Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety

Vienna, Austria

Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety

Vienna, Austria
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Bedlan G.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Journal fur Kulturpflanzen | Year: 2017

Petrakia juniperi sp. nov., a new species collected on Juniperus sp. differs from other species of Petrakia in the size of conidia and shape of the appendages. ©2017. All rights reserved.

Wueppenhorst N.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Stueger H.-P.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety | Kist M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Glocker E.-O.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aim of this study was to update data on levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance (resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin) in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates and to identify the impact of prior eradication therapies on their development. Methods: We tested the antimicrobial susceptibility to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin/ ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and rifampicin of 5296 clinical H. pylori strains isolated between 2006 and 2011. Information on prior eradication therapies was gathered and their impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance, in particular to levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance, was analysed. Results: From 2006 onwards, both levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance have steadily increased and peaked in 2011 with 29.1% and 18.6%, respectively. Unsuccessful prior eradication attempts proved a major risk factor for resistance development. Patients who had undergone unsuccessful eradication attempts harboured levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin- and triple-resistant isolates significantly more often than untreated individuals (26.7% and 18.1% versus 10.6% and 1.6%). Levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance occurred significantly more often in patients who had received quinolones when compared with patients who had not (44.5% versus 23.1% and 28.7% versus 15.6%). We did not observe any significant differences in resistance rates in the different German federal states. Conclusions: Resistance to levofloxacin/ciprofloxacin and triple resistance have continuously risen and reached worrying numbers. Hence we strongly advise against the use of quinolones in empirical second-line therapies for H. pylori without prior susceptibility testing and/or a carefully taken patient medical history. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Tanner G.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety | Tanner G.,Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux Research Station | Czerwenka C.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of residues of eight neonicotinoid insecticides and two metabolites in honey using LC-MS/MS was developed and validated. Two approaches of sample preparation were investigated, with the final method involving acetonitrile extraction and subsequent cleanup by dispersive solid-phase extraction (QuEChERS type). Validation was based on quintuplicate analysis at three fortification levels and showed satisfactory recoveries (60-114%) and high precision (RSDs between 2.7 and 12.8%). Low limits of detection and quantification could be achieved for all analytes ranging from 0.6 to 5 μg/kg and from 2 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Investigations of Austrian honey samples revealed the presence of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam residues in honey; however, no sample exceeded the maximum residue limits. On average, flower honey samples contained neonicotinoid residues in higher quantities compared to forest honey samples. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Didymella sidae-hermaphroditae sp. nov., a new species collected on Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby, differs from other species of Didymella on this host and other Malvaceae in many cases in the diameter of the pycnidia and in length and width of the conidia. © 2016, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved.

Sager M.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2016

Purpose: Standardized procedures for agricultural soil analysis use different extractant solutions, to determine one or just a few elements, which needs a lot of time and manpower. Within this work, it was tried to substitute traditional methods by the use of multi-element determination techniques, like inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) applied to a few solutions. Material and methods: ICP-OES and ICP-MS have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0.16 M acetic acid and 0.1 M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1 + 1 HCl. Results and discussion: The method was applied to 44 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0.9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results of the total digests could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb, and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. Factor analysis showed that the fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as Al-Ba-Na in the first factor, K-P-S in a second, whereas Mn-La-Li formed a group of its own. The pedogenic oxides, obtained from Al-Fe-Mn-Ti released in oxalate, carry most of the cationic trace elements, whereas the anions P-S-B-Si and the essentials Cu-Mo form different groups. Among the main elements, the quasi-total data were much less intercorrelated than the totals. The rare earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Conclusions: The proposed method permits to obtain information about common cations including trace elements, and the nonmetals phosphorus, silicon, sulfur, boron, and iodine simultaneously, which could be a gate to find new relations among them. The two-step procedure permits to predict availabilities in shorter and longer periods of time. Data from the extract in dilute acetic acid for K, P, and B can substitute traditional methods of soil analysis. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Didymella michaelii sp. nov., a new species collected on Impatiens parviflora DC., differs from other species of Didymella on this host in the diameter of the pycnidia and in length and width of the conidia. © 2016 Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved.

Strauss G.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2010

The North American planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae) was accidentally introduced into Europe, and subsequently caused economic damage to orchards and vineyards in some South-European countries. In 2003, a mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was discovered in Vienna, followed by new infestations of several sites. A Pest Risk Analysis was conducted, according to the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization decision support scheme for quarantine pests, to evaluate the risk to Austrian agriculture by M. pruinosa. The highest risk of further introduction into Austria arises from trade of deciduous plants infested with M. pruinosa eggs from Italy and France where this pest is common and which are important trading partners of Austria. Entry by vehicle traffic is considered moderately likely. Active spread by flight of adult M. pruinosa is considered significant only for local dispersal. The CLIMEX® program was applied to predict M. pruinosa's potential geographical distribution and to identify areas at risk. In Austria, southern Burgenland and south-east Styria as well as parts of Vienna, Lower and Upper Austria provide the most suitable climate for M. pruinosa's development. Organic production areas in theses regions are especially at risk of being damaged. To prevent economic impact and for long-term control of M. pruinosa, biological control with its natural enemy Neodryinus typhlocybae (Ashmead 1893) (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae) is recommended. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Mischek D.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety | Krapfenbauer-Cermak C.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable juices. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.

Follak S.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety | Strauss G.,Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety
Weed Research | Year: 2010

Summary: Solanum carolinense is a serious weed from North America that has recently invaded crop fields in Austria and Italy. In this study, a climate suitability analysis using the CLIMEX model was carried out, to assess the potential distribution of S. carolinense in Central Europe, to identify areas at risk of an invasion and to derive an efficient management strategy. In North America, the plant currently occupies almost its full range of suitable climates. In contrast, S. carolinense occurs only rarely as a ruderal plant and weed in several countries of Central Europe. The projections of climatic suitability under current climate reveal considerable scope for further invasion. The land area climatically suitable for S. carolinense is highest in Hungary (100% of the total land area), Poland (83.6%), followed by Slovenia (70.5%), Slovakia (64.5%), Germany (41.5%), Czech Republic (37.0%), Austria (34.9%) and Switzerland (16.6%). Solanum carolinense has a high capacity for spatial dispersal by natural means and different human-mediated pathways. Thus, it is likely that the plant will expand its range and infest cultivated land, particularly around existing naturalised populations. A management strategy is warranted, including early detection and eradication of nascent foci of S. carolinense, to contain the plant to its current restricted distribution and to limit the chances for further spread of this invasive weed to other agricultural areas. The widespread occurrence of this species would have serious consequences for agriculture. © 2010 The Authors. Weed Research © 2010 European Weed Research Society.

Ascochyta silphii sp. nov., a new species collected on Silphium perfoliatum L., differs from other species of Ascochyta on this host in length, width of the conidia and diameter of the pycnidia.

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