Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI

Glen Osmond, Australia

Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI

Glen Osmond, Australia
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Ristic R.,University of Adelaide | Van Der Hulst L.,University of Adelaide | Capone D.L.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Wilkinson K.L.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

Smoke taint is the term given to the objectionable smoky, medicinal, and ashy characters that can be exhibited in wines following vineyard exposure to bushfire smoke. This study sought to investigate the stability of smoke taint by determining changes in the composition and sensory properties of wines following 5 to 6 years of bottle aging. Small increases in guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol (of up to 6 μg/L) were observed after bottle aging of smoke-affected red and white wines, while syringol increased by as much as 29 μg/L. However, increased volatile phenol levels were also observed in control red wines, which indicated that changes in the composition of smoke-affected wines were due to acid hydrolysis of conjugate forms of both naturally occurring and smoke-derived volatile phenols. Acid hydrolysis of smoke-affected wines (post-bottle aging) released additional quantities of volatile phenols, which demonstrated the relative stability of glycoconjugate precursors to the mildly acidic conditions of wine. Bottle aging affected the sensory profiles of smoke-affected wines in different ways. Diminished fruit aroma and flavor led to the intensification of smoke taint in some wines, but smoke-related sensory attributes became less apparent in smoke-affected Shiraz wines, post-bottle aging. © 2017 American Chemical Society.


Capone D.L.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Ristic R.,University of Adelaide | Pardon K.H.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Jeffery D.W.,University of Adelaide
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

Volatile sulfur compounds contribute characteristic aromas to foods and beverages and are widely studied, because of their impact on sensory properties. Certain thiols are particularly important to the aromas of roasted coffee, cooked meat, passion fruit, grapefruit, and guava. These same thiols enhance the aroma profiles of different wine styles, imparting pleasant aromas reminiscent of citrus and tropical fruits (due to 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one), roasted coffee (2-furfurylthiol), and struck flint (benzyl mercaptan), at nanogram-per-liter levels. In contrast to the usual gas chromatography (GC) approaches, a simple and unique high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for routine analysis of five wine thiols, using 4,4 ′-dithiodipyridine (DTDP) as a derivatizing agent and polydeuterated internal standards for maximum accuracy and precision. DTDP reacted rapidly with thiols at wine pH and provided stable derivatives, which were enriched by solid-phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. All steps were optimized and the method was validated in different wine matrices, with method performance being comparable to a well-optimized but more cumbersome gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. A range of commercial wines was analyzed with the new method, revealing the distribution of the five thiols in white, red, rosé, and sparkling wine styles. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Wang J.,University of Adelaide | Capone D.L.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Wilkinson K.L.,University of Adelaide | Jeffery D.W.,University of Adelaide
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wang J.,University of Adelaide | Capone D.L.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Wilkinson K.L.,University of Adelaide | Jeffery D.W.,University of Adelaide
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The appeal of rosé wine is attributable to its sensory profiles and underlying chemical composition, which are determined by viticultural and oenological inputs. This study provided the first insight into the sensory attributes and volatile profiles of Australian rosé wines. An HS-SPME-GC-MS method and a recently developed HPLC-MS/MS method were used to quantify 51 volatile compounds, including 4 potent sulfur compounds, in 26 commercial rosé wines. Descriptive analysis on all wines was undertaken and the sensory results were correlated with quantitative chemical data to explore relationships between wine composition and sensory profiles. Based on odour activity values, esters were prominent aroma volatiles, and β-damascenone, 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 3-MHA were deemed to be important, in accord with other studies. Wines were described with terms ranging from developed, spicy and savoury to fresh green, citrus, tropical fruit, floral and confectionery. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kromer J.O.,University of Queensland | Nunez-Bernal D.,University of Queensland | Averesch N.J.H.,University of Queensland | Hampe J.,University of Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Aromatics are amongst the most important bulk feedstocks for the chemical industry, however, no viable bioprocess exists today and production is still dependent on petro-chemistry. In this article the production of aromatic precursors such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) and p-amino benzoic acid (PABA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was evaluated using metabolic network analysis. Theoretical mass yields for PHBA and for PABA obtained by metabolic network analysis were 0.58 and 0.53ggglucose -1, respectively. A major setback for microbial production of aromatics is the high toxicity of the products. Therefore, PHBA and PABA toxicity was evaluated in S. cerevisiae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 38.3gL-1 for PHBA and 0.62gL-1 for PABA were observed. However, PABA toxicity could be alleviated in adaptation experiments. Finally, metabolic engineering was used to create proof of principle first generation strains of S. cerevisiae. Overall accumulation of 650μM PHBA and 250μM PABA could be achieved. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Hayasaka Y.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Baldock G.A.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Parker M.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | Pardon K.H.,Australian Wine Research Institute AWRI | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The presence of glycosides of smoke-derived volatile phenols in smoke-affected grapes and the resulting wines of Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon was investigated with the aid of highperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). All volatile phenols studied (phenol, p-, m-, and o-cresols, methylguaiacol, syringol, and methylsyringol) could be detected as glycosylated metabolites in smoke-affected grapes in a similar fashion to that previously reported for guaiacol. These phenolic glycosides were found in smoke-affected grapes and wines at significantly elevated levels compared to those in non-smoked control grapes and wines. The extraction of these glycosides from grapes into wine was estimated to be 78% for Chardonnay and 67% for Cabernet Sauvignon. After acid hydrolysis, a large proportion of these phenolic glycosides in grapes (50%) and wine (92%) disappeared but the concentrations of volatile phenols determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were lower than expected. In the case of wine, the majority of the glycosides of phenol, cresols, guaiacol, and methylguaiacol were decomposed upon acid hydrolysis without releasing their respective aglycones, while syringol and methylsyringol were more effectively released. ©2010 American Chemical Society.

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