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Puchberger-Enengl D.,Vienna University of Technology | Krutzler C.,Austrian Center for Medical Innovation and Technology | Vellekoop M.J.,Vienna University of Technology
Proceedings of IEEE Sensors

In this contribution we present a miniaturized optical reflectance pH sensor based on organically modified silicate for continuous measurements of wound pH. Colorimetric indicators (bromocresol green pH 3.8-5.4 and bromocresol purple pH 5.2-6.8) have been immobilized in tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) thin films. Characteristics of the thin films have been optimized by addition of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GLYMO). The pH sensitive layer of the sensor is illuminated through the substrate by a chip-LED. The reflected light at a phototransistor varies in dependence of the color of the thin film. The films have been characterized by visible absorption spectroscopy and the performance of the sensor has been evaluated by measurements on artificial wounds. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Takacs A.,Obuda University | Kovacs L.,Obuda University | Rudas I.J.,Obuda University | Precup R.-E.,Polytechnic University of Timisoara | And 2 more authors.
Acta Polytechnica Hungarica

Surgical robotics is one of the most rapidly developing fields within robotics. Besides general motion control issues, control engineers often find it challenging to design robotic telesurgery systems, as these have to deal with complex environmental constrains. The unique behavior of soft tissues requires special approaches in both robot control and system modeling in the case of robotic tissue manipulation. Precise control depends on the appropriate modeling of the interaction between the manipulated tissues and the instruments held by the robotic arm, frequently referred to as the tool–tissue interaction. Due to the nature of the physiological environment, the mechatronics of the systems and the time delays, it is difficult to introduce a universal model or a general modeling approach. This paper gives an overview of the emerging problems in the design and modeling of telesurgical systems, analyzing each component, and introducing the most widely employed models. The arising control problems are reviewed in the frames of master–slave type teleoperation, proposing a novel soft tissue model and providing an overview of the possible control approaches. © 2015, Budapest Tech Polytechnical Institution. All rights reserved. Source

Haidegger T.,Obuda University | Haidegger T.,Austrian Center for Medical Innovation and Technology | Barreto M.,Federal University of Bahia | Goncalves P.,Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco | And 6 more authors.
Robotics and Autonomous Systems

Service robotics is an emerging application area for human-centered technologies. The rise of household and personal assistance robots forecasts a human-robot collaborative society. One of the robotics community's major task is to streamline development trends, work on the harmonization of taxonomies and ontologies, along with the standardization of terms, interfaces and technologies. It is important to keep the scientific progress and public understanding synchronous, through efficient outreach and education. These efforts support the collaboration among research groups, and lead to widely accepted standards, beneficial for both manufacturers and users. This article describes the necessity of developing robotics ontologies and standards focusing on the past and current research efforts. In addition, the paper proposes a roadmap for service robotics ontology development. The IEEE Robotics & Automation Society is sponsoring the working group Ontologies for Robotics and Automation. The efforts of the Working group are presented here, aiming to connect the cutting edge technology with the users of these services - the general public. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Kettenbach J.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Kronreif G.,Austrian Center for Medical Innovation and Technology
Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies

Several groups have developed robotic systems for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on selected robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions using CT or MR imaging. We present six interventional robotic systems designed to work with imaging modalities such as CT, Cone-beam CT and MRI. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials performed with each particular robot. Although each of these systems has specific features, they are all of great clinical value since they provide very stable needle guidance - even for angulated approaches, they may allow access to lesions when the width of the CT- or MR- gantry would limit the access for a biopsy needle or other interventional tools such as thermal ablation probes. Then, such a robot may be able to guide the needle into the most promising region of the lesion without the need for a second contrast injection. Thus, more efficacious characterization and treatment, particularly for lesions that are difficult to target, can be anticipated. Although more research and clinical trials are certainly needed, it is, however, our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions. © 2014 Informa Healthcare. Source

Franz A.M.,German Cancer Research Center | Haidegger T.,Obuda University | Haidegger T.,Austrian Center for Medical Innovation and Technology | Birkfellner W.,Christian Doppler Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging

Object tracking is a key enabling technology in the context of computer-assisted medical interventions. Allowing the continuous localization of medical instruments and patient anatomy, it is a prerequisite for providing instrument guidance to subsurface anatomical structures. The only widely used technique that enables real-time tracking of small objects without line-of-sight restrictions is electromagnetic (EM) tracking. While EM tracking has been the subject of many research efforts, clinical applications have been slow to emerge. The aim of this review paper is therefore to provide insight into the future potential and limitations of EM tracking for medical use. We describe the basic working principles of EM tracking systems, list the main sources of error, and summarize the published studies on tracking accuracy, precision and robustness along with the corresponding validation protocols proposed. State-of-the-art approaches to error compensation are also reviewed in depth. Finally, an overview of the clinical applications addressed with EM tracking is given. Throughout the paper, we report not only on scientific progress, but also provide a review on commercial systems. Given the continuous debate on the applicability of EM tracking in medicine, this paper provides a timely overview of the state-of-the-art in the field. © 1982-2012 IEEE. Source

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