Wiener Neustadt, Austria
Wiener Neustadt, Austria

The Austrian Academy of science is a legal entity under the special protection of the Republic of Austria. According to the statutes of the Academy its mission is to promote the science and humanities in every respect and in every field, particularly in fundamental research. In 2009, the Austrian Academy of science was ranked 82nd among the 300 topmost research institutions in the world, based on its internet presence, by Webometrics Ranking of World Research Centers . Wikipedia.

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Lancaster M.A.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Knoblich J.A.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2012

In any mitotic cell, the orientation of the mitotic spindle determines the orientation of the cleavage plane and therefore the position of the two daughter cells. When combined with polarization of cellular components, spindle orientation is also a well-conserved means of generating daughter cells with asymmetric cell fates, such as progenitors and differentiated cell types. In the mammalian neocortex, the precise planar spindle orientation observed early during development is vital for symmetric proliferative divisions. During later stages, spindles can be oblique or even vertical but the role of this reorientation is somewhat less clear as asymmetric cell fates can arise independently of spindle orientation during this stage. Although decades of work have identified many key conserved regulators of spindle positioning, its precise role in cell fate determination in the mammalian neocortex has been enigmatic. Recent work focused on mInsc and LGN has now revealed an important role for spindle orientation in determination of specific asymmetric cell fates, namely intermediate progenitors and a new progenitor population, termed outer radial glia. In this way, spindle orientation helps determine the neurogenic outcome of asymmetric progenitor divisions, thereby influencing neuron output and cerebral cortical expansion. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Barlow D.P.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2011

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process leading to parental-specific expression of one to two percent of mammalian genes that offers one of the best model systems for a molecular analysis of epigenetic regulation in development and disease. In the twenty years since the first imprinted gene was identified, this model has had a significant impact on decoding epigenetic information in mammals. So far it has led to the discovery of long-range cis-acting control elements whose epigenetic state regulates small clusters of genes and of unusual macro noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that directly repress genes in cis, and critically, it has demonstrated that one biological role of DNA methylation is to allow expression of genes normally repressed by default. This review describes the progress in understanding how imprinted protein-coding genes are silenced; in particular, it focuses on the role of macro ncRNAs that have broad relevance as a potential new layer of regulatory information in the mammalian genome. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Abel G.J.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Sander N.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Science | Year: 2014

Widely available data on the number of people living outside of their country of birth do not adequately capture contemporary intensities and patterns of global migration flows. We present data on bilateral flows between 196 countries from 1990 through 2010 that provide a comprehensive view of international migration flows. Our data suggest a stable intensity of global 5-year migration flows at ~0.6% of world population since 1995. In addition, the results aid the interpretation of trends and patterns of migration flows to and from individual countries by placing them in a regional or global context. We estimate the largest movements to occur between South and West Asia, from Latin to North America, and within Africa.

Ameres S.L.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Zamore P.D.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of most genes in animals, but we are only now beginning to understand how they are generated, assembled into functional complexes and destroyed. Various mechanisms have now been identified that regulate miRNA stability and that diversify miRNA sequences to create distinct isoforms. The production of different isoforms of individual miRNAs in specific cells and tissues may have broader implications for miRNA-mediated gene expression control. Rigorously testing the many discrepant models for how miRNAs function using quantitative biochemical measurements made in vivo and in vitro remains a major challenge for the future. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Rabl P.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We analyze the photon statistics of a weakly driven optomechanical system and discuss the effect of photon blockade under single-photon strong coupling conditions. We present an intuitive interpretation of this effect in terms of displaced oscillator states and derive analytic expressions for the cavity excitation spectrum and the two-photon correlation function g(2)(0). Our results predict the appearance of nonclassical photon correlations in the combined strong coupling and sideband resolved regime and provide a first detailed understanding of photon-photon interactions in strong coupling optomechanics. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Bock C.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Nature reviews. Genetics | Year: 2012

DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that has suspected regulatory roles in a broad range of biological processes and diseases. The technology is now available for studying DNA methylation genome-wide, at a high resolution and in a large number of samples. This Review discusses relevant concepts, computational methods and software tools for analysing and interpreting DNA methylation data. It focuses not only on the bioinformatic challenges of large epigenome-mapping projects and epigenome-wide association studies but also highlights software tools that make genome-wide DNA methylation mapping more accessible for laboratories with limited bioinformatics experience.

Lancaster M.A.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Knoblich J.A.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Science | Year: 2014

Classical experiments performed half a century ago demonstrated the immense self-organizing capacity of vertebrate cells. Even after complete dissociation, cells can reaggregate and reconstruct the original architecture of an organ. More recently, this outstanding feature was used to rebuild organ parts or even complete organs from tissue or embryonic stem cells. Such stem cell-derived three-dimensional cultures are called organoids. Because organoids can be grown from human stem cells and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they have the potential to model human development and disease. Furthermore, they have potential for drug testing and even future organ replacement strategies. Here, we summarize this rapidly evolving field and outline the potential of organoid technology for future biomedical research.

Salzer E.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Blood | Year: 2013

Primary B-cell disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of inherited immunodeficiencies, often associated with autoimmunity causing significant morbidity. The underlying genetic etiology remains elusive in the majority of patients. In this study, we investigated a patient from a consanguineous family suffering from recurrent infections and severe lupuslike autoimmunity. Immunophenotyping revealed progressive decrease of CD19(+) B cells, a defective class switch indicated by low numbers of IgM- and IgG-memory B cells, as well as increased numbers of CD21(low) B cells. Combined homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing identified a biallelic splice-site mutation in protein C kinase δ (PRKCD), causing the absence of the corresponding protein product. Consequently, phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate was decreased, and mRNA levels of nuclear factor interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-6 were increased. Our study uncovers human PRKCD deficiency as a novel cause of common variable immunodeficiency-like B-cell deficiency with severe autoimmunity.

Knoblich J.A.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2010

The ability of cells to divide asymmetrically is essential for generating diverse cell types during development. The past 10 years have seen tremendous progress in our understanding of this important biological process. We have learned that localized phosphorylation events are responsible for the asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants in mitosis and that centrosomes and microtubules play important parts in this process. The relevance of asymmetric cell division for stem cell biology has added a new dimension to the field, and exciting connections between asymmetric cell division and tumorigenesis have begun to emerge. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lepperdinger G.,Austrian Academy of Sciences
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2011

In adults, mesenchymal stromal cells contain tissue-specific multipotent stem cells, MSC, which can be found throughout the body. With advancing age, tight controls of regulatory networks, which guide MSC biology, gradually deteriorate. Aberrations within the MSC microenvironment such as chronic inflammation eventually lead to adverse manifestations, such as the accumulation of fat deposits in bone and muscles, impaired healing and fibrosis after severe injury, or altered hematopoiesis and autoimmunity. MSC can also specifically interact with a large variety of immune cells, and in doing so, they secrete cytoprotective and immunoregulatory molecules, which together with intercellular contacts mediate immune modulatory processes. This review comprehends the current knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms and cellular interactions that occur in stem cell niches, which are jointly shared between MSC and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, as well as those intracellular interdependences taking place between mesenchymal and a wide variety of hematopoietic progeny in particular T lymphocytes, which eventually perturb tissue homeostasis and immunology at advanced age. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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