Glen Osmond, Australia
Glen Osmond, Australia

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Dungey K.A.,University of Adelaide | Hayasaka Y.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Wilkinson K.L.,University of Adelaide
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Guaiacol has been shown to accumulate in glycoconjugate forms in the fruit and leaves of grapevines following vineyard exposure to bushfire smoke. To investigate the glycosylation of guaiacol in smoke-affected grapes, a quantitative stable isotope dilution analysis method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated, using the [2H4]-labelled analogue of guaiacol β-d- glucopyranoside as internal standard. The method was subsequently applied to the analysis of grapes sampled from grapevines exposed to either bushfire or experimental smoke, enabling compositional comparisons of guaiacol glycoconjugates in smoke-affected grapes from different varieties to be determined, for the first time. Guaiacol glucose-pentose disaccharide conjugates (i.e. glucosides with a terminal pentose) were found to be the most abundant glycoconjugate precursors present in smoke-affected grapes, regardless of grape variety or smoke source. Higher concentrations of glycoconjugates were measured in extracts of whole berry homogenate than juice. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

News Article | December 6, 2016

The Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (WFA) and the Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference Inc. (AWITC) announced today that they will continue their partnership to deliver a combined business and technical conference for the Australian wine industry in Adelaide in July 2019. This announcement follows the very successful alignment of the 16th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference and WFA’s Outlook Conference in July 2016. Feedback from delegates at that event indicated overwhelming support for the combined conference format and its mix of industry policy, business and marketing content with the latest technical breakthroughs in grapegrowing and winemaking. WFA Chief Executive Tony Battaglene said the 2019 conference would again provide a forum for all members of the Australian wine community to come together. “This event will continue to deliver opportunities to discuss the key issues affecting our industry’s direction and will drive developments in the national policy agenda”. AWITC Chair Dr Dan Johnson welcomed the continuing alignment between the two events, saying: “It is very pleasing to be able to build on the success of the 2016 conference and again deliver an event that will address both technical and business issues in one forum. This makes a lot of sense at a time when questions of profitability and sustainability are at the forefront for the Australian wine community.” Primary Industries and Regions SA Executive Director, Agriculture, Food and Wine, Jo Collins, said hosting the combined wine conference in Adelaide cemented South Australia’s reputation as a Great Wine Capital of the World. “Adelaide is home to the National Wine Centre, the Australian Wine Research Institute and national representative bodies such as the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia and Wine Australia,” Ms Collins said. “There is no better location to bring together Australia’s wine community which plays a significant role in our economy, not just here in South Australia but nationally. The State Government, through PIRSA, is proud to sponsor the conference again in 2019.” The combined conference will be held at the Adelaide Convention Centre and will be complemented by the Australian Wine Industry Trade Exhibition (AWITE) – Australia’s premier showcase of wine technology, equipment and services. Registrations for the combined event will open in February 2019.

Bindon K.A.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Kennedy J.A.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Kennedy J.A.,California State University, Fresno
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Proanthocyanidins were isolated from the skins of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at different stages of grape development in order to study the effect of proanthocyanidin modification on the interaction with grape cell wall material. After veraison, the degree of proanthocyanidin polymerization increased, and thereafter was variable between 24 and 33 subunits as ripening progressed. Affinity of skin cell wall material for proanthocyanidin decreased with proanthocyanidin ripeness following veraison. A significant negative relationship (R 2 = 0.93) was found for average proanthocyanidin molecular mass and the proportion of high molecular mass proanthocyanidin adsorbed by skin cell wall material. This indicated that as proanthocyanidin polymerization increased, the affinity of a component of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins for skin cell wall material declined. This phenomenon was only associated with skin proanthocyanidins from colored grapes, as high molecular mass proanthocyanidins of equivalent subunit composition from colorless mutant Cabernet Sauvignon grapes had a higher affinity for skin cell wall material. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Borneman A.R.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Schmidt S.A.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Pretorius I.S.,University of South Australia
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2013

Wine is arguably the oldest biotechnological endeavor, with humans having been involved in wine production for at least 7000 years. Despite the artisan nature of its production, work by pioneering scientists such as Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier and Louis Pasteur placed wine research in a prominent position for the application of cutting-edge biological and chemical sciences, a position it still holds to this day. Technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and systems biology are now revolutionizing winemaking by combining the ability to engineer phenotypes rationally, with a precise understanding of the genetic makeup and key phenotypic drivers of the key organisms that contribute to this age-old industry. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

McRae J.M.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Kennedy J.A.,California State University, Fresno
Molecules | Year: 2011

Astringency is an important characteristic of red wine quality. The sensation is generally thought to be produced by the interaction of wine tannins with salivary proteins and the subsequent aggregation and precipitation of protein-tannin complexes. The importance of wine astringency for marketability has led to a wealth of research on the causes of astringency and how tannins impact the quality of the sensation, particularly with respect to tannin structure. Ultimately, the understanding of how tannin structure impacts astringency will allow the controlled manipulation of tannins via such methods as microoxygenation or fining to improve the quality of wines. © 2011.

Borneman A.R.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Pretorius I.S.,University of South Australia | Chambers P.J.,Australian Wine Research Institute
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2013

The application of Next Generation sequencing to comparative genomics is enabling in-depth characterization of genetic variation between wine yeast strains used in fermentation starter cultures. Knowledge from this work will be harnessed in strain development programs. As a result, winemakers will soon have at their disposal novel, improved yeast starter cultures displaying increased reliability and providing a means of tailoring wine sensory characteristics for new and ever-changing markets. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jolly N.P.,ARC Infruitec Nietvoorbij | Varela C.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Pretorius I.S.,Macquarie University
FEMS Yeast Research | Year: 2014

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and grape juice are 'natural companions' and make a happy wine marriage. However, this relationship can be enriched by allowing 'wild' non-Saccharomyces yeast to participate in a sequential manner in the early phases of grape must fermentation. However, such a triangular relationship is complex and can only be taken to 'the next level' if there are no spoilage yeast present and if the 'wine yeast' - S. cerevisiae - is able to exert its dominance in time to successfully complete the alcoholic fermentation. Winemakers apply various 'matchmaking' strategies (e.g. cellar hygiene, pH, SO2, temperature and nutrient management) to keep 'spoilers' (e.g. Dekkera bruxellensis) at bay, and allow 'compatible' wild yeast (e.g. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia kluyveri, Lachancea thermotolerans and Candida/Metschnikowia pulcherrima) to harmonize with potent S. cerevisiae wine yeast and bring the best out in wine. Mismatching can lead to a 'two is company, three is a crowd' scenario. More than 40 of the 1500 known yeast species have been isolated from grape must. In this article, we review the specific flavour-active characteristics of those non-Saccharomyces species that might play a positive role in both spontaneous and inoculated wine ferments. We seek to present 'single-species' and 'multi-species' ferments in a new light and a new context, and we raise important questions about the direction of mixed-fermentation research to address market trends regarding so-called 'natural' wines. This review also highlights that, despite the fact that most frontier research and technological developments are often focussed primarily on S. cerevisiae, non-Saccharomyces research can benefit from the techniques and knowledge developed by research on the former. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pojer E.,Research and Innovation Center | Mattivi F.,Research and Innovation Center | Johnson D.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Stockley C.S.,Australian Wine Research Institute
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2013

Anthocyanins belong to the flavonoid group of polyphenolic compounds, which are responsible for the red and blue colors of plant organs such as fruits, flowers, and leaves. Due to their frequent presence in plants, particularly berry fruits, vegetables, and grapes, they are key components of the human diet. Interest in anthocyanins has increased widely during the past decade. Numerous studies have suggested that anthocyanins have a wide range of health-promoting properties. These compounds are therefore considered to be a functional food factor, which may have important implications in the prevention of chronic diseases. The aim of this body of work is to investigate and review the current literature on anthocyanins, and particularly their pharmacokinetics and any health-promoting properties, in order to summarize existing knowledge and highlight any aspects that require further study and analysis. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Bartowsky E.J.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Borneman A.R.,Australian Wine Research Institute
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is the bacterially driven decarboxylation of l-malic acid to l-lactic acid and carbon dioxide, and brings about deacidification, flavour modification and microbial stability of wine. The main objective of MLF is to decrease wine sourness by a small increase in wine pH via the metabolism of l-malic acid. Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacterium to conduct MLF in virtually all red wine and an increasing number of white and sparkling wine bases. Over the last decade, it is becoming increasingly recognized that O. oeni exhibits a diverse array of secondary metabolic activities during MLF which can modify the sensory properties of wine. These secondary activities include the metabolism of organic acids, carbohydrates, polysaccharides and amino acids, and numerous enzymes such as glycosidases, esterases and proteases, which generate volatile compounds well above their odour detection threshold. Phenotypic variation between O. oeni strains is central for producing different wine styles. Recent studies using array-based comparative genome hybridization and genome sequencing of three O. oeni strains have revealed the large genomic diversity within this species. This review will explore the links between O. oeni metabolism, genomic diversity and wine sensory attributes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Bindon K.A.,Australian Wine Research Institute | Smith P.A.,Australian Wine Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The fining action of commercial proteins and insoluble fibres for wine proanthocyanidin (PA) were compared. Fibres were prepared from fresh apple and grape sources, and their corresponding pomaces. PA removal by fibre was via adsorption, and required a higher dose to achieve a fining effect comparable with proteins. A principal component analysis data model revealed that PA molecular mass was significant in defining the fining response, and reflected changes in the proportion of the dominant terminal PA subunits catechin and epicatechin, but not epicatechin-3-O-gallate. For PA extension subunits, changes in epigallocatechin were inversely correlated with epicatechin and epicatechin-3-O-gallate. Generally, the application of proteins and fibres reduced PA molecular mass. Selectivity for PAs by subunit composition was variable between treatments, but differences were minor. This work demonstrates the potential use of fibres as an alternative to proteins in winemaking. Benefits, and possible limitations of such an approach are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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