Austrian Academy of Fine Arts

www.akbild.ac.at
Vienna, Austria

The Academy of Fine Arts Vienna is a public art school of higher education in Vienna, Austria. Wikipedia.


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Wiesinger R.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Martina I.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Kleber C.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Kleber C.,CEST Center Of Electrochemical Surface Technology | And 2 more authors.
Corrosion Science | Year: 2013

The interaction of highly pure polycrystalline silver samples with ozone (500ppb) was investigated under certain relative humidity (RH) content (0%, 50% and 90%) in synthetic air. All experiments were performed at room temperature (22°C) and atmospheric pressure. Highly surface sensitive methods were used to investigate chemical, morphological and structural changes and composition of the corrosion products formed at different RH and reaction times. Silver is oxidized by ozone forming Ag2O/AgO(AgIAgIIIO2) surface species. The oxide formation and corrosion rate is dependent on the RH content in the atmosphere, showing that silver is most susceptible to ozone oxidation at 50% RH. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Hobro A.J.,Vienna University of Technology | Kuligowski J.,University of Valencia | Doll M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Lendl B.,Vienna University of Technology
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

Wood is a ubiquitous material used in everyday life. Accurate identification of species can be of importance in a historical context enabling appropriate conservation treatment and adequate choice of material to be applied to historic wooden objects, and in a more modern context, in the identification of forgeries. Wood is also often treated to improve certain physical characteristics, often strength and durability. However, determination of whether or not a piece of wood has been treated can be very difficult. Infrared spectroscopy has previously been applied to differentiate between different wood species or between treated and untreated wood, often in conjunction with chemometric analysis techniques. Here, we report the use of mid-IR spectroscopy, coupled with partial least squares discriminant analysis for the discrimination between two walnut wood species and to differentiate between steamtreated and untreated samples of each of these wood species. We show that the discrimination between species and between steam-treated and non-steam-treated wood from Juglans nigra is very clear and, while analysis of the quality of the discrimination between steam-treated and non-steam-treated J. regia samples is not as good, it is, nevertheless, sufficient for discrimination between the two groups with a statistical significance of P<0.0001. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Martens B.,Vienna University of Technology | Peter H.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts
New Frontiers - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design in Asia, CAADRIA 2010 | Year: 2010

Reconstruction work on more than twenty synagogues in Vienna has been ongoing for more than a decade. The fact that these sacred buildings no longer exist is a pivotal aspect in this undertaking. Research revealed archived material, however, which served as reliable basis for the reconstruction work. The paper focuses on the possibilities and limits of this exploration and discusses the long-term options for handling 3D models and the dissemination of results to a large audience. The appropriate illustration of spatial contexts is another aspect that has been explored. The publication of results in the form of a city guide is in line with the objective of conveying the reconstruction results to a large audience. ©2010, Association for Research in Computer-Aided Architectural Research in Asia (CAADRIA).


De Bardi M.,Vienna University of Technology | De Bardi M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Hutter H.,Vienna University of Technology | Schreiner M.,Vienna University of Technology | Schreiner M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2013

In this work the durability to acidic solutions of two kinds of potash-lime-silica glasses with compositions typical for mediaeval stained glass was investigated. The low amount of network formers such as silica and alumina, and the high amount of network modifiers such as potassium and calcium, give to the glass a lower chemical stability compared to modern glass. Studies on its durability are of interest to understand degradation mechanisms. In particular the leaching procedure was focused on determining any correlation between the type of acid and the corrosion of glass independently from the pH value, which was kept constant during the different acidic treatments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a valuable tool to study compositional variations of glass, giving useful information concerning provenance, effects of the conservation environment, of weathering or leaching processes and about the compositional differences between the corroded layer and the bulk as a function of depth. In spite of that the insulating properties of glass, the surface roughness and the parameters used for the measurements can lead to possible misinterpretations of the results; in this paper these difficulties are discussed, in order to better interpret the analyses performed on leached glass. ToF-SIMS data are influenced by strong matrix effects making quantification difficult; for this reason the quantitative composition and surface morphology of the leached layer were additionally investigated with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Martina I.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Martina I.,University of Padua | Wiesinger R.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Schreiner M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Schreiner M.,Vienna University of Technology
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Silver is a soft, lustrous metal with the highest electrical and thermal conductivity. Due to these properties, it has many applications as a precious material both in pure and alloy form (ornaments, jewellery, utensils, coins), but also in several technological fields, considering silver compounds (e.g. photography, electric and electronic industry). As a consequence of this, silver and its by-products are regularly exposed to different atmospheres where a wide spectrum of agents (e.g. moisture, temperature, air pollutants, UV light) may cause metal corrosion and alteration of their surface characteristics and properties. The aim of this research is to deepen the potential and applicability of micro-Raman spectroscopy as a surface-sensitive technique to investigate the initial steps of atmospheric corrosion throughout the identification of surface chemical reactions and corrosion products formed on silver substrates. In a previous study, micro-Raman analysis was carried out on pure silver powder compounds, selected among the most expected corrosion products occurring on silver substrates, in order to optimize experimental conditions and to obtain reference spectra [1]. Subsequently highly pure silver samples were exposed for 24 h to different controlled laboratory atmospheres (synthetic air, relative humidity, SO2, H2S), particularly focusing on sulfur containing gases, and the resulting surface reactions. The experiments highlight micro-Raman spectroscopy as a highly surface-sensitive technique enabling to detect both adsorbed chemical species and crystalline corrosion products of only several monolayers of thickness. Furthermore, these investigations could show the trends of primary and secondary corrosion mechanisms and their mutual interaction occurring on silver substrates. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Wei S.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Pintus V.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Pintus V.,Vienna University of Technology | Schreiner M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Schreiner M.,Vienna University of Technology
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2012

Photochemical degradation of commercial polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) homopolymer and PVAc paints mixed with burnt umber, cobalt blue, cadmium red dark, nickel azo yellow and titanium white commonly used for artworks were studied by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Py-GC/MS with single-shot technique was used for the characterization of the thermal degradation of PVAc at different temperatures, while the double-shot technique of Py-GC/MS was used to reveal the differences in the specimens before and after UV ageing, including the changes of detectable amounts of deacetylation product - acetic acid and plasticizers such as diethyl phthalate (DEP). Furthermore, the relative concentration of the pyrolysis products of the paint samples could be measured and compared in the second step of the double-shot Py-GC/MS, which are highly dependent on the presence of pigments and the ageing status of PVAc paints. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Pintus V.,Vienna University of Technology | Pintus V.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Schreiner M.,Vienna University of Technology | Schreiner M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

This study characterizes and identifies two different acrylic binding media such as Plextol® D498 and Primal® AC33, which are widely used in modern and contemporary art. In order to investigate their fast photooxidative deterioration when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, ageing studies on these materials were carried out. For this purpose, pure synthetic materials but also mixed with different inorganic pigments were identified and characterized before and after UV exposure by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Particular attention was paid to the comparison of two different analytical methods: (1) single-shot method based on a pyrolysis for the analysis of polymers and (2) double-shot method, which allows a unique combination of thermal desorption for the analysis of volatile compounds and pyrolysis of the polymers themselves. These analyses have been complemented by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) studies. The comparison of the results obtained from unaged samples and UV-aged clearly showed material alterations as well as the formation of new products, which were recorded by FTIR-ATR. Generally, these changes were more pronounced when the acrylic binding media were mixed with pigments. The double-shot technique of Py-GC/MS additionally allowed the detection of the phenolic antioxidant in unaged Plextol® D498, but no oxidation products could be identified by Py-GC/MS in all samples. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Melcher M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Melcher M.,Vienna University of Technology | Wiesinger R.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Wiesinger R.,Vienna University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2010

A detailed understanding of the stability of glasses toward liquid or atmospheric attack is of considerable importance for preserving numerous objects of our cultural heritage. Glasses produced in the ancient periods (Egyptian, Greek, or Roman glasses), as well as modern glass, can be classified as soda-lime-silica glasses. In contrast, potash was used as a flux in medieval Northern Europe for the production of window panes for churches and cathedrals. The particular chemical composition of these potash-lime-silica glasses (low in silica and rich in alkali and alkaline earth components), in combination with increased levels of acidifying gases (such as SO2, CO2, NOx, or O3) and airborne particulate matter in todays urban or industrial atmospheres, has resulted in severe degradation of important cultural relics, particularly over the last century. Rapid developments in the fields of microelectronics and computer sciences, however, have contributed to the development of a variety of nondestructive, surface analytical techniques for the scientific investigation and material characterization of these unique and valuable objects. These methods include scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy- or wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDX or SEM/WDX), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this Account, we address glass analysis and weathering mechanisms, exploring the possibilities (and limitations) of modern analytical techniques. Corrosion by liquid substances is well investigated in the glass literature. In a tremendous number of case studies, the basic reaction between aqueous solutions and the glass surfaces was identified as an ion-exchange reaction between hydrogen-bearing species of the attacking liquid and the alkali and alkaline earth ions in the glass, causing a depletion of the latter in the outermost surface layers. Although mechanistic analogies to liquid corrosion are obvious, atmospheric attack on glass ("weathering") is much more complex due to the multiphase system (atmosphere, water film, glass surface, and bulk glass) and added complexities (such as relative humidity and atmospheric pollutant concentration). Weathered medieval stained glass objects, as well as artifacts under controlled museum conditions, typically have less transparent or translucent surfaces, often with a thick weathering crust on top, consisting of sulfates of the glass constituents K, Ca, Na, or Mg. In this Account, we try to answer questions about glass analysis and weathering in three main categories. (i) Which chemical reactions are involved in the weathering of glass surfaces- (ii) Which internal factors (such as the glass composition or surface properties) play a dominant role for the weathering process- Can certain environmental or climatic factors be identified as more harmful for glasses than others- Is it possible to set up a quantitative relationship or at least an approximation between the degree of weathering and the factors described above- (iii) What are the consequences for the restoration and conservation strategies of endangered glass objects- How can a severe threat to precious glass objects be avoided, or at least minimized, to preserve these artifacts of our cultural heritage for future generations? © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Pintus V.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Pintus V.,Vienna University of Technology | Wei S.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Schreiner M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Schreiner M.,Vienna University of Technology
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

The lightfastness declarations of several different commercial acrylic paints and different quality series were tested by artificial UV ageing. To evaluate their lightfastness declarations, three acrylic colours (cadmium red, ultramarine blue and chromium oxide green) from six companies (Lascaux, Liquitex, Lukas, Rembrandt, Schmincke, and Winsor & Newton) were analysed before and after UV exposure. Characterisation and identification of these materials were carried out with Py-GC/MS, FTIR-ATR analyses, and colour measurements. Particular attention was focused on the Py-GC/MS measurements and on comparison of the single-shot method for pyrolysis of polymers and the double-shot mode which enables a unique combination of pyrolysis methods for analysis of polymers and thermal desorption for documentation of the volatile compounds. Depending on the particular company and the specific value of the lightfastness declaration, different binding media (i.e. poly(EA/MMA), poly(nBA/MMA), and poly(2-EHA/MMA)), and fillers (i.e. kaolinite, calcium carbonate, barite, and talc) were characterised and identified by Py-GC/MS and FTIR-ATR analyses. After UV exposure, several alteration processes with consequent formation of volatile compounds or new products were observed by both techniques, especially for the blue paints. In particular, the double-shot mode of Py-GC/MS enabled the detection of oxidation products, which could not be detected with the single-shot mode. Comparison of the lightfastness declarations for each of the blue, green, and red paints and the noted alterations broadly agreed for most of the paints. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Wei S.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts | Fang X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cao X.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Schreiner M.,Austrian Academy of Fine Arts
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2011

Chinese ink stick has a long history and a special importance in Chinese culture. Its main components are soot (normally pine wood soot and lamp soot) and animal glue; however, additives were added from time to time for different purposes. In order to see whether the two types of soot can be differentiated and the other constituents in Chinese ink sticks can be identified or not by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and GC-MS techniques, an initial study has been carried out. The main polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soot could be identified, which are anthracene, fluoranthene, triphenylene and benz[e]acephenanthrylene. The main difference between those two types of soot is that the detectable amount of PAHs in lamp soot is much lower than in pine wood soot. In addition to this, the relative concentration of the main polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene and its isomer, benzo[k]fluoranthene and its isomers are different in the two types of soot. The relative content of benzo[k]fluoranthene is higher in pine soot than in lamp soot, which could be used to as a criterion to differentiate the two types of soot. Py-GC-MS technique is a very effective method to identify the main components of Chinese ink sticks, including the PAHs of soot, binding media and the additives of camphor and borneol in one analysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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