetonitrile serves as polar, aprotic solvent, dissolving phenolic acids but not interrupting interactions with the stationary phase due to the approved Hansen solubility parameters. The optimized resin demonstrated high loading capacities and adsorption abilities particularly for phenolic acids in both, acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior of aqueous standards can be attributed to ion exchange effects due to electrostatic interactions between protonated imidazole residues and deprotonated phenolic acids. Furthermore, adsorption experiments and subsequent curve fittings provide information of maximum loading capacities of single standards according to the Langmuir adsorption model. Recovery studies of the optimized polymer in the normal-phase and ion-exchange mode illustrate the powerful isolation properties for phenolic acids and are comparable or even better than typical, commercially available solid phase extraction materials. In order to prove the applicability, a highly complex extract of rosemary leaves was purified by poly(N-vinyl imidazole/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and the isolated compounds were identified using UHPLC-qTOF-MS.


Dander A.,Innsbruck Medical University | Dander A.,Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine | Pabinger S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Pabinger S.,AIT Austrian Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: The rapid development of next generation sequencing technologies, including the recently introduced benchtop sequencers, made sequencing affordable for smaller research institutions. A widely applied method to identify causing mutations of diseases is exome sequencing, which proved to be cost-effective and time-saving. Findings. SeqBench, a web-based application, combines management and analysis of exome sequencing data into one solution. It provides a user friendly data acquisition module to facilitate comprehensive and intuitive data handling. SeqBench provides direct access to the analysis pipeline SIMPLEX, which can be configured to run locally, on a cluster, or in the cloud. Identified genomic variants are presented along with several functional annotations and can be interpreted in a family context. Conclusions: The web-based application SeqBench supports the management and analysis of exome sequencing data, is open-source and available at. © 2014 Dander et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | University of Bonn, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Innsbruck Medical University, Amgen Inc. and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature medicine | Year: 2016

Iron is an essential component of the erythrocyte protein hemoglobin and is crucial to oxygen transport in vertebrates. In the steady state, erythrocyte production is in equilibrium with erythrocyte removal. In various pathophysiological conditions, however, erythrocyte life span is compromised severely, which threatens the organism with anemia and iron toxicity. Here we identify an on-demand mechanism that clears erythrocytes and recycles iron. We show that monocytes that express high levels of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus C1 (LY6C1, also known as Ly-6C) ingest stressed and senescent erythrocytes, accumulate in the liver via coordinated chemotactic cues, and differentiate into ferroportin 1 (FPN1, encoded by SLC40A1)-expressing macrophages that can deliver iron to hepatocytes. Monocyte-derived FPN1(+)Tim-4(neg) macrophages are transient, reside alongside embryonically derived T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 4 (Timd4, also known as Tim-4)(high) Kupffer cells (KCs), and depend on the growth factor Csf1 and the transcription factor Nrf2 (encoded by Nfe2l2). The spleen, likewise, recruits iron-loaded Ly-6C(high) monocytes, but these do not differentiate into iron-recycling macrophages, owing to the suppressive action of Csf2. The accumulation of a transient macrophage population in the liver also occurs in mouse models of hemolytic anemia, anemia of inflammation, and sickle cell disease. Inhibition of monocyte recruitment to the liver during stressed erythrocyte delivery leads to kidney and liver damage. These observations identify the liver as the primary organ that supports rapid erythrocyte removal and iron recycling, and uncover a mechanism by which the body adapts to fluctuations in erythrocyte integrity.


Muller M.,Innsbruck Medical University | Schmidt O.,Innsbruck Medical University | Angelova M.,Innsbruck Medical University | Faserl K.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 9 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015

The degradation and recycling of cellular components is essential for cell growth and survival. Here we show how selective and non-selective lysosomal protein degradation pathways cooperate to ensure cell survival upon nutrient limitation. A quantitative analysis of starvation- induced proteome remodeling in yeast reveals comprehensive changes already in the first three hours. In this period, many different integral plasma membrane proteins undergo endocytosis and degradation in vacuoles via the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. Their degradation becomes essential to maintain critical amino acids levels that uphold protein synthesis early during starvation. This promotes cellular adaptation, including the de novo synthesis of vacuolar hydrolases to boost the vacuolar catabolic activity. This order of events primes vacuoles for the efficient degradation of bulk cytoplasm via autophagy. Hence, a catabolic cascade including the coordinated action of the MVB pathway and autophagy is essential to enter quiescence to survive extended periods of nutrient limitation. © Müller et al.

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