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Filipits M.,Medical University of Vienna | Nielsen T.O.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Rudas M.,Medical University of Vienna | Jakesz R.,Medical University of Vienna | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the PAM50 risk-of-recurrence (ROR) score on late distant recurrence (beyond 5 years after diagnosis and treatment) in a large cohort of postmenopausal, endocrineresponsive breast cancer patients. Experimental Design: The PAM50 assay was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded wholetumor sections of patients who had been enrolled in the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 8 (ABCSG-8).RNAexpression levels of the PAM50 genes were determined centrally using the nCounter DxAnalysis System. Late distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) was analyzed using Cox models adjusted for clinical and pathologic parameters. Results: PAM50 analysis was successfully performed in 1,246 ABCSG-8 patients. PAM50 ROR score and ROR-based risk groups provided significant additional prognostic information with respect to late DRFS compared with a combined score of clinical factors alone (ROR score: DLRc2 15.32, P < 0.001; ROR-based risk groups: DLRc2 14.83, P < 0.001). Between years 5 and 15, we observed an absolute risk of distant recurrence of 2.4% in the low ROR-based risk group, as compared with 17.5% in the high ROR-based risk group. The DRFS differences according to the PAM50 ROR score were observed for both node-positive and node-negative disease. Conclusion: PAM50 ROR score and ROR-based risk groups can differentiate patients with breast cancer with respect to their risk for late distant recurrence beyond what can be achieved with established clinicopathologic risk factors. © 2014 AACR. Source


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Sestak I.,Queen Mary, University of London | Filipits M.,Medical University of Vienna | Dowsett M.,Royal Marsden Hospital and Breakthrough Breast Cancer Center | And 13 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: In the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, variables like tumour size, grade and nodal status have great impact on therapy decisions. As most node-positive patients with HR+ breast cancer currently receive adjuvant chemotherapy improved methods for characterization of individuals' metastasis risk are needed to reduce overtreatment. Patients and methods: Tissue specimens from node-positive patients of the ABCSG-8 and ATAC trials who received adjuvant tamoxifen and/or anastrozole were included in this study. Analysing RNA from paraffin blocks using the PAM50 test, the primary objective was to evaluate the prognostic information of the risk of recurrence (ROR) score added to combined clinical standard variables in patients with one positive node (1N+) and in patients with two or three positive nodes (2-3N+), using log-likelihood ratio tests. Results: At a median follow-up of 9.6 years, distant metastases occurred in 97 (18%) of 543 node-positive patients. In a multivariate analysis, the PAM50-derived ROR score provided reliable prognostic information in addition to and beyond established clinical factors for 1N+ (P < 0.0001) and 2-3N+ patients (P = 0.0002). Ten-year distant recurrence risk was significantly increased in the high-risk compared with the low-risk group derived from ROR score for 1N+ [25.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5% to 36.1%versus 6.6%, 95% CI 3.3% to 12.8%] and compared with the combined low/ intermediate risk group for 2-3N+ patients (33.7%, 95% CI 25.5% to 43.8% versus 12.5%, 95% CI 6.6% to 22.8%). Additionally, the luminal A intrinsic subtype (IS) exhibited significantly lower risk of distant recurrence compared with the luminal B subtype in 1N+ and 2-3N+ patients. Conclusion: PAM50 ROR score and IS can identify node-positive patient subgroups with limited risk of metastasis after endocrine therapy, for whom adjuvant chemotherapy can be spared. The PAM50 test is a valuable tool in determining treatment of node-positive early-stage breast cancer patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Mlineritsch B.,Paracelsus Medical University | Stoeger H.,Medical University of Graz | Luschin-Ebengreuth G.,Medical University of Graz | And 20 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

These final results from ABCSG-12 confirm that twice-yearly ZOL safely enhances the efficacy of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Tamoxifen together with Goserelin for now remains the endocrine standard of care. In general, overall survival of more than 95% at 8 years' median follow-up supports the efficacy of endocrine-only regimens in this premenopausal patient population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Mlineritsch B.,Paracelsus Medical University | Stoeger H.,Medical University of Graz | Luschin-Ebengreuth G.,Medical University of Graz | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Analysis of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group trial-12 (ABCSG-12) at 48 months' follow-up showed that addition of zoledronic acid to adjuvant endocrine therapy significantly improved disease-free survival. We have now assessed long-term clinical efficacy including disease-free survival and disease outcomes in patients receiving anastrozole or tamoxifen with or without zoledronic acid. Methods: ABSCG-12 is a randomised, controlled, open-label, two-by-two factorial, multicentre trial in 1803 premenopausal women with endocrine-receptor-positive early-stage (stage I-II) breast cancer receiving goserelin (3·6 mg every 28 days), comparing the efficacy and safety of anastrozole (1 mg per day) or tamoxifen (20 mg per day) with or without zoledronic acid (4 mg every 6 months) for 3 years. Randomisation (1:1:1:1 ratio) was computerised and based on the Pocock and Simon minimisation method to balance the four treatment arms across eight prognostic variables (age, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, pathological tumour stage; lymph-node involvement, type of surgery or locoregional therapy, complete axillary dissection, intraoperative radiation therapy, and geographical region). Treatment allocation was not masked. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (defined as disease recurrence or death) and analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00295646; follow-up is ongoing. Findings: At a median follow-up of 62 months (range 0-114·4 months), more than 2 years after treatment completion, 186 disease-free survival events had been reported (53 events in 450 patients on tamoxifen alone, 57 in 453 patients on anastrozole alone, 36 in 450 patients on tamoxifen plus zoledronic acid, and 40 in 450 patients on anastrozole plus zoledronic acid). Zoledronic acid reduced risk of disease-free survival events overall (HR 0·68, 95% CI 0·51-0·91; p=0·009), although the difference was not significant in the tamoxifen (HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·44-1·03; p=0·067) and anastrozole arms (HR 0·68, 95% CI 0·45-1·02; p=0·061) assessed separately. Zoledronic acid did not significantly affect risk of death (30 deaths with zoledronic acid vs 43 deaths without; HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·41-1·07; p=0·09). There was no difference in disease-free survival between patients on tamoxifen alone versus anastrozole alone (HR 1·08, 95% CI 0·81-1·44; p=0·591), but overall survival was worse with anastrozole than with tamoxifen (46 vs 27 deaths; HR 1·75, 95% CI 1·08-2·83; p=0·02). Treatments were generally well tolerated, with no reports of renal failure or osteonecrosis of the jaw. Bone pain was reported in 601 patients (33%; 349 patients on zoledronic acid vs 252 not on the drug), fatigue in 361 (20%; 192 vs 169), headache in 280 (16%; 147 vs 133), and arthralgia in 266 (15%; 145 vs 121). Interpretation: Addition of zoledronic acid improved disease-free survival in the patients taking anastrozole or tamoxifen. There was no difference in disease-free survival between patients receiving anastrozole and tamoxifen overall, but those on anastrozole alone had inferior overall survival. These data show persistent benefits with zoledronic acid and support its addition to adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal patients with early-stage breast cancer. Funding: AstraZeneca; Novartis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Pfeiler G.,Medical University of Vienna | Dubsky P.C.,Medical University of Vienna | Hubalek M.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 24 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Adjuvant endocrine therapy compromises bone health in patients with breast cancer, causing osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Antiresorptive treatments such as bisphosphonates prevent and counteract these side-effects. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab in postmenopausal, aromatase inhibitor-treated patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, postmenopausal patients with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitors were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either denosumab 60 mg or placebo administered subcutaneously every 6 months in 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden. Patients were assigned by an interactive voice response system. The randomisation schedule used a randomly permuted block design with block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by type of hospital regarding Hologic device for DXA scans, previous aromatase inhibitor use, and baseline bone mineral density. Patients, treating physicians, investigators, data managers, and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to first clinical fracture, analysed by intention to treat. As an additional sensitivity analysis, we also analysed the primary endpoint on the per-protocol population. Patients were treated until the prespecified number of 247 first clinical fractures was reached. This trial is ongoing (patients are in follow-up) and is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-005275-15, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556374. Findings Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled into the trial, of whom 3420 were randomly assigned to receive denosumab 60 mg (n=1711) or placebo (n=1709) subcutaneously every 6 months. Compared with the placebo group, patients in the denosumab group had a significantly delayed time to first clinical fracture (hazard ratio [HR] 0·50 [95% CI 0·39-0·65], p<0·0001). The overall lower number of fractures in the denosumab group (92) than in the placebo group (176) was similar in all patient subgroups, including in patients with a bone mineral density T-score of -1 or higher at baseline (n=1872, HR 0·44 [95% CI 0·31-0·64], p<0·0001) and in those with a bone mineral density T-score of less than -1 already at baseline (n=1548, HR 0·57 [95% CI 0·40-0·82], p=0·002). The patient incidence of adverse events in the safety analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of study drug) did not differ between the denosumab group (1366 events, 80%) and the placebo group (1334 events, 79%), nor did the numbers of serious adverse events (521 vs 511 [30% in each group]). The main adverse events were arthralgia and other aromatase-inhibitor related symptoms; no additional toxicity from the study drug was reported. Despite proactive adjudication of every potential osteonecrosis of the jaw by an international expert panel, no cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported. 93 patients (3% of the full analysis set) died during the study, of which one death (in the denosumab group) was thought to be related to the study drug. Interpretation Adjuvant denosumab 60 mg twice per year reduces the risk of clinical fractures in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitors, and can be administered without added toxicity. Since a main side-effect of adjuvant breast cancer treatment can be substantially reduced by the addition of denosumab, this treatment should be considered for clinical practice. Funding Amgen. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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