Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute

Adelaide, Australia

Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute

Adelaide, Australia
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Honda-Okubo Y.,Vaxine Pty Ltd | Honda-Okubo Y.,Flinders University | Rajapaksha H.,Vaxine Pty Ltd | Rajapaksha H.,Flinders University | And 5 more authors.
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2017

Timely vaccine supply is critical during influenza pandemics but is impeded by current virus-based manufacturing methods. The 2009 H1N1/2009pdm ‘swine flu’ pandemic reinforced the need for innovation in pandemic vaccine design. We report on insights gained during rapid development of a pandemic vaccine based on recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA) formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (Panblok-H1/Advax). Panblok-H1/Advax was designed and manufactured within 1 month of the pandemic declaration by WHO and successfully entered human clinical testing in under 3 months from first isolation and sequencing of the novel pandemic virus, requiring several major challenges to be overcome. Panblok-H1/Advax successfully induced neutralising antibodies against the pandemic strain, but also induced cross-neutralising antibodies in a subset of subjects against an H1N1 strain (A/Puerto Rico/8/34) derived from the 1918 Spanish flu, highlighting the possibility to use Advax to induce more broadly cross-protective antibody responses. Interestingly, the rHA from H1N1/2009pdm exhibited variants in the receptor binding domain that had a major impact on receptor binding and hemagglutination ability. We used an in silico structural modeling approach to better understand the unusual behavior of the novel hemagglutinin, thereby demonstrating the power of computational modeling approaches for rapid characterization of new pandemic viruses. While challenges remain in ensuring ultrafast vaccine access for the entire population in response to future pandemics, the adjuvanted recombinant Panblok-H1/Advax vaccine proved its utility during a real-life pandemic situation. © 2017 Taylor & Francis


Lee S.-D.,University of Ulsan | Huang M.-S.,Kaohsiung Medical University | Kang J.,Liaoning Medical University | Lin C.-H.,Changhua Christian Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2014

We evaluated the predictive value of the COPD assessment test (CAT™) for exacerbation in the following six months or time to first exacerbation among COPD patients with previous exacerbations. COPD outpatients with a history of exacerbation from 19 hospitals completed the CAT questionnaire and spirometry over six months. Exacerbation events were prospectively collected using a structured questionnaire. The baseline CAT score categorised into four groups (0-9, 10-19, 20-29, and 30-40) showed strong prediction for time to first exacerbation and modest prediction for any exacerbation or moderate-severe exacerbation (AUC 0.83, 0.64, and 0.63 respectively). In multivariate analyses, the categorised CAT score independently predicted all three outcomes (p = 0.001 or p < 0.001). Compared with the lowest CAT score category, the higher categories were associated with significantly shorter time to first exacerbation and higher exacerbation risks. The corresponding adjusted median time was >24, 14, 9, and 5 weeks and the adjusted RR was 1.00, 1.30, 1.37, and 1.50 in the category of 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, and 30-40 respectively. Exacerbation history (≥2 vs. 1 event in the past year) was related to time to first exacerbation (adjusted HR 1.35; p = 0.023) and any exacerbation during the study period (adjusted RR 1.15; p = 0.016). The results of this study support the use of the CAT as a simple tool to assist in the identification of patients at increased risk of exacerbations. This could facilitate timely and cost-effective implementation of preventive interventions, and improve health resource allocation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01254032. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Otago, University of Technology, Sydney, Flinders University, Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2016

Breathlessness remains a highly prevalent and distressing symptom for many patients with progressive life-limiting illnesses. Evidence-based interventions for chronic breathlessness are limited, and there is an ongoing need for high-quality research into developing management strategies for optimal palliation of this complex symptom. Previous studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline may have a role in reducing breathlessness. This paper presents the protocol for a large, adequately powered randomised study evaluating the use of sertraline for chronic breathlessness in people with progressive life-limiting illnesses.A total of 240 participants with modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale breathlessness of level 2 or higher will be randomised to receive either sertraline or placebo for 28days in this multisite, double-blind study. The dose will be titrated up every 3days to a maximum of 100mg daily. The primary outcome will be to compare the efficacy of sertraline with placebo in relieving the intensity of worst breathlessness as assessed by a 0-100mm Visual Analogue Scale. A number of other outcome measures and descriptors of breathlessness as well as caregiver assessments will also be recorded to ensure adequate analysis of participant breathlessness and to allow an economic analysis to be performed. Participants will also be given the option of continuing blinded treatment until either study data collection is complete or net benefit ceases. Appropriate statistical analysis of primary and secondary outcomes will be used to describe the wealth of data obtained.Ethics approval was obtained at all participating sites. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and the key findings presented at national and international conferences.ACTRN12610000464066.


Gordon D.L.,Flinders Medical Center and Flinders UniversitySouth Australia | Sajkov D.,Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute | Honda-Okubo Y.,Flinders University | Honda-Okubo Y.,Vaxine Pty Ltd | And 8 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2016

Influenza vaccines are usually non-adjuvanted but addition of adjuvant may improve immunogenicity and permit dose-sparing, critical for vaccine supply in the event of an influenza pandemic. The aim of this first-in-man study was to determine the effect of delta inulin adjuvant on the safety and immunogenicity of a reduced dose seasonal influenza vaccine. Healthy male and female adults aged 18–65 years were recruited to participate in a randomized controlled study to compare the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a reduced-dose 2007 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (LTIV + Adj) when compared to a full-dose of the standard TIV vaccine which does not contain an adjuvant. LTIV + Adj provided equivalent immunogenicity to standard TIV vaccine as assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays against each vaccine strain as well as against a number of heterosubtypic strains. HI responses were sustained at 3 months post-immunisation in both groups. Antibody landscapes against a large panel of H3N2 influenza viruses showed distinct age effects whereby subjects over 40 years old had a bimodal baseline HI distribution pattern, with the highest HI titers against the very oldest H3N2 isolates and with a second HI peak against influenza isolates from the last 5–10 years. By contrast, subjects >40 years had a unimodal baseline HI distribution with peak recognition of H3N2 isolates from approximately 20 years ago. The reduced dose TIV vaccine containing Advax adjuvant was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Hence, delta inulin may be a useful adjuvant for use in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12607000599471 © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Zangiabadi A.,Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute | De Pasquale C.G.,Flinders Medical Center | Sajkov D.,Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Group 3 pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic lung disease (CLD), including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, and sleep-disordered breathing. Development of PH is associated with poor prognosis and may progress to right heart failure, however, in the majority of the patients with CLD, PH is mild to moderate and only a small number of patients develop severe PH. The pathophysiology of PH in CLD is multifactorial and includes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, small vessel destruction, and fibrosis. The effects of PH on the right ventricle (RV) range between early RV remodeling, hypertrophy, dilatation, and eventual failure with associated increased mortality. The golden standard for diagnosis of PH is right heart catheterization, however, evidence of PH can be appreciated on clinical examination, serology, radiological imaging, and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment of PH in CLD focuses on management of the underlying lung disorder and hypoxia. There is, however, limited evidence to suggest that PH-specific vasodilators such as phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and prostanoids may have a role in the treatment of patients with CLD and moderate-to-severe PH. Copyright © 2014 Amirmasoud Zangiabadi et al.


Sajkov D.,Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute | Gallus A.,Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute | Gallus A.,Flinders Medical Center
Clinical Medicine Insights: Case Reports | Year: 2015

Rivaroxaban is an orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor used to treat venous thromboembolism with approved starting dose of 15 mg twice-daily. We present a case of an accidental overdose in a patient with pulmonary thromboembolism, when the patient received two 150 mg doses of rivaroxaban, instead of 15 mg as prescribed, given 12 hours apart. This error was recognised ten minutes after the second dose, when 50 gm oral activated charcoal was given. Rivaroxaban was stopped and rivaroxaban concentrations, INR, and APTT were monitored. The overdose was uncomplicated and 15 mg twice-daily rivaroxaban was restarted on day two. Apparently unlikely and potentially hazardous dispensing errors do happen. Each oral anticoagu-lant has a different dosing schedule. In our patient, the prescription for 15 mg twice-daily rivaroxaban was misread as 150 mg twice-daily (a correct dose for dabigatran in atrial fibrillation). Such errors are preventable. Prompt administration of activated charcoal under monitoring of a specific rivaroxaban assay can greatly help management of unusual situations like this one. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited.


PubMed | Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute and Flinders Medical Center
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2014

Group 3 pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic lung disease (CLD), including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, and sleep-disordered breathing. Development of PH is associated with poor prognosis and may progress to right heart failure, however, in the majority of the patients with CLD, PH is mild to moderate and only a small number of patients develop severe PH. The pathophysiology of PH in CLD is multifactorial and includes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, small vessel destruction, and fibrosis. The effects of PH on the right ventricle (RV) range between early RV remodeling, hypertrophy, dilatation, and eventual failure with associated increased mortality. The golden standard for diagnosis of PH is right heart catheterization, however, evidence of PH can be appreciated on clinical examination, serology, radiological imaging, and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment of PH in CLD focuses on management of the underlying lung disorder and hypoxia. There is, however, limited evidence to suggest that PH-specific vasodilators such as phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and prostanoids may have a role in the treatment of patients with CLD and moderate-to-severe PH.


Petrovsky N.,Vaxine Pty Ltd. | Petrovsky N.,Flinders University | Petrovsky N.,Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute | Honda-Okubo Y.,Vaxine Pty Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
Trials in Vaccinology | Year: 2013

The Stratis® disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI) system (PharmaJet Inc., Denver, USA) delivers vaccine utilizing a spring powered energy source to create a fine high-velocity jet of liquid that directly penetrates the skin without using a needle. We performed a study to collect data on the effect of the Stratis DSJI device on influenza immunization in 46 predominantly elderly subjects (28M, 18F; mean age 61 years) who were randomized 1:1 to receive Fluvax 2012 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine via prefilled N-S or Stratis DSJI. H1N1 seroprotection was not significantly different for vaccine delivered by DSJI (86.4%, 95% CI 72.1-100) or N-S (79.2%, 95% CI 63.0-95.4), and likewise for H3N2 and B strains. The DSJI had a ∼2-fold higher mean injection pain score (DSJI: 3.0 versus N-S 1.58, p = 0.045) plus increased rates of swelling and tenderness but this was offset by a lower rate of elicited systemic reactions, particularly the frequency of post-immunization headaches (DSJI: 9% vs N-S: 33.3%). This study suggests that subject to confirmation of non-inferiority in an appropriately powered study, the Stratis DSJI is a viable alternative strategy for the administration of seasonal influenza vaccines with particular appeal for individuals with needle phobia. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12612000709842. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Li L.,Vaxine Pty Ltd | Honda-Okubo Y.,Vaxine Pty Ltd | Li C.,Vaxine Pty Ltd | Sajkov D.,Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

There is a major need for new adjuvants to improve the efficacy of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. Advax is a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin that has been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in animal models and human clinical trials. To better understand the mechanism for this enhancement, we sought to assess its effect on the plasmablast response in human subjects. This pilot study utilised cryopreserved 7 day post-vaccination (7dpv) peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples obtained from a subset of 25 adult subjects from the FLU006-12 trial who had been immunized intramuscularly with a standard dose of 2012 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) alone (n=9 subjects) or combined with 5mg (n=8) or 10mg (n=8) of Advax adjuvant. Subjects receiving Advax adjuvant had increased 7dpv plasmablasts, which in turn exhibited a 2-3 fold higher rate of non-silent mutations in the B-cell receptor CDR3 region associated with higher expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the major enzyme controlling BCR affinity maturation. Together, these data suggest that Advax adjuvant enhances influenza immunity in immunized subjects via multiple mechanisms including increased plasmablast generation, AID expression and CDR3 mutagenesis resulting in enhanced BCR affinity maturation and increased production of high avidity antibody. How Advax adjuvant achieves these beneficial effects on plasmablasts remains the subject of ongoing investigation. © 2015 Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Australian Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Institute
Type: | Journal: Clinical medicine insights. Case reports | Year: 2015

Rivaroxaban is an orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor used to treat venous thromboembolism with approved starting dose of 15 mg twice-daily. We present a case of an accidental overdose in a patient with pulmonary thromboembolism, when the patient received two 150 mg doses of rivaroxaban, instead of 15 mg as prescribed, given 12 hours apart. This error was recognised ten minutes after the second dose, when 50 gm oral activated charcoal was given. Rivaroxaban was stopped and rivaroxaban concentrations, INR, and APTT were monitored. The overdose was uncomplicated and 15 mg twice-daily rivaroxaban was restarted on day two. Apparently unlikely and potentially hazardous dispensing errors do happen. Each oral anticoagulant has a different dosing schedule. In our patient, the prescription for 15 mg twice-daily rivaroxaban was misread as 150 mg twice-daily (a correct dose for dabigatran in atrial fibrillation). Such errors are preventable. Prompt administration of activated charcoal under monitoring of a specific rivaroxaban assay can greatly help management of unusual situations like this one.

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