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Berg G.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology | Berg G.,University of Graz | Grube M.,University of Graz | Schloter M.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Smalla K.,Julius Kuhn Institute
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Most eukaryotes develop close interactions with microorganisms that are essential for their performance and survival. Thus, eukaryotes and prokaryotes in nature can be considered as meta-organisms or holobionts. Consequently, microorganisms that colonize different plant compartments contain the plant's second genome. In this respect, many studies in the last decades have shown that plant-microbe interactions are not only crucial for better understanding plant growth and health, but also for sustainable crop production in a changing world. This mini-review acting as editorial presents retrospectives and future perspectives for plant microbiome studies as well as information gaps in this emerging research field. In addition, the contribution of this research topic to the solution of various issues is discussed. © 2014 Berg, Grube, Schloter and Smalla. Source

Spadiut O.,Vienna University of Technology | Capone S.,Vienna University of Technology | Krainer F.,University of Graz | Glieder A.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology | Herwig C.,Vienna University of Technology
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kubicek C.P.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology | Starr T.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Glass N.L.,University of California at Berkeley
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Approximately a tenth of all described fungal species can cause diseases in plants. A common feature of this process is the necessity to pass through the plant cell wall, an important barrier against pathogen attack. To this end, fungi possess a diverse array of secreted enzymes to depolymerize the main structural polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Recent advances in genomic and systems-level studies have begun to unravel this diversity and have pinpointed cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE) families that are specifically present or enhanced in plant-pathogenic fungi. In this review, we discuss differences between the CWDE arsenal of plant-pathogenic and non-plant-pathogenic fungi, highlight the importance of individual enzyme families for pathogenesis, illustrate the secretory pathway that transports CWDEs out of the fungal cell, and report the transcriptional regulation of expression of CWDE genes in both saprophytic and phytopathogenic fungi. ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Vogl T.,University of Graz | Hartner F.S.,Sandoz GmbH | Glieder A.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Biopharmaceuticals are an integral part of modern medicine and pharmacy. Both, the development and the biotechnological production of biopharmaceuticals are highly cost-intensive and require suitable expression systems. In this review we discuss established and emerging tools for reengineering the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris for biopharmaceutical production. Recent advancements of this industrial expression system through synthetic biology include synthetic promoters to avoid methanol induction and to fine-tune protein production. New platform strains and molecular cloning tools as well as in vivo glycoengineering to produce humanized glycoforms have made P. pastoris an important host for biopharmaceutical production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Vogl T.,University of Graz | Glieder A.,University of Graz | Glieder A.,Austrian Center of Industrial Biotechnology
New Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for heterologous protein production. Along with favorable properties such as growth to high cell density and high capacities for protein secretion, P. pastoris provides a strong, methanol inducible promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) gene. The regulation of this promoter has been extensively studied in recent years by characterizing cis-acting sequence elements and trans-acting factors, revealing insights into underlying molecular mechanisms. However, new alternative promoters have also been identified and characterized by means of their transcriptional regulation and feasibility for protein production using P. pastoris. Besides the often applied GAP promoter, these include a variety of constitutive promoters from housekeeping genes (e.g. TEF1, PGK1, TPI1) and inducible promoters from particular biochemical pathways (e.g. PHO89, THI11, AOD). In addition to these promoter sequence/function based studies, transcriptional regulation has also been investigated by characterizing transcription factors (TFs) and their modes of controlling bioprocess relevant traits. TFs involved in such diverse cellular processes such as the unfolded protein response (UPR) (Hac1p), iron uptake (Fep1p) and oxidative stress response (Yap1p) have been studied. Understanding of these natural transcriptional regulatory networks is a helpful basis for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches that enable the design of tailor-made production strains. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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