Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center

Bedford Park, Australia

Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center

Bedford Park, Australia
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Nocillado J.N.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Nocillado J.N.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Zohar Y.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Biran J.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 2 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2013

The kisspeptin system is now accepted as a key regulator of vertebrate reproductive function, particularly the onset of puberty. In teleosts, the stimulatory effect of exogenous kisspeptins has been demonstrated mainly at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels of the reproductive axis, with very limited information pertaining to gonadal response. We determined the effect of chronic peripheral administration of the conserved kisspeptin decapeptides (YNLNSFGLRY or Kiss1-10; and FNFNPFGLRF or Kiss2-10) on gonadal development of pre-pubertal yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a Perciform teleost, during the breeding and non-breeding season. We utilized slow-release implants to chronically deliver the synthesized peptides, which were based on the yellowtail kingfish kiss1 and kiss2 cDNA sequences that we isolated. The expression level of kiss2r and gnrh1 in the brain or hypothalamus did not vary between treated and control groups. Pituitary expression of fshβ and lhβ was upregulated only with Kiss1-10 treatment regardless of the season. Based on histological evidence, gonadal development was stimulated in male fish with either Kiss1-10 or Kiss2-10, with Kiss2-10 being more effective during the non-breeding period. Overall, our results suggest that kisspeptins modulate the early gonadal development of male yellowtail kingfish, however that may vary with the breeding season. © 2013 Elsevier Inc..

Bahrami Y.,Flinders University | Bahrami Y.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Bahrami Y.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | Zhang W.,Flinders University | And 4 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Anderson K.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Anderson K.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Swanson P.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Pankhurst N.,Griffith University | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Exposure of female Atlantic salmon to elevated temperature can result in a dramatic reduction in egg fertility and embryo survival. Reductions in plasma 17β-estradiol (E 2) levels are associated with much of the observed reduction in reproductive performance; however, the molecular basis for reduced E 2 levels remains unknown. This study examined gene expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes and plasma levels of gonadotropins in maiden and repeat spawning Atlantic salmon exposed to higher than normal temperatures. Circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) were significantly elevated in both maiden and repeat spawning fish maintained at 22°C compared to 14°C during vitellogenesis, but plasma luteinising hormone levels were mostly unaffected. In contrast, gene expression of the ovarian p450 aromatase a and cholesterol side chain cleavage protein were depressed at 22°C compared to 14°C. Hepatic gene expression of estrogen receptor alpha did not change with thermal challenge. The results show that the ovarian response to Fsh is inhibited at 22°C, at least partly as a result of reduced expression of genes coding for steroidogenic enzymes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

He S.,Flinders University | He S.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Franco C.,Flinders University | Franco C.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to develop an enzymatic hydrolysis process of protein co-products for two major commercial fish species in Australia: Atlantic salmon (AS) and Yellowtail kingfish (YTK). The outcomes are to produce high protein recovery of fish protein hydrolysates within controlled molecular weight ranges that display enhanced physicochemical properties of oil binding and emulsification. Three enzymes (Flavourzyme, Neutrase and Alcalase) were applied to processing co-products. Protein recovery and physicochemical properties were evaluated with increasing hydrolysis time from 30 min to 180 min and ratio of enzyme to substrate (E/S) from 0.5% to 3.0%. In order to achieve a product with optimum emulsifying capacity (50 ± 0.6 m 2g -1), an E/S ratio of 0.6-1.3% Flavourzyme was applied for 30-111 min with a protein recovery of 55%; in order to achieve a product with optimum oil-binding capacity (8.3 ± 0.3 g oil g hydrolysates -1), an E/S ratio of 2.3-3.0% Flavourzyme was applied for 25-64 min with a protein recovery of 70%. YTK protein hydrolysates were further membrane-fractionated into five fractions (>100 kDa, 50-100 kDa, 30-50 kDa, 10-30 kDa and <10 kDa), and of these, the 10-30 kDa exhibited the best properties of oil binding (19 ± 0.3 g oil g hydrolysates -1) and emulsification (57 ± 0.7 m 2g -1). These results demonstrate the importance of enzymatic hydrolysis of seafood co-products into high-value ingredients for food products and processing. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Stewart I.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Stewart I.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Stewart I.,University of Queensland | McLeod C.,South Australian Research And Development Institute
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2014

Mouse bioassays have been a mainstay for detecting harmful concentrations of marine algal toxins in shellfish for over 70 years. Routine monitoring involves intraperitoneal injection of shellfish extracts into mice; shellfish contaminated with algal toxins are thus identified by mortality in exposed mice. With the advent of alternative test methods to detect and quantify specific algal toxins has come increasing criticism of enduring use of mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing. However, the complete replacement of shellfish safety mouse bioassays by chemical, antibody-based, and functional assays has been and will continue to be a gradual process for various reasons, including skills availability and instrument costs for chromatography-based toxin monitoring. Mouse bioassays for shellfish safety testing do not comply with modern standards for laboratory animal welfare, specifically the requirement in published official methods for death as a test outcome. Mouse bioassays for algal biotoxins in shellfish, as well as fundamental algal toxin research endeavors using in vivo models, are amenable to revision and refinement from a humane endpoints perspective. Regulated hypothermia may be a useful and easily acquired nonlethal toxicological endpoint; objective determination of neuromuscular blockade may allow algal neurotoxin testing and research to enter the domain of humane endpoints evaluation. Relinquishing reliance on subjective test endpoints, including death, will likely also deliver collateral improvements in assay variability and sensitivity. © 2014 Publishing Technology.

Fluckiger M.,CSIRO | Fluckiger M.,University of Tasmania | Fluckiger M.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Brown M.R.,CSIRO | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict glycogen concentrations in the foot muscle of cultured abalone. NIR spectra of live, shucked and freeze-dried abalones were modelled against chemically measured glycogen data (range: 0.77-40.9% of dry weight (DW)) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The calibration models were then used to predict glycogen concentrations of test abalone samples and model robustness was assessed from coefficient of determination of the validation (R2val) and standard error of prediction (SEP) values. The model for freeze-dried abalone gave the best prediction (R2val 0.97, SEP = 1.71), making it suitable for quantifying glycogen. Models for live and shucked abalones had R2val of 0.86 and 0.90, and SEP of 3.46 and 3.07 respectively, making them suitable for producing estimations of glycogen concentration. As glycogen is a taste-active component associated with palatability in abalone, this study demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a rapid method to monitor the factors associated with abalone quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fernandez-Piquer J.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Fernandez-Piquer J.,University of Tasmania | Bowman J.P.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Bowman J.P.,University of Tasmania | And 4 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citratebile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log 10 CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log 10 CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Bahrami Y.,Flinders University | Bahrami Y.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Bahrami Y.,Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences | Zhang W.,Flinders University | And 3 more authors.
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. © 2014 by the authors licensee MDPI.

Anderson K.C.,University of The Sunshine Coast | Anderson K.C.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Elizur A.,University of The Sunshine Coast
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2012

Background: The use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become widespread due to its specificity, sensitivity and apparent ease of use. However, experimental error can be introduced at many stages during sample processing and analysis, and for this reason qPCR data are often normalised to an internal reference gene. The present study used three freely available algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) to assess the stability of hepatically expressed candidate reference genes (Hprt1, Tbp, Ef1α1 and -tubulin) in two experiments. In the first, female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) broodstock of different ages were reared at either 14 or 22°C for an entire reproductive season, therefore a reference gene that does not respond to thermal challenge or reproductive condition was sought. In the second, estrogen treated juvenile salmon were maintained at the same temperatures for 14 days and a reference gene that does not respond to temperature or estrogen was required. Additionally, we performed independent statistic analysis to validate the outputs obtained from the program based analysis. Results: Based on the independent statistical analysis performed the stability of the genes tested was Tbp > Ef1α1 > Hprt1 > β-tubulin for the temperature/reproductive development experiment and Ef1α1 > Hprt1 > Tbp for the estrogen administration experiment (β-tubulin was not analysed). Results from the algorithms tested were quite ambiguous for both experiments; however all programs consistently identified the least stable candidate gene. BestKeeper provided rankings that were consistent with the independent analysis for both experiments. When an inappropriate candidate reference gene was used to normalise the expression of a hepatically expressed target gene, the ability to detect treatment-dependent changes in target gene expression was lost for multiple groups in both experiments. Conclusions: We have highlighted the need to independently validate the results of reference gene selection programs. In addition, we have provided a reference point for those wishing to study the effects of thermal challenge and/or hormonal treatment on gene stability in Atlantic salmon and other teleost species. © 2011 Anderson; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

He S.,Flinders University | He S.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | Franco C.,Flinders University | Franco C.,Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Considerable amounts of fish processing co-products (FPCP) are generated which currently impose a cost burden on the seafood industry in terms of waste disposal, with little benefit generated. The demand for the sustainable use of FPCP has led to the development of processes for the recovery and hydrolysis of proteins, the assessment of their functionalities, and application into different products. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the-state-of-the-art on the functions, applications and production processes of FPCP protein hydrolysates, and identify the key research trends and future research directions that will maximize the economic and environmental benefits for the fish processing industry. FPCP protein hydrolysates have been found to possess desirable physicochemical properties (e.g. emulsifying, foaming, oil and water binding capacities) and many interesting bio-activities (anti-oxidative, anti-hypertensive, anti-microbial and anti-anemia) with potential applications in food, nutritional and pharmaceutical products. Chemical hydrolysis has been the most common process for the production of crude FPCP protein hydrolysates, though with little ability to control product quality. The enzymatic hydrolysis process has emerged recently as the process of choice due to its mild reaction conditions, superior product quality and functionality. The enzymatic processes have been demonstrated at the laboratory scale, but not as in full industrial-scale operation, probably due to the high costs of the enzyme. Advanced cost effective processing technologies need to be developed for the production of high quality FPCP protein hydrolysates that possess specific functionalities for specific product applications. Protein hydrolysates with defined molecular weight ranges, tailor-made for superior functionalities are in high demand. With the discovery of new functions and applications for FPCP protein hydrolysates by refining the traditionally crude product mixture, the fish processing industry can be empowered with advanced value-added processing technology and next generation functional products to successfully turn the "cost center" for the removal of waste into a "profit center" for business growth. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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