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New South Wales, Australia

McGregor B.A.,University of New England of Australia | McGregor B.A.,Research & Innovation | McGregor B.A.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Naebe M.,University of New England of Australia | And 4 more authors.
Textile Research Journal

The relationships between wearer-assessed comfort and objectively measured comfort and handle parameters were investigated using 19 pure wool single jersey garments made of single ply yarns. Wearer trials were used to determine prickle discomfort, and whether wearers “liked” the garments. Fabrics then were objectively evaluated using the Wool HandleMeter, which measures seven primary handle attributes; and the Wool ComfortMeter (WCM), to predict a wearer's perception of fabric-evoked prickle. Wearer responses and the relationships within and between objective measurements and the effect of fibre, yarn and fabrics attributes were analysed by general linear modelling. Mean fibre diameter, fibre diameter coefficient of variation, yarn count, fabric thickness, fabric density, fabric mass per unit area and decatising affected one or more handle parameters. The best model for predicting wearer prickle discomfort accounted for 90.9% of the variance and included only terms for the WCM and WCM2. The WCM was a good predictor whereas mean fibre diameter was a poor predictor of whether wearers “liked” garments. Wearer assessment of prickle and whether or not wearers “liked” fabrics were independent of fabric handle assessment. The results indicate that the handle and comfort properties of lightweight, wool jersey fabrics can be quantified accurately using the Wool HandleMeter and the Wool ComfortMeter. For fabric handle, fibre and yarn characteristics were less important than changes in the properties of the fabric. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav Source

Wang H.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Mahar T.J.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Postle R.,University of New South Wales | Postle R.,University of New England of Australia
Journal of the Textile Institute

Lightweight fabrics knitted from fine and ultrafine merino wool fibres are emerging as a niche market for next-to-skin wear. The tactile sensory properties of these fabrics are investigated in this study. Seven pairs of bi-polar descriptors were defined from a survey as the most important tactile attributes for this target market. Furthermore, the existence of collinearity between the descriptive attributes was removed and three orthogonal tactile sensory dimensions were established by using principal component analysis. These three orthogonal tactile sensory dimensions explain 92.6% of the total variance of the seven tactile attributes. Partial least squares regression analyses showed that the Wool Handle Meter was capable of predicting the three tactile sensory dimensions. © 2013 Copyright The Textile Institute. Source

Mahar T.J.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Wang H.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd
Animal Production Science

An examination is presented of the relevance of luxury to the wool textile and garment supply chain. This examination leads to a review of the concept and importance of fabric handle as a means of defining important aspects of fabric quality. Examples are given for woven fabrics of the general relationships between subjectively assessed fabric handle attributes such as fabric softness and smoothness and measured low stress, generally high deformation, fabric properties such as fabric bending rigidity and extensibility. A brief overview is presented of the development of a system for predicting a set of subjectively assessed handle attributes for next-to-skin knitted fabrics from measurable fabric properties. Seven handle attributes selected by experienced assessors as being important for defining tactile sensations associated with next-to-skin knitted fabrics were: fabric smoothness, hairiness, softness, tightness, dryness, warmth and weight. Subjective assessments on a 110 scale of these seven attributes, plus an assessment of overall handle, were conducted by 12 experienced assessors on 74 next-to-skin knitted fabrics. The precision of the mean assessment of the 12 assessors ranged between 0.8 and 1.1, indicating that there was sufficient consensus on key fabric handle assessments to justify development of a method for predicting them from measurements of the physical properties of fabrics. All fabrics were tested using the PhabrOmeter fabric evaluation system, which records the force exerted during insertion of a fabric into and through an orifice. Geometric parameters were derived to describe the PhabrOmeter force-displacement curve results, and statistical models were developed to predict the average handle assessments of the 12 assessors. The precision of the models in predicting the handle intensities of eight fabric attributes on an independent validation set of 22 fabrics was significantly better than the precision of an individual assessor (confidence limits ≤ 1.42.6 and 2.53.8, for predicted and assessed ratings, respectively). A case is made that this technology has the potential to assist in the growth of new markets for Merino wool products. © 2010 CSIRO. Source

Mahar T.J.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Wang H.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Postle R.,University of New South Wales | Postle R.,Cooperative Research Center for Sheep Industry Innovation
Journal of the Textile Institute

A review of studies is presented in the evaluation of fabric tactile properties with a focus on knitted fabrics and developments since the mid-1990s in particular. The fundamental differences in structure between woven and knitted fabrics are highlighted with their consequent different fabric tactile properties. Considering the difficulties in measuring the physical and mechanical properties of knitted fabrics by using currently available instruments such as KESF and FAST systems, alternative measurement technologies are reviewed such as fabric extraction methods using a ring, orifice or a series of metal pins, which are more suited to the measurement of knitted fabrics. These methods have potential for the evaluation of knitted fabrics, particularly for next-to-skin wear. Recent developments in haptic perception are outlined. These developments may facilitate the development of psychophysical stimulus-response models in order to improve the prediction of fabric tactile properties from instrumental measurements. Results are discussed of a survey of tactile assessments of next-to-skin knitted fabrics and a multivariate analysis of these data and a system for the prediction of subjective fabric attributes based on the PhabrOmeter are foreshadowed. © 2013 Copyright The Textile Institute. Source

Wang H.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Mahar T.,Australian Wool Testing Authority Ltd | Liu X.,Deakin University | Swan P.,Paul G. Swan and Associates Pty. Ltd. | Wang X.,Deakin University
Journal of the Textile Institute

In this paper, fibre-diameter-dependent light scattering during measurment of wool colour was quantified using the extended multiplicative signal correction technique. Furthermore, a simple-to-apply model has been developed to correct each of the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) X, Y and Z values obtained from colour measurement of fibrous masses. The model was successfully applied to both polypropylene (PP) and wool fibres, though different parameter values were used in each case, indicating different patterns of internal light scattering between PP and wool fibres. After the model corrections, the diameter dependence of measured wool yellowness (Y - Z) was either eliminated or significantly reduced for each of seven sheep flocks distributed widely over the wool-growing regions of Australia. © 2011 The Textile Institute. Source

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