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Kargieman L.,University of Buenos Aires | Kargieman L.,CONICET | Kargieman L.,Diego Portales University | Herrera E.,University of Buenos Aires | And 20 more authors.
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Traditionally, Huntington's disease (HD) has been known as a movement disorder, characterized by motor, psychiatric, and cognitive impairments. Recent studies have shown that motor and action-language processes are neurally associated. The cognitive mechanisms underlying this interaction have been investigated through the action compatibility effect (ACE) paradigm, which induces a contextual coupling of ongoing motor actions and verbal processing. The present study is the first to use the ACE paradigm to evaluate action-word processing in HD patients (HDP) and their families. Specifically, we tested three groups: HDP, healthy first-degree relatives (HDR), and non-relative healthy controls. The results showed that ACE was abolished in HDP as well as HDR, but not in controls. Furthermore, we found that the processing deficits were primarily linguistic, given that they did not correlate executive function measurements. Our overall results underscore the role of cortico-basal ganglia circuits in action-word processing and indicate that the ACE task is a sensitive and robust early biomarker of HD and familial vulnerability. © 2014 Kargieman, Herrera, Baez, García, Dottori, Gelormini, Manes, Gershanik and Ibáñez. Source

Duarte C.M.,University of Western Australia | Fulweiler R.W.,Boston University | Lovelock C.E.,University of Queensland | Martinetto P.,Institute Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras | And 6 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2015

The proliferation of a number of pressures affecting the ocean is leading to a growing concern that the state of the ocean is compromised, which is driving society into pessimism. Ocean calamities are disruptive changes to ocean ecosystems that have profound impacts and that are widespread or global in scope. However, scrutiny of ocean calamities to ensure that they can be confidently attributed to human drivers, operate at widespread or global scales, and cause severe disruptions of marine social-ecosystems shows that some of the problems fail to meet these requirements or that the evidence is equivocal. A number of biases internal and external to the scientific community contribute to perpetuating the perception of ocean calamities in the absence of robust evidence. An organized auditing of ocean calamities may deliver a more precise diagnosis of the status of the oceans, which may help to identify the most pressing problems that need be addressed to conserve a healthy ocean. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

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