Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group

Vienna, Austria

Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group

Vienna, Austria
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Filipits M.,Medical University of Vienna | Nielsen T.O.,British Columbia Cancer Agency | Rudas M.,Medical University of Vienna | Jakesz R.,Medical University of Vienna | And 16 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the PAM50 risk-of-recurrence (ROR) score on late distant recurrence (beyond 5 years after diagnosis and treatment) in a large cohort of postmenopausal, endocrineresponsive breast cancer patients. Experimental Design: The PAM50 assay was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded wholetumor sections of patients who had been enrolled in the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group Trial 8 (ABCSG-8).RNAexpression levels of the PAM50 genes were determined centrally using the nCounter DxAnalysis System. Late distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) was analyzed using Cox models adjusted for clinical and pathologic parameters. Results: PAM50 analysis was successfully performed in 1,246 ABCSG-8 patients. PAM50 ROR score and ROR-based risk groups provided significant additional prognostic information with respect to late DRFS compared with a combined score of clinical factors alone (ROR score: DLRc2 15.32, P < 0.001; ROR-based risk groups: DLRc2 14.83, P < 0.001). Between years 5 and 15, we observed an absolute risk of distant recurrence of 2.4% in the low ROR-based risk group, as compared with 17.5% in the high ROR-based risk group. The DRFS differences according to the PAM50 ROR score were observed for both node-positive and node-negative disease. Conclusion: PAM50 ROR score and ROR-based risk groups can differentiate patients with breast cancer with respect to their risk for late distant recurrence beyond what can be achieved with established clinicopathologic risk factors. © 2014 AACR.


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Sestak I.,Queen Mary, University of London | Filipits M.,Medical University of Vienna | Dowsett M.,Royal Marsden Hospital and Breakthrough Breast Cancer Center | And 13 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: In the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, variables like tumour size, grade and nodal status have great impact on therapy decisions. As most node-positive patients with HR+ breast cancer currently receive adjuvant chemotherapy improved methods for characterization of individuals' metastasis risk are needed to reduce overtreatment. Patients and methods: Tissue specimens from node-positive patients of the ABCSG-8 and ATAC trials who received adjuvant tamoxifen and/or anastrozole were included in this study. Analysing RNA from paraffin blocks using the PAM50 test, the primary objective was to evaluate the prognostic information of the risk of recurrence (ROR) score added to combined clinical standard variables in patients with one positive node (1N+) and in patients with two or three positive nodes (2-3N+), using log-likelihood ratio tests. Results: At a median follow-up of 9.6 years, distant metastases occurred in 97 (18%) of 543 node-positive patients. In a multivariate analysis, the PAM50-derived ROR score provided reliable prognostic information in addition to and beyond established clinical factors for 1N+ (P < 0.0001) and 2-3N+ patients (P = 0.0002). Ten-year distant recurrence risk was significantly increased in the high-risk compared with the low-risk group derived from ROR score for 1N+ [25.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.5% to 36.1%versus 6.6%, 95% CI 3.3% to 12.8%] and compared with the combined low/ intermediate risk group for 2-3N+ patients (33.7%, 95% CI 25.5% to 43.8% versus 12.5%, 95% CI 6.6% to 22.8%). Additionally, the luminal A intrinsic subtype (IS) exhibited significantly lower risk of distant recurrence compared with the luminal B subtype in 1N+ and 2-3N+ patients. Conclusion: PAM50 ROR score and IS can identify node-positive patient subgroups with limited risk of metastasis after endocrine therapy, for whom adjuvant chemotherapy can be spared. The PAM50 test is a valuable tool in determining treatment of node-positive early-stage breast cancer patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Center Francois Baclesse, University of Newcastle, Weston Park Hospital, University of Nottingham and 9 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2016

Third-generation aromatase inhibitors are more effective than tamoxifen for preventing recurrence in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive invasive breast cancer. However, it is not known whether anastrozole is more effective than tamoxifen for women with hormone-receptor-positive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Here, we compare the efficacy of anastrozole with that of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive DCIS.In a double-blind, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women who had been diagnosed with locally excised, hormone-receptor-positive DCIS. Eligible women were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio by central computer allocation to receive 1 mg oral anastrozole or 20 mg oral tamoxifen every day for 5 years. Randomisation was stratified by major centre or hub and was done in blocks (six, eight, or ten). All trial personnel, participants, and clinicians were masked to treatment allocation and only the trial statistician had access to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was all recurrence, including recurrent DCIS and new contralateral tumours. All analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat basis (in all women who were randomised and did not revoke consent for their data to be included) and proportional hazard models were used to compute hazard ratios and corresponding confidence intervals. This trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN37546358.Between March 3, 2003, and Feb 8, 2012, we enrolled 2980 postmenopausal women from 236 centres in 14 countries and randomly assigned them to receive anastrozole (1449 analysed) or tamoxifen (1489 analysed). Median follow-up was 72 years (IQR 56-89), and 144 breast cancer recurrences were recorded. We noted no statistically significant difference in overall recurrence (67 recurrences for anastrozole vs 77 for tamoxifen; HR 089 [95% CI 064-123]). The non-inferiority of anastrozole was established (upper 95% CI <125), but its superiority to tamoxifen was not (p=049). A total of 69 deaths were recorded (33 for anastrozole vs 36 for tamoxifen; HR 093 [95% CI 058-150], p=078), and no specific cause was more common in one group than the other. The number of women reporting any adverse event was similar between anastrozole (1323 women, 91%) and tamoxifen (1379 women, 93%); the side-effect profiles of the two drugs differed, with more fractures, musculoskeletal events, hypercholesterolaemia, and strokes with anastrozole and more muscle spasm, gynaecological cancers and symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, and deep vein thromboses with tamoxifen.No clear efficacy differences were seen between the two treatments. Anastrozole offers another treatment option for postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive DCIS, which may be be more appropriate for some women with contraindications for tamoxifen. Longer follow-up will be necessary to fully evaluate treatment differences.Cancer Research UK, National Health and Medical Research Council Australia, Breast Cancer Research Fund, AstraZeneca, Sanofi Aventis.


Sestak I.,Queen Mary, University of London | Cuzick J.,Queen Mary, University of London | Dowsett M.,Royal Marsden Hospital | Lopez-Knowles E.,Royal Marsden Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015

Purpose: We have previously shown that the PAM50-based risk of recurrence (ROR) score is significantly correlated with distant recurrence in both the translational research cohort within the Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial (TransATAC) and Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group 8 (ABCSG 8) randomized trials. Here, we focus on the ROR score for predicting distant recurrence after 5 years of follow-up in a combined analysis of these two randomized trials. Methods: Long-term follow-up data and tissue samples were obtained from 2,137 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer from the ABCSG 8 and TransATAC trials. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to determine the prognostic value of ROR for distant recurrence beyond 5 years in the combined data set. Results: A total of 2,137 women who did not have a recurrence 5 years after diagnosis were included in the combined analyses. The Clinical Treatment Score (CTS) was the strongest prognostic factor 5 years after diagnosis (univariable: likelihood ratio [LR] χ2 = 94.12, bivariable: LR χ2 = 61.43). The ROR score was significantly prognostic by itself in years 5 to 10. In the node-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative subgroup, more prognostic value for late distant recurrence was added by the ROR score compared with the CTS. Conclusion: The ROR score added clinically meaningful prognostic information to the CTS in all patients and all subgroups in the late follow-up period. These results suggest that the ROR score may be helpful for separating patients into risk groups who could be spared or potentially benefit from extended hormonal therapy beyond 5 years of treatment. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Mlineritsch B.,Paracelsus Medical University | Stoeger H.,Medical University of Graz | Luschin-Ebengreuth G.,Medical University of Graz | And 21 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

These final results from ABCSG-12 confirm that twice-yearly ZOL safely enhances the efficacy of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Tamoxifen together with Goserelin for now remains the endocrine standard of care. In general, overall survival of more than 95% at 8 years' median follow-up supports the efficacy of endocrine-only regimens in this premenopausal patient population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Pfeiler G.,Medical University of Vienna | Dubsky P.C.,Medical University of Vienna | Hubalek M.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 24 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Background Adjuvant endocrine therapy compromises bone health in patients with breast cancer, causing osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Antiresorptive treatments such as bisphosphonates prevent and counteract these side-effects. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the effects of the anti-RANK ligand antibody denosumab in postmenopausal, aromatase inhibitor-treated patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, postmenopausal patients with early hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving treatment with aromatase inhibitors were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either denosumab 60 mg or placebo administered subcutaneously every 6 months in 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden. Patients were assigned by an interactive voice response system. The randomisation schedule used a randomly permuted block design with block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by type of hospital regarding Hologic device for DXA scans, previous aromatase inhibitor use, and baseline bone mineral density. Patients, treating physicians, investigators, data managers, and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to first clinical fracture, analysed by intention to treat. As an additional sensitivity analysis, we also analysed the primary endpoint on the per-protocol population. Patients were treated until the prespecified number of 247 first clinical fractures was reached. This trial is ongoing (patients are in follow-up) and is registered with the European Clinical Trials Database, number 2005-005275-15, and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00556374. Findings Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled into the trial, of whom 3420 were randomly assigned to receive denosumab 60 mg (n=1711) or placebo (n=1709) subcutaneously every 6 months. Compared with the placebo group, patients in the denosumab group had a significantly delayed time to first clinical fracture (hazard ratio [HR] 0·50 [95% CI 0·39-0·65], p<0·0001). The overall lower number of fractures in the denosumab group (92) than in the placebo group (176) was similar in all patient subgroups, including in patients with a bone mineral density T-score of -1 or higher at baseline (n=1872, HR 0·44 [95% CI 0·31-0·64], p<0·0001) and in those with a bone mineral density T-score of less than -1 already at baseline (n=1548, HR 0·57 [95% CI 0·40-0·82], p=0·002). The patient incidence of adverse events in the safety analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of study drug) did not differ between the denosumab group (1366 events, 80%) and the placebo group (1334 events, 79%), nor did the numbers of serious adverse events (521 vs 511 [30% in each group]). The main adverse events were arthralgia and other aromatase-inhibitor related symptoms; no additional toxicity from the study drug was reported. Despite proactive adjudication of every potential osteonecrosis of the jaw by an international expert panel, no cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported. 93 patients (3% of the full analysis set) died during the study, of which one death (in the denosumab group) was thought to be related to the study drug. Interpretation Adjuvant denosumab 60 mg twice per year reduces the risk of clinical fractures in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitors, and can be administered without added toxicity. Since a main side-effect of adjuvant breast cancer treatment can be substantially reduced by the addition of denosumab, this treatment should be considered for clinical practice. Funding Amgen. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Filipits M.,Medical University of Vienna | Greil R.,Paracelsus Medical University | Stoeger H.,Medical University of Graz | And 20 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: PAM50 is a 50-gene test that is designed to identify intrinsic breast cancer subtypes and generate a Risk of Recurrence (ROR) score. It has been developed to be carried out in qualified routine hospital pathology laboratories. Patients and Methods: One thousand four hundred seventy-eight postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)+ early breast cancer (EBC) treated with tamoxifen or tamoxifen followed by anastrozole from the prospective randomized ABCSG-8 trial were entered into this study. Patients did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. RNA was extracted from paraffin blocks and analyzed using the PAM50 test. Both intrinsic subtype (luminal A/B, HER2-enriched, basal-like) and ROR score were calculated. The primary analysis was designed to test whether the continuous ROR score adds prognostic value in predicting distant recurrence (DR) over and above standard clinical variables. Results: In all tested subgroups, ROR score significantly adds prognostic information to the clinical predictor (P < 0.0001). PAM50 assigns an intrinsic subtype to all cases, and the luminal A cohort had a significantly lower ROR at 10 years compared with Luminal B (P < 0.0001). Significant and clinically relevant discrimination between low-and highrisk groups occurred also within all tested subgroups. Conclusion(s): The results of the primary analysis, in combination with recently published results from the ATAC trial, constitute Level 1 evidence for clinical validity of the PAM50 test for predicting the risk of DR in postmenopausal women with ER+ EBC. A 10-year metastasis risk of <3.5% in the ROR low category makes it unlikely that additional chemotherapy would improve this outcome-this finding could help to avoid unwarranted overtreatment. Clinical trial number: ABCSG 8: NCT00291759. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Mlineritsch B.,Paracelsus Medical University | Stoeger H.,Medical University of Graz | Luschin-Ebengreuth G.,Medical University of Graz | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Analysis of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group trial-12 (ABCSG-12) at 48 months' follow-up showed that addition of zoledronic acid to adjuvant endocrine therapy significantly improved disease-free survival. We have now assessed long-term clinical efficacy including disease-free survival and disease outcomes in patients receiving anastrozole or tamoxifen with or without zoledronic acid. Methods: ABSCG-12 is a randomised, controlled, open-label, two-by-two factorial, multicentre trial in 1803 premenopausal women with endocrine-receptor-positive early-stage (stage I-II) breast cancer receiving goserelin (3·6 mg every 28 days), comparing the efficacy and safety of anastrozole (1 mg per day) or tamoxifen (20 mg per day) with or without zoledronic acid (4 mg every 6 months) for 3 years. Randomisation (1:1:1:1 ratio) was computerised and based on the Pocock and Simon minimisation method to balance the four treatment arms across eight prognostic variables (age, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, pathological tumour stage; lymph-node involvement, type of surgery or locoregional therapy, complete axillary dissection, intraoperative radiation therapy, and geographical region). Treatment allocation was not masked. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (defined as disease recurrence or death) and analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00295646; follow-up is ongoing. Findings: At a median follow-up of 62 months (range 0-114·4 months), more than 2 years after treatment completion, 186 disease-free survival events had been reported (53 events in 450 patients on tamoxifen alone, 57 in 453 patients on anastrozole alone, 36 in 450 patients on tamoxifen plus zoledronic acid, and 40 in 450 patients on anastrozole plus zoledronic acid). Zoledronic acid reduced risk of disease-free survival events overall (HR 0·68, 95% CI 0·51-0·91; p=0·009), although the difference was not significant in the tamoxifen (HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·44-1·03; p=0·067) and anastrozole arms (HR 0·68, 95% CI 0·45-1·02; p=0·061) assessed separately. Zoledronic acid did not significantly affect risk of death (30 deaths with zoledronic acid vs 43 deaths without; HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·41-1·07; p=0·09). There was no difference in disease-free survival between patients on tamoxifen alone versus anastrozole alone (HR 1·08, 95% CI 0·81-1·44; p=0·591), but overall survival was worse with anastrozole than with tamoxifen (46 vs 27 deaths; HR 1·75, 95% CI 1·08-2·83; p=0·02). Treatments were generally well tolerated, with no reports of renal failure or osteonecrosis of the jaw. Bone pain was reported in 601 patients (33%; 349 patients on zoledronic acid vs 252 not on the drug), fatigue in 361 (20%; 192 vs 169), headache in 280 (16%; 147 vs 133), and arthralgia in 266 (15%; 145 vs 121). Interpretation: Addition of zoledronic acid improved disease-free survival in the patients taking anastrozole or tamoxifen. There was no difference in disease-free survival between patients receiving anastrozole and tamoxifen overall, but those on anastrozole alone had inferior overall survival. These data show persistent benefits with zoledronic acid and support its addition to adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal patients with early-stage breast cancer. Funding: AstraZeneca; Novartis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Steger G.G.,Medical University of Vienna | Greil R.,Paracelsus Medical University | Lang A.,Feldkirch Hospital | Rudas M.,Medical University of Vienna | And 17 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: This randomized phase III trial compared pathologic complete response (pCR) rates of early breast cancer (EBC) following neoadjuvant epirubicin-docetaxel (ED) ± capecitabine (C), and evaluated the addition of trastuzumab in HER2-positive tumors. Patients and methods: Patients with invasive breast cancer (except T4d) were randomly assigned to receive six 3-weekly cycles of ED (both 75 mg/m2) ± C (1000 mg/m2, twice daily, days 1-14). Patients with HER2-positive disease were further randomized to receive trastuzumab (8 mg/kg, then 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks) or not. Primary end point: pCR rate at the time of surgery. Results: Five hundred thirty-six patients were randomized to ED (n = 266) or EDC (n = 270); 93 patients were further randomized to trastuzumab (n = 44) or not (n = 49). pCR rate was significantly increased with EDC (23.0% versus 15.4% ED, P = 0.027), and nonsignificantly further increased with trastuzumab (38.6% EDC versus 26.5% ED, P = 0.212). Rates of axillary node involvement at surgery and breast conservation were improved with EDC versus ED, but not significantly; the addition of trastuzumab had no further impact. Hormone receptor status, tumor size, grade, and C (all P≤ 0.035) were independent prognostic factors for pCR. Trastuzumab added to ED ± C significantly increased the number of serious adverse events (35 versus 18; P = 0.020), mainly due to infusion-related reactions. Conclusion: These findings show that the integration of C into a neoadjuvant taxane-/anthracycline-based regimen is a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option, with incorporation of trastuzumab in HER2-positive disease. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Gnant M.,Medical University of Vienna | Pfeiler G.,Medical University of Vienna | Stoger H.,Medical University of Graz | Mlineritsch B.,University of Salzburg | And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: We investigated whether body mass index (BMI) can be used as a predictive parameter indicating patients who benefit from extended aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment. Methods: The ABCSG-6a trial re-randomised event-free postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive patients from the ABCSG-6 trial to receive either 3 additional years of endocrine therapy using anastrozole vs nil. In this retrospective analysis, we investigated the prognostic and predictive impact of BMI on disease outcome and safety.Results:In all, 634 patients (177 normal weight, 307 overweight, and 150 obese) patients were included in this analysis. Normal weight patients with additional 3 years of anastrozole halved their risk of disease recurrence (disease-free survival (DFS) HR 0.48; P=0.02) and death (HR 0.45; P=0.06) and had only a fifth of the risk of distant metastases (HR 0.22; P=0.05) compared with normal weight patients without any further treatment. In contrast, overweight+obese patients derived no benefit from additional 3 years of anastrozole (DFS HR 0.93; P=0.68; distant recurrence-free survival HR 0.91; P=0.78; and OS HR 0.9; P=0.68). The possible predictive impact of BMI on extended endocrine treatment could be strengthened by a Cox regression interaction model between BMI and treatment (P=0.07). Conclusion: Body mass index may be used to predict outcome benefit of extended AI treatment in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

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